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Full text of "The magazine of American history with notes and queries"

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MAGAZINE 



OF 



AMERICAN HISTORY 



WITH 



NOTES AND QUERIES 



ILLUSTRATED 



EDITED BY MRS. MARTHA J. LAMB 



VOL. XXVII. 
January to June, 1892 



743 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY 



Copyright, 1892, 
HISTORICAL PUBLICATION CO. 



Press of J. J. Little & Co. 
Astor Place, New York. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

The Enterprise of Christopher Columbus Hon. Arthur Harvey, I. I ; II. 98 

The Secret Societies of Princeton University Thomas Hotchkiss, Jr. 17 

A Short Lived American State Henry E. Chambers. 24 

Was America Discovered by the Chinese ? Rev. Alfred Kingsley Glover, D.D. 30 

Prince Henry the Navigator Mrs. Martha J. Lamb. 37 

The Scot in America Ex-Lieutenant-Governor R. S. Robertson. 42 

Arnold's Residence in Philadelphia George Newell Lovejoy. 50 

Sketch of John Badollet, 1758-1837 Hon. E. A. Bryan. 51 

Correspondence of Patrick Henry and John Adams, May and June, 1776 54 

Sketch of Collis P. Huntington 59 

The Petition for the Release of Jefferson Davis 61 

Canada. From a European View, 1761 62 

Original Documents 68. 465 

Unpublished Letter of Dr. Benjamin Rush, 1793 68 

Notes, Queries, and Replies 69. 150, 232, 313, 392, 475 

Societies 73, 155, 235, 316, 395, 479 

Book Notices 77, 159, 238, 318, 398. 481 

Minority Report of the Electoral Commission, 1S77 Hon. Charles Cowley. 81 

Sketch of the Painting of the Electoral Commission Mrs. Martha J. Lamb. 97 

The Virginia of the Revolutionary Period Hon. William Wirt Henry. 114 

Tribute to the Memory of Theodore Parker Hon. Charles R~. Tucker/nan. 12S 

Slavery in the Territories Historically Considered Hon. James C. Welling, I. 132 ; II. 196 

Pen Portraits of General (Stonewall) Jackson Mary Anna Jackson. 142 

General Francis Marion's Grave Shirley Carter Huglison. 145 

Why Study Genealogy ? Frederic Allison Tupper. 147 

The Historical American Exhibition at Madrid Barr Ferree. 147 

Some Recent Discoveries concerning Columbus Charles Kendall Adams. 161 

Once Famous Louisburg John George Bourinot, C.M.G. 177 

Patrick Henry in the Virginia Convention, 1788 ... .Hon. William Wirt Henry. 211 

A Group of Missouri's Giant Lawyers Colonel John Doniphan. 213 

Career of Benjamin West Mrs. Martha J. Lamb. 217 

Origin of the Arbutus. An Indian Legend Professor Fredeiic Allison Tupper. 222 

A Corner of Colonial Pennsylvania Henry C. Michener. 225 

Anecdotes of the Dark Day of 1780 230 

Significance Given to Common Words 230 

The Walters Collection of Art Treasures Mrs. Martha J. Lamb. 241 

Loyalty to Our Country Rev. Morgan Dix, D. D. 265 

The Expansion of the United States Ethelbert D. Warfield, LL.D. 272 

Educational Development in the Northwest Ex-Lieutenant-Governor R. S. Robertson. 280 

The London Times Hon. Charles K. Tuckerman. 290 

Old Trinity Chimes C. H. Crandall. 297 



\o\^o 



IV CONTENTS 

PAGE 

The Territory West of the Mississippi River , . . Judge William A. Wood. 298 

History of the United States in Paragraphs. 

Colonel Charles Ledyard Norton, I. 305 ; II. 388 ; III. 469 

Description of Monticello, Home of Jefferson John Bach McMaster. 309 

Commodore MacDonough Presented with the Freedom of the City of New York 309 

Use of the Imagination in History Frederic Allison Titpper. 311 

European Ideas concerning New Orleans, 1761 . 311 

The Ingham Portrait of DeWitt Clinton Mrs. Martha J. Lamb. 321 

Colonial Memories and Their Lessons Mrs. C. V. R. Erving. 325 

Rejection of Monroe's Treaty Henry Adams. 339 

The Old and the New in History W. J. Crandall. 342 

Hull's Surrender of Detroit, 1812 Samuel C. Clarke. 343 

Rev. Charles H. Parkhurst, D.D. A Pen Portrait 367 

Did the Norse Discover America ? B. H. Dubois. 369 

The Youth of George Washington Doctor Toner. 378 

Andrew Jackson and David Crockett H. S. Turner. 385 

Historical Reminiscences of Our New Parks Fordham Morris. 401 

Lieutenant-General John Maunsell, 1724-1795 Rev. Maitnsell Van Rensselaer, D.D. 419 

America Must be Called Columbia Edward A. Oldham. 429 

King George's Personal Policy in England Edward F. de Lancey. 431 

Relations between the United States and Japan Rev. William Elliot Griffis, D.D. 449 

An Hour with Daniel Webster Hon. Horatio King. 455 

Unpublished Letter, July 1, 1779. Storming of Stony Point 465 

Unpublished Letter, June 29, 1780. Military Operations 466 

Unpublished Letter, August 26, 1814. Burning of Washington, D.C 467 

The Duplessis Portrait of Franklin R. A. Oswald. 472 

Old King Hendrick. , W. M. Beatichamp. 473 

Antique China Water Pitcher, 1775 Richard Dillard. M.D. 474 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PACE 

Portrait of Prince Henry of Portugal 1,5 

Map of the World, 1400. ! ' 2 

Portuguese Discoveries in the Fifteenth Century 3 

The World, 1500 4 

Portrait of Tohn of Gaunt, King of Castile and Leon 7 

Portrait of Las Casas 13 

Old Whig Hall, Princeton 18 

New Whig Hall, Princeton. 19 

The United States Electoral Commission 81 

Key to the Picture 84, 85, 89 

Portrait of Christopher Columbus 99, 101, 103 

Christopher Columbus and His Sons 101 

Portrait of Benjamin West 161 

Bahama Islands 162 

Route of Columbus 164 

Map of Watling's Island 164 

Landing-Place of Columbus on Watling's Island ... 167 

Citadel of San Domingo 171 

Bones of Christopher Columbus 173 

Portrait of Americus Vespucius 175 

Portrait of W. T. Walters 241 

The Rare Vase. By Forlitny 243 

Syria, the Night Watch. By Riviere 247 

Mud Pies. By Knaus • 249 

The Scarlet Letter. By Merle 253 

The Walking Lion. By Barye 259 

A Bouquet of Pinks. By Bonvin 261 

Group of Birds 264 

Arms of Alabama 305 

Portrait of John Quincy Adams 321 

Portrait of De Witt Clinton 323 

Fac-simile of Massachusetts Bill of Exchange, 1761 347 

Old Knife and Fork of Silver 328 

Slipper Worn by Mrs. Governor Shirley, 1645 329 

Fac-simile of an Invitation in the Olden Time , 330 

Fan of Mrs. Governor Shirley , 331 

Carved Ivory Fan of Marie Antoinette 1789 332 

Fac-simile of First Page New Hampshire Gazette, October 31, 1765 335 

Portrait of George III 401 



VI ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Van Cortlandt House, erected 174S 403 

View in Bronx Park 405 

The Old Rose Hill, at De Lancey's Mills 407 

Lorillard Mansion 409 

Lewis Morris House 413 

Gou verneur Morris House 416 



MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 

Vol. XXVII _ JANUARY, 1891 No. 1 

THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

A CRITICAL AND COMMON SENSE VIEW 

Part I 

IN a few months this continent and the whole world will be ringing with 
the names of the adventurous navigators of Columbus' day, and an 
early retrospect will enable us the better to understand and to take part 
in the discussions and celebrations which are soon to occur. Nor will it 
be unwise to commence in a somewhat critical mood, for, as is usual in 
centennials and other commemorative occasions, much hyperbole will be 
indulged in: we shall hear Columbus ail-but canonized, Isabella of Castile 
exalted as a most illustrious patroness of science, and mayhap the infam- 
ous deeds of the conquistadores will be glorified. This treatise aims to 
present a common-sense view of the facts connected with the voyages and 
discoveries of Columbus. 

The nineteenth century has been a marvelous epoch for investigating 
and mastering physical forces, but scarcely less wonderful was the fifteenth, 
which Humboldt rightly calls the epoch of oceanic discovery. He might 
perhaps have better said re-discovery, but prior knowledge had not led to 
great results : the world had not been ripe for it, and Punic, Greek, and 
Norse adventures are matters for the curious historian alone. 

As a preface to the grand volume which was to record its achievements 
we have in the middle of the fourteenth century the re-discovery of the 
Fortunate Islands — fxaKapoov vf/aoi — now the Canaries, which are said to 
have been known to and reserved by the Carthaginians as a refuge in case of 
extreme danger to their commonwealth. It was not, however, until 1402 
that Juan de Bethencourt, sailing from La Rochelle, took possession of 
them and ruled them. Rapidly, after this prelude, followed the important 
discoveries due to the initiative of Prince Henry of Portugal, third son of 
John I. of Portugal and Philippa, daughter of our John of Gaunt. This 
prince, a skilled mathematician, an enthusiastic geographer, and an aggres- 
sive Christian, seated himself at Sagres, a promontory just south of Lisbon, 

Vol. XXVII.-No. i. -i 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 



V7li77ia~=^ 




THE WORLD AS KNOWN TO EUROPEANS IN 1400. 



whence he directed the 
continual expeditions 
against the Mahometans 
on the western coast of 
Africa which successive- 
ly discovered Porto 
Santo, Madeira, and 
passed Cape Bojador 
in 1434. The Cape de 
Verd islands, the Gam- 
bia river, and Sierra 
Leone were next visited, 
and Prince Henry, 
thenceforward to be known in history as the navigator, died in 1463. 

I agree with Sir Arthur Helps in admiration of his noble figure, stand- 
ing at full height on the promontory of Sagres, whence he had unobstructed 
view of the Atlantic surges, and could see in fancy the southwestern 
lands and people then springing into commercial importance — bringing 
about him adventurous captains, clever geographers, the ablest men of 
science — and directing all his and their endeavors to the exploration of un- 
known parts of the earth, not fitfully, but with steady purpose undaunted 
by reverses. But I see clearly that if he had not been at the taking of 
Ceuta in 141 5, if the Moorish power had not been declining, soon indeed, 
and in Columbus' own presence, to be driven from Grenada its last foot- 
hold in western Europe, there would have been no Portuguese discoveries 
on the African coasts just then. The Moorish civilization had fulfilled its 
part in the life of humanity, it was at length yielding up its European 
stations to the might of the European sword, and the shrewd commercial 
folks of the southwestern peninsula rushed to take advantage of the open- 
ing. In the language of to-day, " there was a boom in West-African 
business," so great that historians gravely say that towards the end of 
Prince Henry's time, half the Portuguese nation had become interested 
in the negro slaves and the gold to be obtained on the Guinea Coast. 
Now one of Prince Henry's captains, Perestrelo, whom he made governor 
of Porto Santo, was father-in-law to Columbus. Again, after Prince Henry 
died, John II. farmed out the trade with Africa for five years for one 
thousand ducats a year, the concessionaire undertaking to explore the coast 
from Sierra Leone down, three hundred miles each year. The Gold Coast 
was thus discovered, which further fanned the lust for land. The king 
took the title of " Lord of Guinea " and sent out expeditions which 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 



tfagros 



Tunis 



Canary I 
H-VOro. 

CBian c ° 

fdctf., 



discovered the Congo, and in 1487 the Cabo Tormentoso (Cape Stormy), 
re-named the Cape of Good Hope. Las Casas says that Bartholomew 
Columbus, brother of Christopher, sailed with Bartholomew Diaz when 
he made this discovery. 

Thus we begin to see that to the uprising of Christendom against 
Moorish dominion in the west, 
to the taking of Ceuta (even 
more important than the fall of 
Grenada, which in about half a 
century it entailed), to the in- 
itiative of Prince Henry in seiz- 
ing the scientific and commercial 
fruits of that event, is due the 
work of Columbus, to which we 
will now turn. 

Though Christopher Colum- 
bus in his will expressly notes 
that he was born in Genoa {essere 
a Genora naio e de la venitd), sev- 
eral other places have claimed 
either his birth or his origin. It 
seems, however, clear from De 
Simoni's review in the Attadella 
Societa Lignre de S tori a Patria 
(Genoa, 1889) of Harrisse's 
papers on the subject, that he 
saw the light there in 1447 or 
1448, his father being a butcher. 
The old gentleman went to 
Savona during Columbus' boy- 
hood, and carried on that trade 
there, also turning tavern- 
keeper ; but he went back to 
Genoa in a few years, where he 
owned two houses and was fairly well-to-do, though he died in embarrassed 
circumstances. Columbus must have been a clever lad, for he was sent 
to school at Pavia, where he did not stay very long, going off to sea at 
fourteen. He visited the whole of the eastern and western shores of 
the Mediterranean,"* traveled as far as England and even beyond Ice- 

* " Vi todo el Levante y Poniente." — Navarrete. 







PORTUGUESE DISCOVERIES IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 



4 THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

land,* and coasted Africa as far as Mina. He had been employed, he 
tells us, by Rene of Provence to intercept a Venetian galliot. Then he 
went to Portugal, married the above-mentioned Perestrelo's daughter, and 
visited and lived for some time in the aforesaid Porto Santo. 

Humboldt doubts whether in his voyage to Bristol and to Iceland 
Columbus heard of the old Norse expeditions to America, and of their 
settlements in Greenland, Nova Scotia, and Massachusetts. I have always 
inclined to think he did. I think both English and Norwegian fishermen 




THE WORLD AS KNOWN TO EUROPEANS IN T50O. 



resorted to the banks of Newfoundland, and that from some of them 
Columbus would hear of a world across the Atlantic. It seems that in 
the year of Columbus' first voyage, if not before, the folks of Bristol had 
begun annual expeditions into the west, to find the Indies, until at last in 
1497 or 1498, Cabot was the first to find the mainland of America. And 
one can scarcely imagine a man of fair education, so much concerned with 
practical seafaring, at a time when astronomy and geography were being 

*"Yo navegue el anode cuatro cientos y setenta y siete en el mes de Febrero ultra Tele 
. . . estangrande come Inglaterra, van los Ingleses con mercaderia, especialmente los de 
Bristol." — las Casas, Hist, de los Indias. 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 



5 



carefully studied, habitually using the newly improved instruments in aid 
of navigation, not coming to believe in the roundness of the earth, and 
in the possibility of reaching, in the latitudes assigned to China and 




SUvaFmxf Woothhf Sculp' 

PRINCE HENRY OF PORTUGAL, I45O. 

[Facsimile of engraving from an authenticated copy at the Royal Printing house, Lisbon.'] 

Japan, the coasts of which the fishing people must have spoken. Still, 
one cannot take from him the credit of an earnest determination to seek 
for them by sailing boldly in a southern latitude across the western ocean. 



6 THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

It is much to have reckoned up the distance in degrees, from the Canaries 
to Cathay, as Toscanelli did, whose map Columbus had and whose calcu- 
lations he in some way checked ; but to cut the knot of theory with 
the glaive of practice is surely a claim to distinction not in this case to be 
disputed. 

Propounding a voyage of discovery in this sense to the Genoese, Colum- 
bus was rebuffed. That republic saw no money in the scheme. He then 
betook himself to Portugal, and the rascally Portuguese, after hearing 
his statements and reasonings, quietly sent out a caravel to the west, but 
the sailors lacked confidence in themselves to go on and on, and they 
returned from a fruitless errand. Hearing of this, Columbus sent to ask 
Henry VII. of England to take up the enterprise, while he himself left 
Portugal for Spain — one biographer believing that he went by way of 
Genoa, where his propositions were again rejected. This was in 1484, 
and eight heart-breaking seasons followed. 

It took two years to obtain an interview with the Spanish sovereigns, 
who referred him to the scientists of the day, a council of churchmen 
who came dangerously near convicting him of heresy, because his opinions 
scarcely agreed with the received interpretations of some Scripture texts, 
and finally reported that his scheme was too groundless to be recom- 
mended. Weary and sad, he was leaving for France, when his friend Luis 
de Santangel, receiver of church revenues, addressed the queen with 
energy, as being the last chance. He cleverly suggested that the enter- 
prise might fall into the hands of other princes. With adroit flattery he 
laid stress on the fact that it was the part of great sovereigns to ascertain 
the secrets of the world, and that Columbus only wanted a million of 
maravedis to set his enterprise afloat. The queen is said to have listened 
graciously, but asked that the matter should stand over until the finances 
had recovered from the strain imposed by the recent conquest of Grenada. 
This seeming impracticable, Columbus having either in earnest or in 
pretence set his face towards France, a messenger was hastily sent to 
recall the navigator, and an agreement between the sovereigns and himself 
was forthwith signed April 17, 1492. The queen is reported to have said 
she would pledge her jewels to cover the expense, but as a million of 
maravedis means fifteen hundred dollars only, which Santangel readily 
lent from private resources, this looks apocryphal. 

Now if Columbus' views had been confined to the mere glory of dis- 
covering a' way to the Indies, sailing west, he could surely have found 
enough commercial support in the various countries he visited, and among 
his many friends, if not from his family resources. It was, however, not 




PORTRAIT OF JOHN OF GAUNT, KING OF CaSTILE AND LEON. 

[From the window of '"All Souls" Oxford] 



8 THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

mere scientific renown he was seeking, but such titles, authority, and com- 
mercial privileges as could only be conferred by a sovereign state. His 
negotiations with the Spanish court, and perhaps with some of the others, 
might indeed have been much earlier concluded, had it not been for the 
largeness of his conditions — to be made an admiral at once, to be 
appointed viceroy of the countries he might discover, to have an eighth 
of the profits of the expedition. Helps says: "He carried the chivalrous 
ideas of the twelfth century into the somewhat self-seeking fifteenth." It 
seems to me, rather, that Columbus was a keen hand at a bargain. For he 
even insisted that certain large monopolies, referred to in the law-suits of 
1 5 13-15 among his heirs, should be continued to his posterity. Perhaps, 
indeed, we may suspect there never was a time when personal profit was 
not considered by mankind, and that if we were closely to examine the 
events of the chivalrous twelfth century, we should find tne usual amount 
of self-seeking behind its splendid blazonry. 

On Friday, the 3d of August, 1492, the new admiral and three small 
vessels, the whole manned by only ninety mariners and provisioned for a 
year, set sail from behind the bar of Saltes, making for the Canary islands. 
Thence, after refitting, they sailed out into the west, and the intense 
interest of the voyage begins. Those whose minds chiefly dwell on the 
old conceptions of the earth and the ocean, the dread of the wild unknown, 
which has come down from Egyptian and Norse mythologies, would have 
us admire the boldness of the captains and their sailors in thus confronting 
hosts of imaginary as well as real dangers. I think it is as useful to consider 
their timidity. They feared, e. g., that while they might sail down, they 
never could get back up the stream of Ocean, which of course flowed off and 
around the edge of the earth. " Very needful for me," said Columbus 
afterward, " was this contrary wind, for the people were tormented with 
the idea that there were no winds on these seas that could take them back 
to Spain." When they had gone a great distance across plains of sea- 
weed, and found the needle declining to the west, they believed " it would 
be their best plan to throw the admiral quietly into the sea, and say he 
unfortunately fell overboard while absorbed in gazing at the stars." 

It is evident that such men as these were not very noble volunteers in 
the cause of discovery. Our people are ready nowadays to sail into the 
ever-present dangers of the Arctic regions, where no possible pecuniary gain 
can be had, but where for years they take their lives daily in their hands. 
The contrast is remarkable, but perhaps we cannot blame these Spaniards 
who knew that they were going for a more or less sordid object, to gain 
territory and riches for the admiral and the queen. 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 9 

Notwithstanding this, the longest books about the voyage and the 
discoveries are all too short, and every page is full of marvels, truth quite 
exceeding fiction. What then can I do in the brief space allotted me 
for this article ? When condensed, such accounts lose force and beauty, as 
if instead of presenting to an expectant bridegroom a lovely helpmate, 
palpitating with life, glowing with health, sweet in speech, one were to 
give him her skeleton, labeled indeed with a scientific name, but only fit 
for the cases of a museum. Again, all translations lack the full savor of 
the originals. Yet, I must plunge somewhat into facts to justify my 
argument, and I will venture to take you near to these originals, giving 
you the first letter of Columbus, which I have translated with the special 
endeavor to preserve his picturesque and concise style. It is a letter to 
the above-named chancellor of church revenues, Santangel : 

"Sir: 

Because I know the grand success Our Lord has granted me on this voyage will be 
pleasing to you, I write to say that in 33 days I crossed to the Indies with the fleet 
which the illustrious King and Queen, our Sovereigns, gave me. I found there very many 
islands, with innumerable inhabitants. Of all I took possession for their Highnesses, by 
proclamation and by unfurling the Royal Standard. The island first discovered I named 
San Salvador — the Indians called it Guanahani. The second I called Santa Maria de 
Concepcion, the third Fernandina, the fourth Isabella, the fifth Juana — each one thus hav- 
ing a new name. I found Juana so large that I thought it must be the main land, the 
province of Cathay, and as I saw no towns or villages on the coast, but only trifling settle- 
ments with whose people I could hold no conversation because they all incontinently fled, I 
kept on coasting in the expectation of finding some large cities. Herein failing, I returned 
to a harbor I had observed and sent two men ashore to enquire if there was a King or 
if there were towns of any size. They travelled for two days, found numberless hamlets 
and untold people, but no semblance of any Government, so they returned. Meantime I 
learned from some Indians whom I seized that it was an island, so I followed the coast 
eastward for 320 miles until it ended in a cape, whence I saw another island fifty miles 
away. This I named La Spanola, and followed its northern shore for five hundred and 
thirty miles due east. It is very fertile, like the rest, and particularly extensive, with won- 
derfully safe and capacious harbors. The land is high, with mountains loftier than Ten- 
eriffe, of lovely shapes, covered with trees of a thousand kinds, so tall that they seem to 
reach the sky, and they are said never to lose their leaves. This indeed I can well believe, 
for I saw them as green as they might be in a Spanish May — some in bloom, some with 
fruit, nightingales and a thousand other birds singing — and this in November. There are 
six or eight kinds of palms, of singular but beautiful forms, wonderful to observe, as are 
the other trees, fruits and vegetables. There are groves of pine, extensive plains, honey, 
many kinds of birds and fruits, many mines of metals, and innumerable people. Espafiola 
is a wonder; the mountains, hills, plains, meadows and fields are so beautiful to plant 
and sow, so suited for raising cattle and for building towns and cities. You must see the 
harbors to understand how fine they are, and so too with the many large and excellent 
streams, most of which carry gold. There are also many spices and grand mines of gold 



IO THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

and other metals. The trees and plants with their fruits are quite different from those of 
Juana (Cuba). 

The people of this and of all the other islands I have discovered or heard of, all go as 
naked as when they were born — men and women alike, except that some women screen 
themselves a little with a single leaf or a piece of cotton made for the purpose. They pos- 
sess no iron, steel or arms, nor are they fit to use them ; not but that they are well built 
and of handsome stature, but that they are curiously timid. Their only weapons are the 
flower-stalks of reeds, to which they fasten small bits of wood, and these they dare not 
use, for I have often sent ashore two or three men to hold a parley at some village, when 
the people would come out in countless numbers, but on seeing our men approach they 
would run away in such a manner that fathers would not even look after their children. 
This was not because we harmed any one, for on going anywhere to have a talk I gave them 
what I had — cloth and many other things — without any return, but because they are incur- 
ably timid. When however they have been re-assured, they never say no, but offer things 
before being asked, and shew so much kindness that they would give their very hearts away, 
and are content to exchange things of great value for a very little stuff of any kind. I for- 
bade giving them bits of broken crockery or glass, and the ends of old straps, though when 
they did get such things it seemed as if they had the finest jewels in the world, but it was 
ascertained that a sailor got for a strap gold weighing two castellanos and a half* . . . 
For new blancas f they would give all they had, two or three castellanos of gold J or an 
arroba or two of spun cotton. \ They accepted bits of the broken hoops of wine casks, and 
gave for them all they had, like fools — so that it seemed wrong and I forbad it and gave 
them a thousand good and pretty things I had brought on purpose to gain their affection, 
to lead them to become Christians and incline to love and serve their Highnesses and the 
whole Spanish nation ; also to induce them to help us by giving us what we need and they 
possess in abundance. 

They are not idolaters and know of no religion, save that they all believe the source of 
Power and of Good is in Heaven. They very firmly think that I, with these ships and 
crews, came from the sky, and in this spirit they received me everywhere, so soon as their 
fears were quieted. Nor does this spring from stupidity, for they are of a very subtle 
mind, and they navigate all these seas, while it is wonderful what good accounts they give 
of everything . . . but they have never seen men with clothes on or ships resembling 
ours. When I reached the Indies, on the first island I discovered, I seized some of the 
people, so that they might learn and give me information about these parts, and we have 
come to understand them either by words or signs, and they have been very useful. 

They still think I came from Heaven, and wherever I have been they run from house 
to house and to the neighboring villages crying aloud, 'Come, come, and see the folks 
from Heaven.' Thus re-assured, they came, men and women, high and low, all bringing 
something to eat and drink, which they most lovingly gave. In all the islands they have 
numerous canoes, like our row-boats, of various sizes, some much larger than a barge of 
eighteen seats but not so wide, being made of a single piece of timber. Our boats could 
not keep up with them in rowing, for they go with incredible speed, and herein these 
folks navigate among the innumerable isles, and exchange their merchandize. I have 
seen seventy or eighty men in some of these canoes, each with his paddle. I did not 
notice much difference in the looks of the people, their customs and language : they al) 

* Twelve dollars. \ Copper coins. \ #10.00 to $15 00. § 25 to 50 lbs. 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS II 

understand each other, which is singular, and leads me to hope their Highnesses will 
take means for their conversion to our holy faith. . . . Juana is larger than England 
and Scotland put together, because I sailed three hundred and twenty miles along the 
coast, while there are two provinces beyond that, which I have not visited, one of which 
is called Avau where people are born with tails. Espanola has a longer coast line than 
all Spain. This is something to covet, and, when found, not to be lost sight of. . . . 
There was one large town in Espanola to which I gave the name oi Villa de Navidad, of 
which especially I took possession — most conveniently situated for working the gold 
mines and for commerce, either with our continent or that of the great Khan. I forti- 
fied it, and left in it a sufficient force, with arms artillery and provisions for more than a 
year, a barge and a sailing master skilled in the arts necessary to build more, and I 
formed such a friendship with the King of the place that he called me his brother. But 
even though this disposition should change and become hostile, yet as the people know 
nothing of arms and are naked, the men I left could destroy the whole country, and the 
island contains no terrors for those who know how to govern themselves. 

In all the islands it would seem that the men are content with one wife, though to 
their ruler or king they allot twenty. It looks as if the women did more work than the 
men. I have not been able to understand whether they own separate property, but it 
rather seems they have things in common, especially victuals. I have not found men of 
monstrous shapes, as many thought likely, nor are they black as they are in Guinea, and 
their hair is straight. ... In these islands, where there are mountains, I felt the cold 
this winter considerably, but they endure it through being used to it and eating things 
with spices and very hot ingredients. I heard of no monsters except in the second 
island of these Indies where dwells a race believed to be very ferocious, who are canni- 
bals, and have many canoes in which they visit all the islands, robbing and plundering 
what they can. They are no worse formed than the rest, but they wear their hair long, 
like women, and use bows with arrows of reeds tipped with wood, for want of iron. . . 
They are thought by these very timid people to be fierce, but I count them for no more 
than the rest. These are the men who have relations with the women of Matenino, the 
first island met with in coming from Spain, in which there are no men : these women 
doing no women's work but having bows and arrows of reeds as above mentioned and 
arming and covering themselves with plates of copper, of which they possess much. I 
am informed there is another island, larger than Espanola, in which the inhabitants have 
no hair, but there is gold in it beyond measure, and from this as well as the others I bring 
some Indians for testimony. 

Finally, and referring to this voyage alone, hasty as it has been, their Highnesses can 
see that I shall be able to give them all the gold they want, with but trifling help ; spices 
also and as much cotton as they shall order shipped ; mastic, as much as they wish for, 
which at present is only found in the island of Chios and is sold by the Genoese Senate 
at their own price ; lign-aloes, whatever quantity they desire imported, and slaves, as many 
of these idolaters as they wish to have kidnapped. I think too I have found rhubarb and 
cinnamon, and I shall discover a thousand other things of value by means of the agents 
I left behind, for I myself tarried nowhere when the wind allowed of my proceeding, 
except in the town of Navidad, which I fortified and established well. This is much, and 
praised be our Lord the Eternal God, who grants to all who walk in His ways the victory 
over apparently impossible things, of which this has been a signal instance, for though 
others have written or spoken of these countries, it was all guess work, not having seen 



12 THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

them, while it was understood that the listeners thought they were hearing fiction rather 
than fact. But now that our Saviour has given the victory to our illustrious king and 
queen and to their kingdoms, which have acquired great renown through such an impor- 
tant event, all Christendom should rejoice and keep high holiday, giving solemn thanks 
to the Holy Trinity, with many serious prayers, for the great honor which will accrue 
from converting so many peoples to our holy faith, as well as for the temporal benefits 
which will bring refreshment and profit not only to Spain but to all Christians, . . . 
Done on board the Caravel, off the Canary Islands, February 15, 1493. 

Yours to command, 

The Admiral." 

From what is ancient, grand, and poetic, 1 turn for an instant to what 
is recent and commonplace. I saw Guanahani last spring from the deck 
of an Atlas liner. It is now called Watling's Island, a Mr. Watling having 
once bought the whole of it for raising sheep. It is bare of trees, with 
only a few agaves and scrubby palms. A fine lighthouse replaces the 
torch which Columbus saw an Indian carrying among the huts. Indians 
there are none, nor are there any in Jamaica, Cuba, or Hispaniola, and this 
recalls me to my text. 

I have been arguing that Columbus was keeping a shrewd eye to the 
main chance. I do not wish to belittle the man or his achievements, or 
to judge with harshness even his weaknesses, but I think it wrong to exalt 
any one beyond reasonable measure; it is idolatrous to ascribe semi-divine 
qualities to those mere mortals who have in a regular chain of events 
come, as we term it, to the front. Moreover, the spirit of the fin de siccle 
is upon us, and it is only by applying to illustrious names the test of evo- 
lutionary doctrines that we can now form a well-balanced judgment and 
truly appreciate their position in the procession of events too often mis- 
called the path of progress. We have seen biology re-written ; geology, 
astronomy, psychology, sociology reformed ; history is now under close 
examination. You will have noted that I am no hero worshiper, nor do I 
wish to be the iconoclast my friends have sometimes called me. In a pro- 
gressive age there cannot be many men distinguished above their fellows, 
there must be groups of men of talent ; it is only in an unenlightened time 
that individual men can stand out plainly above the ruck. As when a 
meteor darts across the sky, the less the light diffused by sun or moon the 
brighter shines the shooting star: with all the heavens afire, incandescent 
meteorites are scarcely seen. Perhaps we misuse the name "leader" as 
applied in this sense to men ; we ought not to call " leaders " those who 
happening to be in the van of general movement are by it pushed forward. 

The life of a country, a city, of any organized or unorganized body of 
men, is of more consequence to the world than that of an individual. So 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 



13 



thinking, a Curtius leaps into the gulf, a Regulus returns to torture and 
to death, a Leonidas keeps the pass. It is right to record their acts, for 
guidance or avoidance, but not by undue adulation to dissociate them 




MISSIONARY TO THE INDIANS OF THE NEW WORLD DISCOVERED BY COLUMBUS. 

AT SEVILLE, IN 1544. 



CONSECRATED BISHOP 



from their surroundings. Nor must we do this with Columbus. As 
Robertson has well said, it was the destiny of mankind that before the end 
of the fifteenth century the new continent should be known to European 
navigators. I suppose it was in the same way the destiny of mankind 



14 THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

that in the sixteenth century the new continent should exhibit the most 
frightful scenes of cruelty and carnage, that avarice and tyranny should 
have full swing, that reckless and ferocious disregard for life as horrid as 
that of the old Romans should be shown by their brutal successors in 
speech and empire, that saturnalia of slaughter, dissipation, piracy, and 
all manner of crimes should be acted on the American stage, and that 
because much of all this wholesale murder and robbery was done in the 
name of civilization and religion, we should glorify the men who were in 
authority — canonize Columbus, the root of all the evil, and honor instead 
of execrating Cortez, Pizarro, and Quesada. Now here is the sequence of 
events : — 

i. The Moors, who once were strongly posted in the southwest of 
Europe, had been driven out of their settlements in Septimania and were 
losing ground in Spain. 

2. Their base of supplies at Ceuta was captured — Prince Henry of 
Portugal being at the siege. 

3. Their authority thus crumbling, the conquering races intruded com- 
mercially along their coasts. 

4. Discoveries southward followed fast ; the seizure of slaves and the 
exchange of European manufactures for African gold being the great 
inducements. 

5. The Renaissance having permitted the study of the old geographers, 
and trade with the Indies by land having assumed importance. 

6. Columbus, a fairly educated lad, taking to the sea, became a skilled 
navigator, and learning that a coast he thought to be Asia was in northern 
latitudes not far to seek, resolved to find it by sailing west from a more 
southern point. His views were influenced by correspondence with Tos- 
canelli and by reading Peter Martyr's Imago Mnndi. 

7. During his residence in Campo Santo he had noted the great profits 
easily made by seizing negroes for slaves and bartering trinkets for gold. 

8. He may not have expected to make slaves in the Indies, but he did 
expect to find gold, precious stones, spices, etc., and he stipulated for a 
share in the profits of this trade, as part equivalent for his pointing out 
the new way. 

9. He found on the islands he discovered a simple people, without 
wealth, with but a little gold, no silver, no precious stones, none of the 
usual spices of India. 

10. He then conceived the idea of enslaving the whole race, and of 
enriching himself by transporting captives, and employing the rest tn 
forced labor. 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 1 5 

We will now consider what manner of men these people were. On 
the islands there were no ferocious animals, no lions, tigers, bears. Some 
lazy alligators were the only things to fear, and they frequent the swamps 
only ; the folks therefore had not the chase to teach them warlike tastes 
and arts. They had no flesh to eat save that of fish, in taking which they 
displayed great skill, whether with nets or other tackle, large lizards, and 
perhaps now and then some birds : they lived mainly on the fruits of the 
earth, a gentle race. They had little to fear except from the maritime 
cannibal Caribs, to escape whose murdering fury they seem to have trusted 
to canoes and to concealment in the woods, while in the larger islands they 
chiefly lived inland or upon the mountain slopes, whence they could main- 
tain a look-out at the season when winds were fair for their enemies' 
cruises. From the Indian ash-heaps of this vicinity our Dr. Brodie has 
drawn materials for a lifelike picture of a Chippewa Indian's household. 
In Jamaica mounds have been explored in situations like those just 
mentioned, where shells of the great red conch, of oysters and other mollusks 
abound. Implements are not numerous, and are not as with us chiefly 
lance-heads and arrow-points, chipped from flint, but gouges, small hatchets, 
chisels, with a few drills or needles ; all but the last being of polished stone. 
In the fine collection of the Jamaica Institute I saw but one specimen that 
bore the marks of chipping. All these are the implements of the arts of 
peace. 

On the mainland, the Indian tribes were much more warlike, and 
there were bold Mayas, cruel Aztecs with an advanced civilization, 
perhaps in consequence of their acquaintance with war, for it is not true to 
speak of peace as the only civilizer. But those Indians never visited the 
islands, whose occupants had more in common with the men of the Florida 
shell mounds. When inquiring about these, at Tampa, I was informed 
that a gorget of gold had been found in one of them. The Indians of 
Guanahani had a few such. Guanahani, like Florida, being low-lying, they 
were asked whence the gold came. They answered, from the south. Gold 
was the only metal they had. I saw no copper relics in the various 
collections at the Jamaica Exhibition. 

How could such a race withstand the fifteenth-century Spaniard, him- 
self the highly developed product of centuries of struggle with Carthaginian, 
Roman, Goth, and Moor, clad in armor, with iron pikes, steel swords, 
and fire-arms, mounted, too, upon those terrible horses? 

Columbus was a tall man ; we may suppose him somewhat lean, as 
enthusiasts mostly are. His complexion was clear, inclined to red, eyes blue, 
nose aquiline. Thick auburn hair and a heavy reddish beard surrounded 



i6 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 



in the Juan de la Cosa map of A. D. 1500, the painting of St. Christopher, 
supposed to mean Columbus, and the least apocryphal of the several 
likenesses, a long anxious face, shaven as to the cheeks, lips, and pointed 
chin. Over his armor, as he took possession of Guanahani for the monarchs, 
he wore a crimson habit. All possible pomp was displayed, for they thought 
they might be in speedy relations with the great khan or the emperor 
of China. All this was so utterly strange to the poor Indians that it is 
small wonder they believed him to be divine ! 

Quickly following his own letter, Columbus returned to Spain, passing 
through or by way of Portugal. The liveliest interest was at once mani- 
fested in his discoveries, best paralleled by the advantage taken by the 
powers and the general interest of the whole world in Livingstone's and 
Stanley's African voyages of this generation. The title of Don was given 
to him, to his brothers, and his descendants; he was assigned a coat of 
arms, he rode by the king's side, and was served at table as a grandee. 
There seem to have been two supremely happy moments in the strange 
life of this strange man : the first, when he saw land after his adventurous 
voyage ; the second, this recognition of his achievement. Between these 
two, however, all the happiness of his life was condensed, and we shall 
speedily see the turn in his fortunes come. 




Toronto, Canada. 



( To be continued.') 



THE SECRET SOCIETIES OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 

FOUNDED BY HISTORIC CHARACTERS OF NATIONAL REPUTATION 

There are at the present day no Greek-letter fraternities at Princeton. 
Many entering students learn this with surprise and some with regret, but 
their absence is never sorely felt when it is realized that the university is 
a large fraternity in itself, strong and independent, of which each indi- 
vidual is a part and to which he owes his allegiance. The social circles at 
Princeton are the natural ones of friendly sympathy which are formed 
around the individual in every community, and are large or small accord- 
ing to his desires and his attainments. The literary element, now con- 
sidered an essential feature of the college fraternity, Princeton supplies in 
two long since established "literary halls" known as the Cliosophic and 
the American Whig societies, secret in character, and of such value to 
the college as an educational factor that it was principally to broaden 
their influence among the students that the Greek-letter fraternities were 
abolished in 1855. They are the prototypes and the most vigorous sur- 
vivals of those twin literary societies or " halls," generally secret and 
always intense in mutual rivalry, which have been institutions of nearly 
every one of the older and leading colleges in the land. These are, too, 
the oldest of their kind, having been founded, the one in 1765, the other 
in 1769, and they are to-day the only secret societies at Princeton. 

They sprang from two old clubs, called "well-meaning" and "plain- 
dealing," which occupied the half-rooms in the fourth story of Nassau 
Hall. At the time when British oppression stirred the colonists to opposi- 
tion, and the students of Princeton, full of patriotism in the cause of free- 
dom, were burning effigies and making eloquent attacks upon the British 
parliament, the " well-meaning " and " plain-dealing " clubs were abolished 
and the " halls " established for the cultivation of literature and oratory. 
The names most intimately associated with the foundation of the Clio- 
sophic society, which is the older, are Robert Ogden, William Paterson, 
Luther Martin, Oliver Ellsworth, and Tapping Reeve — strong names in 
our country's roll of honor. An incident in the college life of one of these 
patriot statesmen, Oliver Ellsworth, reflects the spirit of the early college 
youth and betokened in him the future jurist. It was during the admin- 
istration of President Finley, 1761-1766, when certain laws existed, with 

Vol. XXVII.— No. i.-a 



18 



THE SECRET SOCIETIES OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



fines, public admonitions, and expulsions imposed upon offenders, which 
met, as we can well imagine, the ridicule of the students. One of these, 
for instance, was, " every scholar in college shall keep his hat off about 
ten rods to the president and five to the tutors." Ellsworth disregarded 
it. He was arraigned before the " superiority of the college " and de- 
fended himself with the ingenious plea, which satisfied the scruples of his 
judges, that a hat was composed of two parts, the crown and the brim, 
and as his hat had no brim (he had torn it off with an eye to his future 
defense) what he wore was not a hat and he could be guilty of no offense. 
This boy subsequently rose to be chief-justice of the supreme court of the 
United States ; and it was said by Mr. Calhoun that to the coolness and 




OLD WHIG HALL, PRINCETON. 



sagacity of Oliver Ellsworth and Judge William Paterson of New Jersey, 
aided by a few others not so prominent, we owe our present Constitution. 
The " whig society " was founded by James Madison, who became 
one of the authors of The Federalist, one of the framers of our Constitu- 
tion, and President of the United States. Jefferson said of Madison that 
he was " the first of every assembly of which he became a member." It 
is interesting to all Princetonians to know that in the founding of " Whig 
Hall " Madison first showed his genius as a statesman and leader. Of him 
Chief Justice Marshall said: " Mr. Madison was the most eloquent man I 
ever heard." Mr. Gallatin pronounced him " the ablest man that ever sat 
in the American congress." 



THE SECRET SOCIETIES OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



19 



To these illustrious founders of Princeton's literary societies the world 
truly owes a debt of gratitude, for since those early days until the present 
a healthful and invigorating influence has emanated through generations 
of men from Whig and Clio halls. 

They were organized with these great objects in view : " The improve- 
ment of the mind, the expansion of the intellect, the culture of the heart, 
and the promotion of close and lasting friendships." Their purpose (to 
quote from Clio's historian, Dr. Giger) is " to give a practical tone to 



■ 




THE NEW WHIG HALL, CRINCETON. 



abstract study, to furnish a field for the exercise of those powers which 
Greek, Latin, science, mathematics and metaphysics awaken in the mind ; 
they introduce the scholastic student to the great world in miniature, 
launch him into the active sympathies of life, into the contested questions 
of literature, art, history, and morals, sympathies and questions of which 
he would otherwise in all probability be ignorant or regardless. They are 
the forum in which new-born intellectual vigor is exercised and trained. 
It is here that the faculties acquired are first applied, and here are had the 
prelude and preparation for the public labors and conflicts of real life." 



20 THE SECRET SOCIETIES OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 

These important objects are accomplished in a system of literary exer- 
cises with an unusually high standard of excellence and with exceptional 
advantages for work. Debating and speaking, in which members partici- 
pate at regular intervals, occur twice every week; while a weekly busi- 
ness meeting on Friday afternoons is an event which members relish with 
v enthusiasm. Strict parliamentary usage is always observed ; for in spite 
of the occasional disorderly sounds that were wont to issue from the 
upper chambers of the old halls, indicating to the uninitiated the wildest 
orgies, rules of order are enforced when needed. The pledge of secrecy 
prevents us from disclosing the meaning of those strange sounds, the 
roars of laughter, the bursts of applause, and the peculiar barking sound, 
like some poor animal caged and in distress. 

Besides the regular exercises in debate and speaking, there are yearly 
contests by members of each class in essays, oratory, and debate, yielding 
prizes in medals or books to the winners. The Lynde debate by seniors 
and the junior orations are the well-known public inter-hall contests of 
commencement week. For these contests each hall selects its repre- 
sentatives by early competitions — three seniors for the debate and 
four juniors for the speaking — by the decision of judges selected from 
the college faculty, each of whom is a member of one or the other of 
the halls, although never of both. After the appointments have been 
made, there is an eager consultation in the library of authorities upon 
the various subjects chosen for the orations and debate, then the stu- 
dious preparation in writing, then the oral rehearsal of the finished 
speeches, with exercises in voice culture to give them character and 
grace. 

There is always a strenuous struggle for supremacy between the halls. 
The spirit of emulation and generous rivalry, united with the personal 
desire to obtain the high honors of a literary distinction, are powerful 
incentives to exertion. When the day for the contest arrives, each hope- 
ful aspirant, wearing his academic gown, appears before the assemblage 
of commencement visitors, who receive him with enthusiasm and listen 
to his speech with the rapt attention which his eloquence commands ; 
while the appointed judges — old graduates who have attained distinction 
in the field of letters — take critical notes upon his oratory. At the close 
of his effort the speaker bows and retires,' followed by a storm of applause 
that brings to his excited mind bright promises of success. On com- 
mencement day he hears the result announced by a crier with a loud 
voice, and he either rejoices in the attainment of the coveted distinction 
of receiving the first Lynde prize or " the first J. O.," or, disappointed, he 



THE SECRET SOCIETIES OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 21 

returns homeward, like Napoleon after the battle of Waterloo — " the 
gloomy somnambulist of a vanished dream." 

The two halls which for fifty-two years stood side by side upon the 
south campus were demolished in June, 1890, to give place to the new 
halls now in process of construction. They were considered beautiful 
examples of the pure Ionic, and richly deserving the praise lavished upon 
them. They were alike in external appearance, sixty-two feet long, forty- 
one feet wide, and two stories high, copied, with the exception of the 
columns of the hexastyle portico, from a Greek temple in Teos situated 
on a peninsula of Asia Minor. The new halls, also alike, will be built 
not of stucco-covered stone like the old buildings, but of white marble 
from Vermont. Retaining the same Ionic style, the total length of each 
hall will be eighty-five feet, and the width at the extensions sixty-six 
feet. Six monolithic columns nineteen feet long, the largest ever cut in 
America, will grace the portico of each building. We regret that a veil 
of secrecy must be thrown over the interior architectural designs. We 
are assured, however, that they will be in keeping with the substantial 
elegance of the exterior ; and we know that each hall will have a large 
assembly chamber, reading-rooms and reception-rooms, a library of ten 
thousand volumes, and possibly billiard and bath rooms. They will cost 
§50,000 each, and will stand upon the sites of the old halls, completing the 
quadrangle formed with East college, West college, and Nassau hall. 

Making a choice between the halls is one of the perplexities that con- 
front the entering student. He learns something of their purpose, their 
history, and what is expected of members ; but he can discover no sub- 
stantial difference in their merits, or the advantage of belonging to one 
rather than to the other. When the electioneering system was in vogue 
a prospective member was waited upon by committees from both halls, 
who would " buttonhole " him wherever they could find him and give 
him no peace of mind until he made the choice between them. The 
choice is now most often made upon family preference, upon mere fancy, 
or to satisfy a friend. Initiations — weird, fantastic, and terrible — are per- 
formed upon the neophytes. Rumors had in some way become extant of 
the traditional goat and glowing furnace kept alive in the subterranean 
passages of Whig and Clio halls — rumors of fiendish shapes and ghastly 
enactments that turn curiosity into terror, and make the stout young 
hearts of freshmen tremble with apprehension. Rumor, however, does 
not always stand for truth. If the novices had to believe all that rumor 
told, they would know that the hall goat is fed upon rusty nails and 
broken glass, and that hazing in its palmiest days was but a prelude and 



22 THE SECRET SOCIETIES OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 

preparation compared to the encounter with that animal. But the enter- 
ing members somehow pass unscathed through the ordeal of initiation, 
and are finally presented to the older members of the society who are 
met together in solemn conclave. An early graduate of Princeton writes 
of his entrance into Clio : " It was the most impressive ceremony I have 
ever known in my experience. The unlooked-for dignity and seriousness 
of the scene quite overturned my levity, and I could scarcely believe the 
change one brief hour had produced. And never did they admit a more 
orderly and zealous member: in four years I never failed in a duty nor 
was absent from a meeting. I loved and venerated that body." 

The halls have certainly done much for Princeton college in contribut- 
ing to give it the distinctive character it bears, and well deserve the 
fostering care of its authorities. Dating back their origin very nearly to 
that of the college itself, they are not only in a great measure identified 
with it, but are integral parts of it. Their ends, indeed, are one ; their 
aims the same. The studies of the college invigorate the exercises of the 
halls; the exercises of the halls give a stimulus to the studies of the col- 
lege. And as every student in college, with rare exceptions, is a member 
of one of the societies, he has a double motive for exertion. He aspires 
to the honors of the college not merely for his own gratification, but 
because he feels that it will redound to the honor of his society. What 
would otherwise be a mere selfish ambition becomes in this way a noble 
and generous impulse. And his fellow members instead of envying his 
superiority take a pride in his distinction. 

Another and an important feature of the societies is the element of 
secrecy. Their purposes and methods are known and avowed, but their 
transactions are shrouded in mystery just enough to impart an interest 
and a charm, better felt than described, which serves as a sacred bond of 
union and a tie of friendship. Professors as well as students become hall 
members, and like the students can be members of only one society, 
according to their option. Here all meet together on common ground as 
friends, companions, and brothers. 

In short, these societies are little republics governed by laws of their 
own making, which are the more cheerfully obeyed because self-imposed. 
These laws are not hostile to those of the college, but supplement them. 
They not only regulate conduct at meetings, but they exercise a censor- 
ship over morals. And the intellectual encounters, the mimic contests 
that here take place are a training for the more serious and earnest strug- 
gles which await the youthful champions in the great battle with the 
world. The graduates who have attained distinction in church or state 



THE SECRET SOCIETIES OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 23 

or in the walks of private life — and there have been many — have gladly 
assigned to one or the other of these societies a portion of the honors they 
have won, while their alma mater and the halls point to them as their 
brightest jewels. The hall catalogues show the names of three signers of 
the Mecklenburg declaration, two signers of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, thirty-two members of the continental congress, one President of the 
United States, two Vice-Presidents of the United States, one high sheriff 
of London, fifty-five United States senators, one hundred and forty-one 
members of the house of representatives, nine members of the convention 
that framed the Constitution, six judges of the United States supreme 
court, nineteen members of the cabinet, nineteen foreign ministers, thirty- 
seven governors and lieutenant-governors of states, forty-six attorney- 
generals of states, nineteen United States district-attorneys, one hundred 
and eighty-eight judges of higher state courts, four bishops in the church, 
and the names of many other distinguished graduates. 

The Cliosophic and American Whig societies thus hold a unique place 
among college secret organizations. While others exist principally for the 
social advantages which they afford, the literary halls of Princeton and 
those formed upon the same model (as the twin literary societies of La- 
fayette, for example) provide a literary and parliamentary training with the 
sole object of self-improvement. At Princeton the purely social element 
in the student life is found in the dormitories and eating clubs : it does not 
characterize the halls. Nevertheless, within the walls of Whig and Clio 
friendly ties are formed as close and lasting as any formed in the "Skull 
and Bones society " of Yale, the " Hasty Pudding club " of Harvard, or 
the inter-collegiate Delta Kappa Epsilon. A society in which excellence 
and usefulness are sought by its members, in which it is their endeavor to 
attain a liberal culture by the exercise and training of the higher faculties, 
affords the best opportunity for the expression of those qualities of char- 
acter which appeal to the hearts and intelligence of companions. 

The love which the alumni of Princeton bear for their alma mater has 
often been remarked — the delightful recollections which they cherish of 
the days they have passed here, the pleasure with which they revisit the 
scenes of their youth, and the interest which they continue to take in the 
university through life. Nothing has contributed more to create and keep 
alive such feelings and associations than the existence and influence of 
these societies. 



J A i^*^ i CJ . H^Ic^Jl^i^ ?&- 



A SHORT-LIVED AMERICAN STATE 

A narrative of American affairs can lay little claim to completeness 
unless it devotes a goodly share of space to Louisiana. The term creates 
in the mind of the historian a variety of conceptions. A vast, undefined 
expanse of wilderness contended for by two mighty nations in an epoch- 
making struggle; a province passing from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and 
in the passing occupying the attention of some of the most adroit of 
European diplomats ; a territory whose purchase changed the character 
of our federal Union, and in whose soil were sown the seeds that germi- 
nated our great sectional conflict ; a state whose people have preserved to 
the latest day their European traditions intact, and whose political record 
is tinged with pathos and tragedy — all these are embraced within the term. 

Of the domain now known as the state of Louisiana, that portion 
bounded by the Pearl river on the east, the Mississippi on the west, the 
thirty-first parallel on the north, and Lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain 
on the south, has a history so distinctly its own, and one so obscurely 
treated in the annals of historic research, that an account of how it came 
to be a part of the present state of Louisiana will interest many readers. 

When the "Old French War" drew to a close, and the contest for 
American supremacy was decided in favor of England, France was com- 
pelled to relinquish all her territorial possessions on the continent of 
America. By conquest from France and by cession of Florida from Spain, 
England came into possession of the territory east of the Mississippi, with 
the exception of a small triangular portion known as the Isle of Orleans 
upon which was founded the present city of New Orleans. This with the 
vast country lying west of the Mississippi embraced within the province 
of Louisiana, passed to the jurisdiction of Spain. The treaty terminating 
hostilities and confirming the several transfers of territory is known as the 
first treaty of Paris, 1763. 

England lost little time in occupying her newly acquired possessions. 
The Florida of those days extended as far west as the Mississippi, and it 
was now divided, the line of division between the eastern and western 
portion being the Perdido river. British garrisons were placed at Natchez, 
Baton Rouge, and Mobile. Several new posts were established, notably 
Fort Bute on Bayou Manchac, the stream separating West Florida from 
the Isle of Orleans south of it. 



A SHORT-LIVED AMERICAN STATE 



25 



English traders from the seaboard colonies had for some time prior to 
this been making their way as far west as the Mississippi, notwithstanding 
the distrust with which they were viewed by the French of Fort Rosalie 
(Natchez) and other river settlements. When West Florida came within 
English jurisdiction an Anglo-American immigration set in, which did not 
long continue, however, for England did not remain long in possession of 
the territory. A decade had scarce passed since its acquirement, when 
the contest for English liberty in America culminated in the American 
Revolution. In the war that followed, England soon found her old 
antagonist, France, espousing the cause of the Americans. Spain had 
offered to mediate between the contestants, but received a direct snub. 
Smarting under the real or fancied wrong, and seeing an opportunity of 
winning back the much-coveted fortress of Gibraltar, she allied herself 
with France and was soon actively engaged in hostilities (1779). 

The Spanish province of Louisiana had for its governor at that time 
Don Bernard de Galvez, who though but a youth in years, has, neverthe- 
less, left a deep impress upon his times and environment by his intrepidity 
and genius. When the news reached America that Spain had declared 
war, Galvez promptly took upon himself the conquest of the neighboring 
British province of West Florida. The Louisianians had never taken 
kindly to their English neighbors, so Galvez had little difficulty in raising 
an army. With 1400 men he marched northward from New Orleans, and 
arriving at Bayou Manchac, stormed and captured Fort Bute. Advancing 
upon Baton Rouge he invested the place, and after a hot engagement 
lasting two hours, compelled Colonel Dickinson with a force of five hun- 
dred men to surrender. His next undertaking was against Mobile, which 
surrendered March 14, 1780. 

It is needless to say that the achievements of Galvez were viewed with 
great satisfaction in Spain. Every encouragement was given him to 
extend his operations. With an expedition fitted out at Havana he em- 
barked for Pensacola. Here he was reinforced by Miro from New Orleans 
and Espelleta from Mobile. The personal bravery of the young com- 
mander was an important factor in his military successes, which was never 
better exemplified than in the attack upon Pensacola. The fort was taken, 
and with its fall the Floridas — East and West, by right of conquest, 
which right was afterwards confirmed by the treaty of 17S3 — became Span- 
ish territory again. Galvez was made the recipient of many honors. He 
was commissioned a lieutenant-general, decorated with the cross of knight- 
pensioner, and made a count. He filled successively the positions of 
governor of Louisiana ; captain-general of Louisiana and Florida ; gover- 



26 A SHORT-LIVED AMERICAN STATE 

nor-general of Cuba, the Floridas, and Louisiana ; and viceroy of Mexico. 
With a record achieved by few he died at the. early age of thirty-eight. 

During the war of the American Revolution, the region west of the 
Alleghanies rapidly filled with settlers from the older communities. The 
years following this period were characterized by a general restlessness. 
A vague dissatisfaction with the federal government was making itself 
manifest in this western country. Of the attempts of Spain to encourage 
the discontent and foment discord in the vain hope that an annexation of 
it might be brought about, little need be said. Time passed and the 
thirty-first parallel of latitude was established by treaty (1795) as the line 
of demarcation between the United States and the Floridas. The terri- 
tory of Mississippi was organized, and among the many who migrated to 
this region were those who, attracted by the rich and alluvial lands about 
Baton Rouge, were not unwilling to place themselves under a foreign juris- 
diction by crossing the line of demarcation into West Florida. Among 
these were some from the eastern part of Tennessee, where the American 
political instinct of self-government had been unhealthily suppressed in 
the untimely dissolution of the state of Franklin, or Frankland. This 
instinct manifested itself amid new surroundings. 

In the European complications that arose towards the close of the 
eighteenth century, France and Spain were arrayed upon the opposite sides 
of a struggle, one of the results of which was that Spain was compelled to 
make a retrocession of the territory acquired from France by the treaty 
of 1763; viz., Louisiana and the island of Orleans. This retrocession was 
consummated by the secret treaty of San Udefonso(i8oi) and shortly after 
(1803) the wrested domain passed by purchase from France to the posses- 
sion of the United States. 

And here it is that authorities differ as to the exact limits of the terri- 
tory thus acquired by purchase. The fact that West Florida came into 
the possession of the United States without further purchase or cession 
has led some to assert that it was included in the Louisiana purchase. 
President Madison held to this view, notwithstanding much adverse criti- 
cism, when, as we shall soon see, he issued his proclamation establishing 
jurisdiction over the region in question. The fact however remains that the 
Spaniards continued for seven years to hold undisputed sway, until 18 10. 

In September of that year West Florida passed from the possession 
of Spain through no effort of the United States. The Anglo-American 
spirit transplanted to that region manifested itself in a general desire 
for independence. A well-planned revolt was successfully instituted. 
Representatives of the people assembled near Baton Rouge, and the 



A SHORT-LIVED AMERICAN STATE 



27 



convention was presided over by John Rhea, with Andrew Steele as sec- 
retary. A formal declaration of independence was issued, and a state gov- 
ernment organized. Fulwar Skipwith was chosen governor. 

Meanwhile the organized forces of the convention had been placed 
under the command of General Philemon Thomas, a wealthy planter liv- 
ing near Baton Rouge, and he was instructed to reduce the Spanish fort 
near by. This he succeeded in doing. Delassus, the governor of the 
province, was away at the time, and the Baton Rouge fort was in com- 
mand of young Louis de Grandpre, grandson of Carlo de Grandpre, a 
former governor. In the defense of the fort Grandpre found himself de- 
serted by his men. Nevertheless, he offered stubborn resistance, and in 
the noble discharge of his duty was slain. The causes which led to the 
revolt may be best suggested, perhaps, by the words of the " Declaration " : 

"....Without any hope of protection from the mother country, be- 
trayed by a magistrate whose duty it was to have provided for the safety 
and tranquillity of the people and government committed to his charge; 
and exposed to all the evils of a state of anarchy which we have so long 
endeavored to avert, it becomes our duty to provide for our own security 
as a free independent state, absolved from all allegiance to a government 
which no longer protects us." 

By quoting further from the instrument we may see in what terms 
independence was declared : 

" We therefore, the representatives aforesaid, appealing to tne Supreme 
Being of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do solemnly pub- 
lish and declare the several districts composing the territory of West 
Florida to be a free, independent state ; and that they have a right to 
institute for themselves such form of government as they may think con- 
ducive to their safety and happiness ; to establish commerce ; to provide 
for the common defence ; and to do all acts which may of right be done 
by a sovereign and independent nation : at the same time declaring all 
acts within the said territory of West Florida after this date, by any 
tribunal, or authority not deriving their powers from the people agreeable 
to the provisions established by this convention, to be null and void ; and 
calling upon all foreign nations to respect this our declaration, acknowl- 
edge our independence, and give us such aid as may be consistent with 
the laws and usages of nations." 

Thus was the birth of a new American state proclaimed, and thus did 
a people wrest from a foreign potentate their liberty and independence. 
In order to better continue in the enjoyment of these acquired privileges, 
application was made for admission into the Union. A copy of the 



28 A SHORT-LIVED AMERICAN STATE 

" declaration " was forwarded to the President of the United States, 
through Governor Holmes of the Mississippi territory, and Rhea, writing 
under date of October 10, opened communication with the secretary of 
state at Washington, with a view to either admission or annexation. 
Inasmuch as the inhabitants had risked both blood and treasure in the 
acquirement of the territory, it was sought to reserve the public lands to 
their exclusive benefit. October 27 Madison issued his proclamation de- 
claring West Florida under the jurisdiction of the United States. Gov- 
ernor Claiborne of Orleans territory was ordered to take possession, and 
repairing to Natchez he organized a small force of mounted militia, 
entered West Florida, and at St. Francisville, one of the principal towns 
of the territory, raised the flag of the United States. No opposition was 
encountered. The newly annexed region was divided into six parishes. 

The annexation of West Florida called forth protests from Spain and 
Great Britain. President Madison maintained that the annexed territory 
was a part of the Louisiana purchase. This theory precluded the right of 
the West Florida inhabitants to the exclusive use of the public domain, 
for considered as a purchase it belonged to all the states in common. 
Nevertheless, it is yet maintained that the position of President James 
Madison was untenable, and within recent years a bill has been introduced 
in congress to indemnify the people of the Florida parishes for the lands 
to which their ancestors had a clear title. In support of their claim it 
may be adduced that the negotiations which led to the Louisiana pur- 
chase were primarily instituted for the purchase of a site for a depot near 
the mouth of the Mississippi, so that the commerce and exports of the 
west might be placed beyond the caprices of the authorities of Louisiana. 
Negotiations were conducted by the American commissioners just after 
the San Ildefonso treaty, with France, for the purchase of the Isle of 
Orleans. In the event of their non-success the commissioners had been 
authorized to open negotiations with Spain for the purchase of West 
Florida. They were about to do so when dissuaded by Talleyrand, who 
shortly after figured so conspicuously in the sale of Louisiana. Further- 
more we have it upon the authority of Martin that Talleyrand, in a letter 
dated December 24, 1804, to the American commissioners, Monroe and 
Pinckney, who were on their way to Spain to adjust the boundaries be- 
tween the newly acquired territory of Louisiana and Florida, declares in 
distinct terms that no part of the territory known and held as West 
Florida was included in the retrocession by Spain to France; and that in 
all the negotiations between the two powers, Spain had constantly refused 
to cede any part, even that portion between the Mississippi and Mobile. 



A SHORT-LIVED AMERICAN STATE 



2 9 



The beginning of the " Free and Independent State of West Florida" 
dates with the assembling of the convention, September 23, 1810; and its 
career terminates with the raising of the flag of the United States at St. 
Francisville, December 6, of the same year. Yet brief as was this career, 
it was nevertheless active. When the Spanish authorities of Baton 
Rouge were deposed, it was anticipated that Governor Folch of the 
Mobile district would attempt to interfere with the organization of the little 
republic. So the convention posted a line of sentinels along the banks of 
the Pearl river, the western boundary of the part of West Florida in revolt. 
The maintenance of this line was found to be an uncertain and expensive 
means of safety against attack. It was determined to settle the matter at 
once by a resort to arms. War was declared against Mobile. An expedi- 
tion under the command of Colonel Reuben Kemper made its way to the 
shores of Mobile bay, but being poorly equipped was compelled to defer its 
attack until a supply of arms and munitions could be procured. An agent 
of Kemper managed to purchase of Henri de la Franci, a citizen of Baton 
Rouge, a lot of arms; and the convention bought a flat-boat load of western 
produce, transferred it to a keel-boat and sent it to the relief of Kemper. 

Governor Folch was completely demoralized at the display of force made 
by Kemper; he wrote December 3 to President Madison, imploring the gov- 
ernment of the United States to send the garrison of Fort Stoddard to help 
him " drive Reuben Kemper back to Baton Rouge," and to send commis- 
sioners with power to treat for the transfer of Mobile and the rest of the 
province of West Florida to the United States. Three days later Claiborne 
reached St. Francisville. Kemper and his men, being without governmental 
authority to sustain them in their undertaking, made their way back. 

The complications that arose between the United States and Spain 
over the annexation of West Florida and the boundary line between the 
Louisiana territory and the Spanish possessions in the southwest, were 
settled by the treaty of 18 19. The claim of Spain to Florida was pur- 
chased. But authorities certainly err when they assume, either that the 
whole of the present domain of Louisiana was included in the Louisiana 
purchase, or that the Florida cession of 1819 included West Florida. 




WAS AMERICA DISCOVERED BY THE CHINESE? 

The literature on the subject of the discovery of the American conti- 
nent by Chinese Buddhist priests in the middle of the fifth century exceeds 
in bulk that on the discovery by Columbus or the Norsemen. Ever since 
the year \j6\, when the great French sinologue, De Guines, gave to the 
world for the first time the ancient account of the Chinese Hoei-Shin, 
describing a distant land to which the name of Fusang was given, the 
world has been flooded with books, tractates, and pamphlets bearing on 
the same interesting topic, in which Fusang is identified as America. 

The weight of mere opinion has favored the theory of a Chinese dis- 
covery of the American continent, and even as early as 1752 the eyes of 
European scholars and geographers were greeted with the map of Buache, 
showing De Guines' hypothetical route of the Chinese across the Pacific 
in the year 458 to the coast of America. English, French, German, and 
American savants have contended among themselves ; yet, although much 
real scholarship has been expended, the weight of evidence to those versed 
in Chinese history and the Chinese language has never appeared great 
enough to warrant the conclusions of a Chinese discovery and occupancy 
of the American continent. 

Many of those who have been engaged in this controversy have been 
only slightly acquainted with Chinese subjects, and their statements are 
at variance with established facts. Some never studied the Chinese lan- 
guage, and were therefore wholly incompetent for the basing of arguments 
(as some really did) on linguistic grounds. Others became interested and 
took part in the controversy from its novelty, as was the case with those 
who have written in the interest of the old Norse navigators. Again, the 
basis of argument has frequently been exceedingly narrow, investigations 
having been carried on from a single point of view; as, for instance, the 
mythological, without reference to the mores ubstantial points of depart- 
ure which ought to enter into every archaeological question. The mythol- 
ogy of ancient Mexico may indeed be shown to have been comparable 
with that of China, yet a Chinese discovery and occupancy of America 
cannot be proved in this way. 

Archaeology is still in its formative state — it has not yet been erected 
into a science; but the time must come when it will hold as dignified a 
station in the scientific world as geology. Archaeology is now a mass of 



WAS AMERICA DISCOVERED BY THE CHINESE? $1 

theories. Anybody can become an archaeologist and gain audiences, pro- 
vided he has a theory to promulgate. Two chemists analyzing a similar 
substance could not think of attaining correct results by violating chemical 
laws, though the details of their methods might lawfully vary. Thus 
must it be in the future with archaeology. The day is coming when archae- 
ologists will proceed with their investigations according to scientific meth- 
ods, whether they concern the question of America's discovery or the 
beginnings of Egyptian civilization. Had archaeology been a science for 
the past century the question of the Chinese discovery of America would 
have been settled long ago, instead of continuing to burden us with theo- 
ries that render a very simple subject very abstruse and difficult of solution. 

The basis of the theory that the Chinese discovered our country, or 
rather what is now Mexico, is found in the following : 

First, The story of a Chinaman named Hoei-Shin, extant in the Chi- 
nese language, and translated by several scholars into English, French, 
and German. This account tells us of a voyage to a land named in 
Chinese Fusang, in about the year 458 ; the said Chinaman, a Buddhist 
priest, having returned to China, according to the account, in 499. Fu- 
sang is said to be America. This is what may be called a supposed 
literary or historical discovery. 

Second, The supposed discovery that the geography of the Chinese 
Fusang is identical with the geography of Western America. 

Third, The supposed discovery that the early accounts of aboriginal 
Mexico and the Chinese description of Fusang show the same myths 
and customs. 

Fourth, The supposed discovery that Buddhistic traditions are still 
prevalent among the Mexican natives. 

Fifth, The supposed discovery that the Otomi tribe of Mexico has a 
monosyllabic language, and that Sanscrit roots are found in the different 
Mexican languages — relics (it is believed) of the infusion of the Sanscrit 
language into the native tongue by the Buddhistic Chinese priests, who 
were acquainted with the Sanscrit language — -the sacred language of all 
Buddhists. 

Sixth, The supposed discovery of Chinese jade ornaments in Nicaragua. 

Seventh, The supposed discovery by Dr. Harvey of the Chinese sym- 
bol tac-kai (" the essence of all things ") on a monument in Copan. 

Let us examine these supposed discoveries according to the above 
order. First : No sooner was the account of the Chinaman Hoei-Shin given 
to the world by the French savant De Guines in 1761, than he recognized 
the country of Fusang as America. Why did he decide upon this so 



32 WAS AMERICA DISCOVERED BY THE CHINESE ? 

suddenly ? What reasons did he assign for this identification ? None that 
are of any weight to the scientific mind of the nineteenth century. The 
account of the Buddhist priest seemed to speak of a distant land reached 
by sea, but in what direction it lay, and by what marks it could be identified, 
were enigmas that neither De Guines nor those who favored his theory 
(even to our own day) have been able to solve. On the arbitrary supposition 
that Fusang was America, it was very easy and natural for the theorizers to 
trace out on a map the route of the Chinese across the Pacific by way of the 
Keurile and Aleutian islands. The route naturally followed the theoretical 
identification. Thus we see that the very beginnings of the theory of a 
Chinese discovery of America arose without the presence of a single fact, 
historical, geographical, or archaeological, to lend it support. A theory 
is a necessary step toward the acquisition of a great truth, but science 
demands the concurrent support of facts, since a theory is otherwise 
merely a guess. Such was De Guines' so-called theory ; it was mere 
supposition or guesswork, since not a single fact was advanced in support 
of Fusang having been America. It is needless to waste more time in the 
consideration of De Guines' theory, since his own work on Researches on the 
Navigation of the Chinese to the Coast of America does not advance a single 
fact. The French scholars did what any other novelty-loving persons 
might have done — guessed at it. If De Guines had even offered one 
important proof in connection with his identification of Fusang with 
America, that coming from so learned a man would commend our respect- 
ful attention. 

Second, Is the geography of Fusang and Mexico identical ? I deny 
the possibility of elaborating from any Chinese work on travel, by sea 
or land, a system of " geography." In the Chinese writings many places 
have been identified, but their geography of the regions traversed is only 
a mere outline, and no opinions can be formed as to the nature of wide 
stretches of country. In every Chinese itinerary we may read of " rivers " 
and " mountains " and " valleys," of " islands," " seas," " bays," and 
"promontories," but the idea of "geography" is as remote from these 
writings as is that of geology. The account of Hoei-Shin is not an excep- 
tion among these works on travel. Its "geography" may as easily be 
the local description of a small area as of a continent, and may as easily 
apply to a spot on the Pacific coast of China or Asia as to the whole 
coast of Mexico or North America. Nature, in her aspects of land and 
water, mountain and valley, island and peninsula, trees and flowers, does 
not vary as extensively in the general plan as we are apt to suppose, 
and the written description is apt to show even more uniformity. A 



WAS AMERICA DISCOVERED BY THE CHINESE ? 33 

vivid description of the rugged shores of the Great Lakes might readily 
be taken by the average person for a presentation of the characteristics 
of the shores of Norway and Sweden, so much alike are they in a gen- 
eral sense; and when the portrayal is by the hand of a Buddhist priest, 
ignorant of the nature of geographical relations, ignorant of science, and 
compelled to use the cumbersome Chinese language as a medium, the 
probability is that his geographical story will be of so universal a nature 
that it may apply to a large number of widely separated localities. 

Is the geography of Fusang that of Mexico? He does not say it is 
not, but something even stronger may be affirmed. We do not find a 
single fact to warrant our spending one moment on American soil in 
attempting to identify the geography of Fusang with that of America 
(or Mexico) ! 

Third, The identity of Mexican myths and customs with those of the 
Fusang story rests upon as frail a foundation as the preceding. What do 
we know of them ? We are possessed of no native written sources of 
information. Of the mythology and religion of Mexico, only those of 
Aztec times are known to us, and even these are vague. Prior to the 
Aztec came the Toltec, which arose about 700, and the supposed discov- 
ery of America (Mexico) by the Chinese took place nearly two hundred 
and fifty years before this, in 458. Only the exhumed idols and temples 
afford us any aid in gaining an idea of the religion and mythology of 
Toltec times, and this knowledge, after successive conquests of the land, 
without a knowledge of the hieroglyphics, is still very scant. If we know 
so little of the proud Toltec times, how much less do we know of pre- 
Toltec days. Of the Toltec celestial hierarchy we have some evidence 
that there was one supreme god, spiritual and invisible, with a council of 
thirteen chief gods, over two hundred inferior ones, and these may have 
been the gods of the land before the coming of the Toltecs. But we 
know so little of those early days in Mexico that no comparison can be 
made with the mythology and customs of any other nation or country. 
If even one fact could be advanced in support of the identity of the 
mythology of pre-Toltec Mexico and that of the Fusang record, it ought 
to gain our sincere attention ; but as we know nothing of this pre-Toltec 
mythology, how can we discuss it? 

Fourth, No greater exertion of the imagination has been made in the 
subject of America's discovery by the Chinese than in the supposed dis- 
covery of Buddhistic traditions among the Mexican natives. We fail to 
recognize any facts in this argument. Men in every clime hand down 
from age to age identical traditions. Men have been the same the world 

Vol. XXVII.-No. 1— 3 



34 WAS AMERICA DISCOVERED BY THE CHINESE ? 

over in their gropings after the Infinite, in their search for truth. Iceland 
and Babylon, with civilizations separated by an interval of three thousand 
years, tell the same story of primeval chaos and of the first parents of the 
race — not in detail, to be sure, but in the main points. 

Many traditions of ancient Mexico may be among those held by Chi- 
nese Buddhists, yet they are not thereby Buddhistic. They are universal. 
In all the theorizing on this subject not a single tradition distinctively 
Buddhistic has yet been recognized in Mexico. 

Fifth, It is said that the Otomi tribes in Mexico have a monosyllabic 
language, and that therefore it is a descendant of an early monosyllabic 
tongue ; or, at least, it is a native tongue made largely monosyllabic by 
long contact with the monosyllabic language of a superior race " supposed " 
to be the Chinese. This argument is based upon the old and even still 
surviving idea that the Chinese language is monosyllabic, which is not the 
truth. The Chinese is, of all languages, the most polysyllabic. I will 
admit that quite the opposite has been held by great men. In our cyclo- 
paedias and numerous works on language and history, the Chinese language 
is said to differ from all others in being monosyllabic. Yet it is quite the 
opposite. In Chinese hardly any object or idea is expressible by a single 
sign or syllable. The English, Scandinavian, and German languages are 
far more monosyllabic than Chinese. In English we have God, German 
Gott, Swedish and Danish Gud, and Icelandic Gudh, for the Supreme 
Being. Not so in Chinese, since there God is a polysyllabic word, Shang-Ti, 
the " Upper Ruler." Were the Chinese monosyllabic, the translation of 
our Bible into that language would certainly have rendered the name 
" Christ " by a monosyllabic term. On the contrary, it is given in Chinese 
as Ke-fok. It is true there are monosyllabic proper names in Chinese, but 
were it intrinsically a monosyllabic tongue, all words would of necessity be 
monosyllables, including proper names. It would be impossible to render 
" Christ" Kc-fok if the language were not polysyllabic. In fact, it is hard 
for a Chinaman to interpret a monosyllable; to him it generally has no 
meaning whatever. It is the connection of one syllable with another that 
he understands. Of course, there are upward of two hundred radical 
signs, forming the basis of the language, which are monosyllables as in 
all languages, such as "man," "woman," " horse," "ox," " moon," "sun," 
" dark," " white," or " clear," which express the earliest attempts of the 
Chinese to name the various objects and aspects of nature. These do not 
differ as regards the syllable from corresponding words in English. But 
beyond these primitive types no idea can be clearly expressed in Chinese 
with less than two syllables. Even such a familiar idea as friend must be 



WAS AMERICA DISCOVERED BY THE CHINESE ? 35 

thus written or spoken. The great Chinese scholar Summers, in his hand- 
book of the Chinese language, distinctly asserts the polysyllabic nature of 
the Chinese language. Is the Otomi language of Mexico monosyllabic? 
Perhaps it is ; but it does not affect the case at hand, since the Chinese is 
itself eminently polysyllabic. C^ (D ^ lo 

Sixth, Regarding the supposed Chinese jade ornaments found in Nica- 
ragua and elsewhere, we will accept this as a fact when the ornaments 
are shown to be Chinese. It does not require much of an eye to detect 
any object of art coming from Chinese hands, no matter how aged it is. 
Of the thousands of "jade ornaments" found and called Chinese, not one 
has been recognized as such by Chinese scholars. 

Seventh, Among the countless emblems of a mythological nature amid 
the ruins of Copan there are hundreds which might be referred as well to 
Babylon as to China. To form the basis of a theory, the symbol found 
by Dr. Harvey must be proved to be Chinese. It is merely supposed to 
be Chinese in origin, although the nature of it would place its origin at 
the spot where it was discovered, in Copan. All nations are given to 
symbols. Every nation has had its " type of tlie endless and iinknown," 
every land has had its "symbol of the essence of all things." Why is the 
Copan symbol Chinese? Simply because it bears a faint resemblance to 
a Chinese character. Among thousands and thousands of symbols found 
in Mexico, one lone emblem is set down as Chinese! Here, as heretofore, 
a supposition is made part of the basis for a theory. 

We have passed in review all the main arguments for a Chinese dis- 
covery of America. Are they at all stable ? Are there any facts brought 
forward to support the theory? Not one. The natural conclusion is that 
there never was any ground for believing that the Chinese discovered 
America. The island of Formosa, lying within one hundred miles of the 
greatest maritime province of China, was not discovered by the Chinese 
until the year 1430, and moreover was not colonized by them until the 
year i66i,and this discovery was only by accident. .Yet the Chinese theo- 
rists of America's discovery would have us believe that it was discovered 
at least as early as the fifth century. The other great islands of the archi- 
pelago have been known to China only a few centuries, and their extensive 
trade with India arose only after the Mahometan conquests gave the Arabs 
control of the sea trade with the extreme Orient. Even the Chinese 
themselves did not become venturesome sailors. They put all of their sea 
trade into Arabian hands, and only a few Chinese got as far as Ceylon. 
Yet the advocates of America's discovery by these people would have 
us believe that the Chinese junks braved the Pacific in 458 and colonized 



36 WAS AMERICA DISCOVERED BY THE CHINESE ? 

our coast ! It is claimed that the Chinese discoverers of America in 458 
were Buddhist priests, bent on converting the world to Buddhism. The 
Japanese were not converted to Buddhism until the middle of the sixth 
century, and yet it is claimed that the Buddhists a hundred years before 
this had left Japan behind and planted their religion in America, five 
thousand miles across a trackless waste ! The idea of America having 
heard the doctrine of Buddha a century before the Japanese empire is so 
preposterous as to be alone a final and sufficient proof that America was 
not discovered by Chinese Buddhist priests. 

But is the Fusang country a myth? Could all the writers for the 
past century have been dealing with aland that never existed? By no 
means. The Chinaman Hoei-Shin wrote of a definite region, and so have 
De Guines and others. But had they known more of Asiatic geography — 
had they lived in this age, when Fusang is known as well as China itself, 
the theory of America's discovery by the Chinese would never have been 
promulgated. To-day we can take passage from 'Frisco in an elegant 
steamer, and after stopping in Japan go direct to Fusang on the Pacific 
coast of Corea, in latitude 35 6' north and longitude 129 1' east. There 
is the long-sought Fusang of the fifth century. It was there then, and 
has been there for untold centuries. Fusang and Ai-Chin (on the west 
coast of Corea) have been through long centuries the "loop-holes," as 
one writer has it, of the " hermit nation." To the Chinese and Japanese 
Fusang has been known for ages. It has been and is to-day a great 
cosmopolitan entrepot of commerce. No wonder the Buddhists went 
there, for its soil was rich, its productions varied and numerous. In the 
war of 1592-97 Fusang was taken by the Japanese and held until 1868, 
but was then closed to the latter until 1876, since which time it has 
steadily gained in commercial importance, and exports what it undoubt- 
edly did when the Buddhist priests began to preach there — silver, hides, 
fish, rice, silk, cotton, paper, furs, shells, timber, hemp, jute. 

Fusang has been known for centuries. Why it was ever transported 
to America we cannot tell. In that great work, Corea the Hermit Nation, 
Fusang is mentioned upward of twelve times on as many different pages. 
Fusang has always been in Corea, is now, and ever will be, and therefore 
America was not discovered by Chinese Buddhist priests. 



4lfcd ^^<&W 



Crawfordsville, Indiana. 



PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR 

THE SUBJECT OF OUR FRONTISPIECE 
1 394- 1 460 

One of the most notable figures in that remarkable century of maritime 
discovery which attracts universal attention at the present moment was 
Prince Henry of Portugal, who was the first to conceive the bold project 
of opening a road through the unexplored ocean, and at a time when the 
formidable waves of the Atlantic were suggestive only of danger and death 
to mariners. The results of his courage, patience, and foresight contributed 
largely, if not chiefly, to the impulse which sent Columbus on his western 
voyages. The known world was curiously small in Prince Henry's boy- 
hood, of which the map on second page of this number of the magazine is 
a forcible illustration ; but before the close of his career the discovery of 
more than half the globe had been made possible. 

He was the third son of King Joao of Portugal, " of good memory," 
and Philippa the daughter of John of Gaunt, and his aims even when 
quite young were directed to a point far beyond the range of a mere con- 
quering soldier. He was twenty-one at the time of the memorable capture of 
Ceuta — the magnificent port of Morocco, opposite Gibraltar, the centre of 
commerce between Damascus, Alexandria, and other eastern places, and 
the nations of western Europe — and his gallantry was so conspicuous in 
this successful enterprise that he received the honor of immediate knight- 
hood from his father. The prospect was opened to his mind through this 
event of possessing the Guinea coast and of ultimately finding the end of 
Africa. His biography, carefully traced by Richard Henry Major, F.S.A., 
F.R.S.L., the learned honorable secretary of the Royal Geographical 
Society, was published in London in 1868, and is a volume replete with 
information, which every student of American history will do well to con- 
sult. The ships of the prince were soon venturing along the western 
Barbary coast, while his captains came back one after another with no 
very wonderful tidings of discovery. 

" Although the son of a king," writes Major, " Prince Henry relin- 
quished the pleasures of the court and took up his abode on the inhospit- 
able promontory of Sagres, at the extreme southwestern angle of Europe. 



38 PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR 

It was a small peninsula, the rocky surface of which showed no sign of 
vegetation except a few stunted juniper trees to relieve the sadness of a 
waste of shifting sand. Another spot so cold, so barren, or so dreary it 
were difficult to find on the warm and genial soil of sunny Portugal. Here 
it was in this secluded spot, with the vast ocean stretching measureless 
and mysterious before him, that Prince Henry devoted himself to the 
study of astronomy and mathematics, and to the dispatch of vessels on 
adventurous expeditions. He erected an observatory at Sagres, the first 
set up in Portugal, and there is reason to believe that he established a 
school for the study of navigation. To be duly appreciated the compre- 
hensive thought of Prince Henry must be viewed in relation to the period 
in which it was conceived. No printing-press as yet gave forth to the 
world the accumulated wisdom and experience of the past. The compass 
though known and in use had not yet emboldened men to leave the shore 
and put out with confidence into the open sea ; no sea-chart existed to 
guide the mariner along those perilous African coasts ; no lighthouse 
reared its friendly head to warn or welcome him on his homeward track. 
The scientific and practical appliances which were to render possible the 
discovery of half a world had yet to be developed. But the prince 
collected the information supplied by ancient geographers, unweariedly 
devoted himself to the study of mathematics, navigation, and cartography, 
and freely invited, with princely liberality of reward, the co-operation of 
the boldest and most skillful navigators of every country. 

We look back with astonishment and admiration at the stupendous 
achievement effected a whole lifetime later by the immortal Columbus, an 
achievement which formed the connecting link between the old world and 
the new ; yet the explorations instituted by Prince Henry of Portugal were 
in truth the anvil upon which that link was forged : at the same time, how 
many are there in England, the land of sailors, who even know the name 
of the illustrious man who was the very initiator of continuous Atlantic 
exploration ? If it be the glory of England that by means of her maritime 
explorations the sun never sets upon her dominions, she may recall with 
satisfaction that he who opened the way to that glory was the son of a 
royal English lady and of the greatest king that ever sat on the throne of 
Portugal. 

When we see the small population of the narrow strip of the Spanish 
peninsula, limited both in means and men, become in an incredibly short 
space of time a mighty maritime nation, not only conquering the islands 
and western coasts of Africa and rounding the southern cape, but creating 
empires and founding capital cities at a distance of two thousand leagues 



PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR 39 

from their homesteads, we are tempted to suppose that such results must 
have been brought about by some happy stroke of luck. Not so : they 
were the effects of the patience, wisdom, intellectual labor, and example 
of one man, backed by the pluck of a race of sailors who, when we consider 
the means at their disposal, have been unsurpassed as adventurers in any 
country or in any age." 

Arthur Helps remarks that the especial reason which impelled Prince 
Henry to take the burden of discovery upon himself was that neither mar- 
iner nor merchant would be likely to adopt an enterprise in which there 
was no clear hope of profit. In 1418 two young captains, Joham Goncalvez 
Zarco and Tristam Vaz, who it is said were as eager for adventure as the 
prince himself, were ordered on a voyage having for its object the general 
molestation of the Moors and discovery. They were driven out of their 
course by storms, and accidentally discovered a little island, where they 
took refuge, and called it Porto Santo. They found a simple people living 
there not altogether barbarous, and their reports on their return delighted 
the prince. He immediately sent them out again, together with a third 
ship commanded by Bartholomew Perestrelo (whose daughter subsequently 
became the wife of Columbus), and with these heroic navigators he sent 
various seeds and animals for the purpose of improving the island. Among 
the animals were some rabbits, and they conquered the new-found land 
not for the prince but for themselves, giving great trouble. To Perestrelo 
Prince Henry gave the island of Porto Santo, to colonize it. The other 
two captains, seeing something like a cloud in the far distance, which evi- 
dently was not a cloud, built two boats and went toward it, until they dis- 
covered another island, which they named Madeira, landing on different 
parts of it, and the prince rewarded them with the captaincies of those 
parts. 

Meanwhile a dozen years rolled on, and Prince Henry had yet won 
very little sympathy in his exploits from his contemporaries, some of 
whom said " the land the prince sought was merely some sandy place like 
the deserts of Libya," and criticised the " taking people out of Portugal 
which had need of them, to bring them among savages to be eaten, and to 
place them upon lands of which the mother-country had no need ; that 
the Author of the world had provided these islands solely for the habita- 
tion of wild beasts, of which an additional proof was that those rabbits the 
discoverers themselves had introduced were now dispossessing them of the 
island." 

It was not until 1434 that Prince Henry's captains succeeded in passing 
the dreaded Cape Bajador — which was a great event in the history of Afri- 



40 PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR 

can discovery. From this time forward these captains continued, season 
by season, to make steady advance in their explorations. The enthusiasm 
of Prince Henry in his belief that there was a great southern point of 
Africa had been imparted to all his followers. In 1454 Ca da Mosta had 
an interview with Prince Henry, and was evidently much impressed by his 
noble bearing. "At this period," says Arthur Helps, "the annals of 
maritime discovery are fortunately enriched by the account of a voyager 
who could tell more of the details of what he saw than we have hitherto 
heard from other voyagers, and who was himself his own chronicler." Ca 
da Mosta was a Venetian, familiar with the trade of Venice and with some 
experience as a shipmaster, who sought and obtained employment from 
Prince Henry, being furnished with a caravel and goods to use in traffick- 
ing with the people he might find. His narrative of the expedition dis- 
closes the methods of trading off merchandise for slaves. He was the first 
European visiting Africa to write about the country, and being honest, 
intelligent and observing, the legacy of information handed down to us 
from his hand is exceedingly valuable. 

Faria y Souza says of Prince Henry, " He had a grandeur of nature 
proportionate to the greatness of his doings ; he was bulky and strong ; 
his complexion red and white; his hair coarse and almost hirsute; his 
aspect produced fear in those who were not accustomed to him — not to 
those who were, for, even in the strongest current of his vexation at any 
thing, his courtesy always prevailed over his anger; he had a grave serenity 
in his movements, a notable constancy and circumspection in his words, 
modesty in all that related to his state and personal observance within the 
limits of his high fortune ; he was patient in labor, bold and valorous in 
war, versed in arts and letters; a skillful fencer; in the mathematics 
superior to all men of his time ; generous in the extreme ; zealous in the 
extreme for the increase of the faith. No bad habit was known to him. 
He never married." Azurara, sometimes quoted as.the "good chronicler," 
who was a contemporary of Prince Henry, and must have known him 
well, says he was a man "of great counsel and authority, wise and of good 
memory, but in some things slow, whether it was through the prevalence 
of the phlegmatic temperament in his constitution or from intentional 
deliberation, being moved to some end which men did not perceive." The 
chronicler further says, " There was no hatred known in him, nor ill-will 
against any person, however great the injury he had received from that 
person ; and such was his benignity in this respect that judicious men 
remarked against him that he was deficient in distributive justice, for in 
all other respects he conducted himself justly." 



PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR 41 

We learn also from Azurara that the house of Prince Henry was the 
resort of all good men in the kingdom and of foreigners, and that he was 
a man of intense labor and study. " Often the sun found him in that same 
place where it had left him the day before, he having watched throughout 
the whole arc of the night without any rest." 

Arthur Helps thinks the portrait of Prince Henry gives the idea of a 
man of great deliberation, but with no laxity of purpose. He does not 
say to which portrait he refers, but it could hardly be the youthful head 
shown in the miniature portrait which appears in Major's Prince Henry, 
and which at the time of the publication of that work, the author supposed 
to be the only portrait extant ; but he probably had seen the portrait of 
Prince Henry in maturer life, from which the picture presented in this 
number of the magazine was copied. Arthur Helps further says : " Whether 
we consider this prince's motives, his objects, his deeds or his mode of 
life, we must acknowledge him to be one of the most notable men not 
merely of his own country and period, but of modern times and of all 
nations, and one upon whose shoulders might worthily rest the arduous 
beginnings of continuous maritime discovery. Would that such men 
remained to govern the lands they had the courageous foresight to dis- 
cover ! " 

Dr. Justin Winsor in his new work Christopher Columbus says of Prince 
Henry: " He was a man who, as his motto tells us, wished and was able to 
do well. He was shadowed with few infirmities of spirit. He was the 
staple and lofty exemplar, of this great age of discovery. He was more so 
than Columbus, and rendered the adventitious career of the Genoese pos- 
sible. He knew how to manage men, and stuck devotedly to his work. 
He respected his helpers too much to drug them with deceit, and there is 
a straightforward honesty of purpose in his endeavors. He was a trainer 
of men, and they grew courageous under his instruction." 

During forty years of limited success Prince Henry prosecuted this 
perilous work. Portuguese discovery did not cease after his death, but 
in the following years made its way to the Cape of Good Hope, in all a 
distance of some six thousand miles. Portuguese vessels were small but 
well built, and their seamen were experts in guiding them along tempest- 
uous shores. Don Emanuel caught the spirit in his day, whose pet prob- 
lem was a passage to India around Africa. This voyage was actually 
performed in 1498 by Vasco da Gama. He returned to Portugal with his 
four ships laden with spices, silks, and other attractive merchandise, and 
all Europe was in the wildest excitement. 



THE SCOT IN AMERICA 

The mind which merely scans the boundaries, to learn the area of a 
nation, and studies its physical geography, its climate and its soil, to 
learn its character, would never find itself competent to measure that 
nation's greatness. 

"What constitutes a state ? 

Not high-raised battlement, or labored mound, 
Thick wall, or moated gate, 

Not cities fair, with spires and turrets crowned, 
No ; men, high-minded men, 

With powers as far above dull brutes endued, 
In forest, brake or den, 

As beasts excel cold rocks and brambles rude ; 
Men who their duties know, 

Know, too, their rights, and knowing dare maintain, 
Prevent the long-aimed blow, 

And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain." 

Many a spot of earth, rich in soil and favored by climate, has remained 
fallow since creation's dawn, simply because God saw fit to people it with 
creatures unfitted mentally or physically for the struggles daily endured 
on the great battle-fields of the world's civilization. Other spots, rugged 
and barren, hard of access, and rewarding sparingly the hand of toil, have 
become gardens of intellect, and produced men born to rule, born to do 
and dare, born to build up a state at home, in spite of adversity, in spite 
of the terrors and devastations of centuries of war and struggle for state- 
hood and liberty ; and the home of statesmen from which, as from a hive, 
were to go forth the founders of new states, the pioneers of civilization 
throughout the world. 

Such a spot was Scotland. From her craigs and plains, her rock- 
ribbed hills and streamy vales, have swarmed men who fill the definition 
quoted, and to her and to them America owes much of its political great- 
ness as a nation. 

Near the head-waters of the stately Hudson, in beautiful verdurous 
valleys, among the forest covered hills and mountains which are spurs of 
the Laurentian range, where cool and limpid rivulets tumble from the 
mountain side to find outlet through beautiful lakes and winding streams 
to the great river, and where every surrounding must have served to 



THE SCOT IN AMERICA 43 

remind the settler of the wimpling burns, the lochs, the banks and braes 
of his own loved Scotland, his early home, there was early planted and yet 
exists a community almost unique, for if a list of its family names were 
called, you might almost imagine yourself listening to a roll-call of the 
clans of Scotland, and might well look to see if the fiery cross which 
assembles the clans to battle would not accompany the roll-call 

Among these scenes and these people was my birthplace, and the 
home where I grew to manhood ; and I now recall none other than Scot- 
tish names as memories of my childhood. Listen to some of them, not 
selected, but taken as the crow might fly from roof-tree to roof-tree, in 
that wonderful bit of mosaic transplanted from the rocks and soil of 
Scotia to the rocks and soil of America. 

There was McDougall, McKeachie, and Mills; Gillis, Gibson, and Gil- 
christ ; Robertson, Ramsey, and Reid ; Gow, Guthrie, and Graham ; McNab, 
McKaller, and McEachron ; McGeoch, McArthur, and McNeil ; Steven- 
son, Stewart, and Scott; McWhorter and McKeen ; Armstrong, Bain, and 
Campbell ; Foster, Fraser, and Savage, and many another, representing 
nearly every family name and portion of Scotland, from the highlands 
even to the lowlands. 

Cameronian, Burgher, and Antiburgher were all represented there. 
There were descendants of men and women in that community who had 
dared and suffered for the covenant, and whose Church had been the 
conventicle. 

God fearing, justice loving, and true hearted men and women were 
they all. No crime was known among them, and even petty offenses 
were reduced to a minimum under the influence of their strong but narrow 
creed. 

There was the same combination of freedom of thought and bigotry, 
reason and superstition, hospitality and "nearness," frankness and con- 
cealment, v/hich characterizes the Scot in other lands. Sturdy in thought, 
resolute in action, firm in the faith, content with what God gave them, 
there has gone forth from the loins of that settlement an army of men who 
have become legislators, congressmen, judges, and governors of states, and 
one who has worthily filled the executive chair of the nation. 

The youth of thirty years ago was taught continually that " the chief 
end of man is to glorify God and enjoy him forever," but he could find in 
many a loft and attic the good broad-sword or clumsy musket which had 
been out in the " forty-five," and had again perhaps done yeoman service 
in the French and Indian wars, and in the war for American independence. 
He could find, too, quaint and curious volumes of Scottish romance and 



44 THE SCOT IN AMERICA 

poetry, history and fable, if he were only curious enough to pass by such 
entertaining books as Baxter s Saints' Rest, the Westminster Catechism arid 
Confession of Faith, and Rouse's Version of David 's Psalms, to reach the for- 
bidden fruit from the higher shelves, or seek for it in the closets and chests 
of drawers to which they had been banished as too frivolous to be placed 
in the hands of the young, and too valuable, by reason of old associations, 
to be destroyed. 

From these, and from the stories heard at the knee of some old mother 
in Israel, what wealth was opened to the eye and ear of the child as he 
listened with awe to tales of the Bruce and Wallace from one source, and 
startling tales of warlocks and witches from the other. Do you deem it 
strange that in all that community one rarely heard of a Burns, and had 
never listened to the sweet, rhythmic music of his songs? 

If you do so think, reflect upon the character of that people, learn the 
history of their colony and its surroundings. Away back in the French 
and Indian wars, one Captain Laughlin Campbell had won such distinction 
as to gain for him the promise, so seldom fulfilled, of a reward from the 
Crown. It came to his descendants in the shape of a grant of wild lands 
in the wilderness through which their ancestor had marched and fought, 
and in 1765 another Campbell led a colony into those wilds, and named 
their settlement for their noble kinsman the Duke of Argyle. Others 
followed, but they were all of that stamp who knew not the gentle bard, 
the poet of the people, and had they known him, or of him, would have 
deemed him too frivolous to listen to, and his poems unfit to be placed for 
a moment beside the Psalms of David. Knowing this, it is easy to under- 
stand how it was that another generation had to grow up under the family 
roof, which looked with longing eyes through the mists of the Kirk 
toward old Scotland, and reached out its heart with loving tenderness as 
it listened with quickened ears to the notes of Scotia's sweetest bard. 

It was from memories such as these that I was led to notice in some 
degree the influence of Scotsmen, with training in Scottish thought, 
Scottish faith, and years of Scottish inheritance, in molding the new 
nation into form and giving it character and tone for all time to come. It 
is doubtful whether any nationality has had so great an influence in forming, 
fostering, sustaining, and expanding the American Republic as has the 
"Canny Scot." Whether it be true or not, that when the north pole is 
reached a Scotchman will be found there " speerin what ye cam for," it is 
certain that you can hardly go so far back into the history of America that 
you will not find a Scotsman in the lead. 

In 1609 when Champlain sailed up the St. Lawrence and into the 



THE SCOT IN AMERICA 45 

great lake which bears his name, there was with him a man who won 
renown as a St. Lawrence pilot — -" Abraham Martin, alias the Scot." He 
located at Quebec, reared a family there, and immortalized his Christian 
name by giving it to that famous battle-field made illustrious by Scotsmen 
— the Plains of Abraham. When, twenty years later, Champlain evac- 
uated Fort St. Louis, surrendering to the squadron of Charles I., it was a 
Scot who succeeded to the government of Quebec Admiral Louis Kirke. 

Five years before the second conquest of Canada, three Scotsmen 
were taken prisoners in the border wars and led captive to Quebec. They 
were Major Robert Stobo of the Virginia troops, Lieutenant Stevenson of 
Roger's Rangers, and a Leith carpenter named Clarke. Stobo became a 
general favorite and won the hearts of his foes and of the belles dames 
and demoiselles, so that he was feted and feasted, and permitted to go in 
all directions in and about the settlement. These privileges he turned to 
good account, not only to successfully plan and carry out an escape for the 
trio, but for the final success of the British cause, for when the immortal 
Wolfe, himself of Scottish blood, led his army to victory upon the Plains 
of Abraham, it was Stobo who was at his side, the unerring guide who 
pointed out the place for landing, and led the way up the steep ascent to 
the rear of the castle walls. The commander-in-chief General Amherst 
was another Scot and instead of an army of Englishmen it was an army 
of Scotchmen who conquered New France and brought it under the 
dominion of the British Crown. 

After each of the Scotch rebellions of 1685 and 1745, there was a 
hegira from the highlands to the new world of men seeking a place of 
refuge from the cruel punishments which the Crown began visiting upon 
its rebellious subjects. The headsman's block, the pauperizing of families 
by confiscation of property and burning of homes drove out thousands to 
find new homes where they might be free. The provinces of New York, 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia received most of the 
benefit of this invasion of a splendid stock of brave, hardy Protestants 
and rebels from the highlands of Scotland. 

Great numbers of them were enrolled in the regiments known as the 
" Royal Americans " and the " Rangers," selected troops formed for ser- 
vice against the red savage then devastating the frontier and threatening 
the settlements. A more humane policy was adopted by the home gov- 
ernment, and the highland rebels were enrolled in the service of the king 
and sent to America. They were led by such officers as Fraser of Lovat, 
the McPhersons, the Douglases, and many others renowned in the annals 
of Scotland, and constituted the advance guard of civilization, the line of 



46 THE SCOT IN AMERICA 

defense against all outward foes, the living wall interposed between frontier 
cabins and the red-skinned hordes whose warfare was cruelty unrefined, 
and who were more merciless than the wild beasts of their own boundless 
forests. So when Wolfe had fallen on the Plains of Abraham, and his 
heroic spirit was winging its flight through the smoke of battle, amidst 
the shouts of victory, it was Fraser with his kilted Highlanders who re- 
ceived the second surrender of Quebec, the keys being delivered by a 
French-born Scotsman, Major de Ramezy, Lieutenant du Roy. This 
French-born Scot delivered the fortress to General James Murray, a 
Scotsman who became the first British governor of Canada. 

The chain of forts established to protect the frontier from the head of 
Lake Champlain on the east, to the Mississippi on the west, Ticonderoga, 
William Henry, Du Quesne, Venango, Detroit, Mackinac, Chicago, and 
Fort Wayne, was manned by detachments of the Royal Americans, nearly 
every man of whom was a Scot. It was Colonel Hector Munro, with his 
Highlanders, who was defeated and his command so ruthlessly slaughtered 
at the head of the beautiful lake of the Sacrament, Lake George. It was 
Scotchmen under Scotch officers who banished themselves into the wilder- 
ness to give their bodies to the tomahawk, scalping knife and the tortures 
of the stake, protecting the home of the settler, while at the same time, by 
years of glorious devotion to the cause of country, leading a life of danger 
often ending in death by terrible sufferings in the slow tortures of the 
burning fagot, they blazed the pathway through these western wilds for 
the onward march of the grandest civilization the world has yet known, or 
human intelligence has dreamed of. 

Let no American, much less Americans of Scottish blood, forget what 
we owe to that great regiment which stretched out its thin lines by the 
left flank for a thousand miles into the primeval wilds of a new continent, 
and dared the dangers, privations and sufferings of the most inhuman war- 
fare the world's history has recorded, to create and defend the highway for 
the onward, westward march of American civilization ; and General Forbes, 
a Scot, had the fortune to wrest from the French the key to the western 
gateway, Fort Du Quesne. 

When the time came to question the right of opposition to the encroach- 
ments of the king upon the rights of the colonist, who can estimate 
the influence of the survivors of the Scottish rebellion and their sons, in 
forming the sentiment of patriotism which was to cause the shadow of 
the Crown to disappear from our shores? 

The rebel and the Protestant, not far from synonymous terms, were 
able to pour their rebellious thoughts and protesting ideas into willing ears, 



THE SCOT IN AMERICA 47 

and they contributed much to the molding of the sentiment which began 
by defying kings, and ended by making a free Republic where every man 
should be a sovereign. 

Patrick Henry of Virginia, son of a Scotsman, struck the keynote of 
revolution and independence when he loudly and boldly proclaimed 
that " Resistance to Tyrants is Obedience to God," and he more than 
any other led the way to national independence. The fires of patriotism 
burned brightest and with the most enduring flame where the fugitive 
rebels of 1745 had found new homes, and the history of the revolutionary 
period, and its muster rolls, teem with names of Scots who became the 
patriots, statesmen, and heroes of the new-born nation. In the battles 
which made this the home of liberty, none were fought in which Scotsmen 
did not bear a part, and a noble, conspicuous part ; and were their names 
erased, meagre indeed would be the list of heroes. 

While the war cloud overhung the land, and the savage allies of the 
British king were holding carnival in deeds of bloody cruelty, one of the 
most pathetic tragedies occurred in the Scottish community first men- 
tioned. To the east of Argyle was the colony of New Perth. Le Loup, a 
savage chief in the employ of Burgoyne, commenced here a murderous 
foray, marking out a bloody trail of some twenty miles through Argyle to 
Fort Edward, leaving in his path dead bodies of the unsuspecting settlers, 
sparing from the scalping knife neither age nor sex, and burning the lately 
peaceful homes as he passed. Many a Scotch family on that dreadful 
route was obliterated, and many a wail for dear ones ruthlessly murdered 
long went up to heaven from those beautiful vales. To this same band 
reeking with the blood and decked with the scalps of her kin, was 
strangely committed the custody of that unfortunate maiden, whose sad 
death has been the theme of history, romance and song for more than a 
century, the sweet-faced, black-haired Scotch lassie, who fell under the 
tomahawk of her guides while on her way to her lover's arms — poor, 
hapless, helpless Jane McCrea. 

And, while the battles of the Revolution were being fought in the 
east, a band of heroes, or rather several of them, guarded the rear doors 
of the nation against the treachery of savage foes, who were inspired 
to war against us by the British in the north and the Spaniard in the 
south. 

It was a Scot, General Lachlin Mcintosh, who was in command of the 
western department in 1778, and made the unsuccessful attempt to seize 
Detroit. In 1780 another Scot, General William Irvine, took command, 
and nobly filled the station. His second in command was Colonel John 



48 THE SCOT IN AMERICA 

Gibson, and with him we find such familiar names as Hays, Carmichael, 
Marshal, and Campbell. It was another Scot, Colonel William Crawford, 
whom Irvine sent to lead the unfortunate expedition against Sandusky in 
1782. His field officers had three Scots in their number, Majors David 
Williamson, Thomas Gaddis, and John McClelland. It was Crawford's 
fate, great-souled man and brave soldier as he was, to meet a terrible 
defeat, to see his gallant command almost annihilated, and himself made 
a captive, reserved for a more horrible fate than had befallen those who 
had the good fortune to fall in the midst of the fray. His savage captors 
doomed him to the stake, and for twelve long hours, from the rising of the 
sun to the going down thereof, he walked upon live coals in the midst of 
burning fagots the little circle his thongs permitted, enduring tortures 
unspeakable, until kind death came to end his sufferings. 

It was another Scot, the brave but unfortunate St. Clair, who led 
a brave army into the western wilderness and to its doom, in a further 
attempt to redeem the northwest from savage dominion ; and another, 
George Rogers Clark, who taught the savage to fear and respect our arms, 
and led the way for his final subjection. It was still another, the trusted 
friend and confidant of Washington, General James Robertson, who led a 
colony a thousand miles into the wilderness to found Nashville, and laid 
the foundation as well for a southwestern empire — a man whose cool cour- 
age and unexampled wisdom led the colony safely through twenty years 
of savage warfare inspired by Spanish intrigue, until at last, the nation at 
peace, but while he was still engaged in its service, though enfeebled by 
age and wounds received in Indian warfare, his heroic soul departed, 
leaving a name honored and revered by posterity and a grateful country. 

Very many of the names appended to the immortal declaration of 
independence are names of Scotia's sons. The last royal governor of the 
province of New York was General James Robertson, born in Fifeshire, 
and his departure was the dawn of peace and freedom to the land. The 
first secretary of war of the new republic was General Henry Knox ; the 
first secretary of the treasury was that unrivalled financier of his day, 
Alexander Hamilton ; the second secretary of state was Edmund 
Randolph ; the first secretary of the navy Benjamin Stoddert, and the 
first secretary of the interior Thomas Ewing — Scotsmen all or the 
descendants of Scots. 

If you scan the lists of cabinet officers from that day down, you will 
find half at least were possessors of Scottish names. The great chief- 
justice, not the first, but he who by his judicial decisions did more than 
any other to crystallize and make permanent what our Revolutionary 



THE SCOT IN AMERICA 49 

heroes fought for, national unity in the bonds of constitutional govern- 
ment, was John Marshall, the descendant of a Scotch emigrant. 

Who fails to recognize as of true Scot's blood among our Presidents, 
those who bear the names of Adams, Monroe, Tyler, Jackson, Taylor, 
Buchanan, Grant, Johnson, Hayes, and Arthur? 

Among the statesmen of the day, who so dull as not to recognize in 
those names, and the names of Calhoun, Randolph, Webster and a host 
of others, the names familiar to every part of Scotland, and on every page 
of its history? It was General Winfield Scott, a worthy descendant of 
border heroes, who won laurels in three American wars, and died covered 
with honors, and loved by his countrymen. Can we mistake the origin 
of such names as our late civil war has made household words, and 
inscribed in letters of gold in the pages of history, both north and south 
— names of Grant, McClellan, McDowell, McPherson, Burnside, Logan, 
Johnston, Jackson, Gordon, Breckenridge and many others ? 

Instances might be multiplied, but to what end? It is in no spirit of 
boasting or self-laudation that every Scot must feel proud of what his race 
has done for America. But to every true Scotchman who now finds his 
home in this magnificent country his forerunners and kinsmen helped to 
carve out of a wilderness almost impenetrable, it should be an incentive 
to loyalty, to patriotism, to all that is good and great in what goes to make 
up national life and honor, to remember that those compatriots, whether in 
civil or military life, whether called to a public career or quietly pursuing 
humbler avocations, have added lustre to the pages of history, laurels to 
the republic as well to the chaplet which graces dear old Scotland, mother 
of heroes, statesmen, philosophers, and embassadors of Heaven, who have 
faithfully served God and man in every clime and every nation which 
meets and greets the circling sun. 



Vol. XXVII.-No. 1.-4 



ARNOLD'S RESIDENCE IN PHILADELPHIA 

[In 1778 Benedict Arnold commanded in Philadelphia, residing a por- 
tion of the time in a beautiful mansion situated on the banks of the 
Schuylkill, built in 1761, and owned by Mr. John MacPherson. He 
married the beautiful daughter of Judge Shippen, of Philadelphia. In 
1779 the mansion became the property of Arnold through conveyance 
from MacPherson. Subsequently, after Arnold's treason, the property 
was confiscated by the government.] 

More than a hundred years ago, 

Here, in this mansion stately, still, 

Dwelt one of proud, yet jealous will, 

In whom a trust was placed, but, lo ! 

Who yet that mighty trust betrayed ! 

A lonely spot — this mansion old, 

These grounds, where once with step so bold 

He paced in odd, lone hours, and laid 

His plans for future glory, and 

So little dreaming what the years 

Would bring to him in woe and tears, 

His name a scorn in every land. 

Hard by, the Schuylkill's waters lave 

The beauteous shore where, oft, he stood 

With beating heart and mused. Ah ! would 

This man had but been strong to save 

Himself when tempted ; strong, indeed ; 

Ay, strong as excellence is strong. 

But no ; like one of old whose wrong 

Will ever live, he would not heed 

The voice of conscience, and he fell! 

The whole world knows the story well ; 

While round this place, part of his fame, 

The soft air whispers Arnold's name. 

/I * 





£ c^nei tfo^ytrY* 



JOHN BADOLLET, 1758-1837 
albert gallatin's early intimate friend 

It is not simply his unique position that gives importance to this 
pioneer in the state of Indiana. It is rather because the fact makes him 
of necessity the founder of government and the social order of things, and 
develops in him that which might, with another environment, have lain 
dormant or whose existence he himself might not even have suspected. 
Yet the very fact of ceasing to lead a vegetative existence in a long-estab- 
lished community, and of striking boldly into a new and untried country, 
is evidence of strong character. John Badollet was, in no respect, a 
brilliant man. Yet he displayed a firm, quiet individuality, and in an 
unostentatious manner became one of the important factors in the found- 
ing of the commonwealth. Indiana history with his name left out would 
be incomplete. He was one of the charter members of the board of trus- 
tees for the Vincennes university. For years he was one of its most 
earnest supporters, serving on important committees — that on rules, on 
locating of the lands, and many others ; almost every page of the records 
shows his intelligent progressive interest in the establishing of the institu- 
tion. It is said that his personal influence with the secretary of the 
treasury of the United States was employed in securing the grant of the 
township of land. His family is an ancient one. I have seen the gene- 
alogy reaching back to 1555, when the Savoyard Jacques Badollet became 
a citizen of Geneva. Thence tracing forward, through Guillaume, four 
Pierres, to Francois who married N. Vivier in 1755; they were the parents 
of Jean Louis Badollet, the subject for our sketch, born in 1758. These 
generations furnished three or four members of the great council and 
other state officers, and among them were several scholars of considerable 
reputation. It would appear that they were Protestants, and that John 
Badollet was sent to college and educated for a Lutheran clergyman. 

John seems not to have taken kindly to the theological idea, for we 
find him leaving for America at the early age of twenty, and long after, 
in his old age, he had the reputation of being extremely liberal in his re- 
ligious beliefs. We might well expect advanced political, educational, and 
religious beliefs from one who lived under the influences of the age which 
produced a Rousseau. The story has been handed down in the family 



52 JOHN BADOLLET, 1758-1837 

that he and Albert Gallatin were fast friends while yet in Geneva, and 
that not having money enough for both to come to America they com- 
bined purses, Gallatin coming in 1776 and sending back money for Badollet 
who came the next year. About the year 1787 Mr. Badollet married Mar- 
garet Hanna, a woman of particularly sweet disposition, and settled in 
northwestern Pennsylvania, at a little place called Geneva, where he con- 
tinued to live for several years, possibly till his removal to Vincennes in 
1804. In Pennsylvania all his children were born, and here continued ex- 
cept for a short time that strong friendship for Gallatin, who, meanwhile, 
had risen to great political prominence. Badollet's sympathies and sup- 
port were with the whiskey insurrectionists. To one filled with the popu- 
lar idea of personal liberty of the day, this would be the natural course 
under the circumstances. It is more than probable that Mr. Jefferson's ap- 
pointment of Badollet as register of the land office at Vincennes was due 
to the personal favor of his old friend Gallatin. It is to the credit of Ba- 
dollet, as well as of the Presidents who succeeded, that he held the office 
uninterruptedly for thirty-two years, until 1836, his eldest son, Albert, suc- 
ceeding him. It was in the year of his appointment, 1804, that he took up 
his residence in Vincennes, where he continued to reside until his death in 
1837. In all public enterprises he was active. He was one of the found- 
ers of the Vincennes library association in 1806 as well as of the univer- 
sity in 1806. By will he left his French books to the Vincennes library, 
now the property of the university. He was a warm personal friend of 
Harrison until the slavery question caused a difference, which cooled their 
friendship. A lasting friendship existed between himself and Francis 
Vigo also. Two things give him especial prominence in the early history 
of the state, the one his work in the constitutional convention of 1816, 
the other his part in the preparation of the law for the school system. 
His family have the legend of his having penned important parts of the 
constitution of 1816. It is certain that he was a member of three impor- 
tant committees in the constitutional convention, viz. : the committee 
on bill of rights and preamble, the one on education, and that on general 
revision. It is to his part on this latter committee that some of his most 
important work is assigned. The Knox delegation was the strongest, and 
John Badollet was one of its strong members. As to the other matter 
which reflects high honor upon his name I quote from Dillon : " By a joint 
resolution of the general assembly of January 9th, 1821, John Badollet and 
David Hart of Knox county, Wm. Martin of Washington county, James 
Welsh of Switzerland, Daniel Caswell of Franklin, Thos. Searle of Jeffer- 
son, and John Todd of Clark county were appointed a committee to draft 



JOHN BADOLLET, 1758-1837 53 

and report to the next legislature of Indiana a bill providing a general sys- 
tem of education .... The labors of the committee, thus appointed 
. . . were incorporated in the first general school law of Indiana." 
Any one who is familiar with Badollet's character and ideas would know 
that he was one of the most important elements of the committee. The 
library, the university, the state constitution, and the state school system 
— was it not a matter of high honor to have been instrumental in the 
founding of each? His name will always be an important one in Indiana 
and Vincennes history. He died at the ripe age of seventy-nine. He 
had five children, all of whom survived him : Albert, Frances Gilham, 
James, Sarah Caldwell, and Algernon Sidney. Among his children and 
grandchildren have been several graduates of West Point. 

In personal appearance Mr. Badollet was rather short and somewhat 
stout. When sitting one would think him a tall man, but when standing 
he was below the average in stature. His complexion was light rather 
than dark. He was very careful of his personal appearance, and is said by 
those who knew him to have been a polished gentleman. He was quite 
eccentric, especially in later life. It was his especial direction in his will 
that no funeral notices should be printed at his death, that his coffin 
should be of stained poplar, and he specified also that nothing should be 
placed on his tombstone except the simple words, "John Badollet." 




Vincennes University, Vincennes, Indiana. 



PATRICK HENRY AND JOHN ADAMS ON 
GOVERNMENT MAKING 

CORRESPONDENCE IN MAY AND JUNE, 1 776 
Patrick Henry to Jo Jin Adams 

"Williamsburg, 20th May, 1776 
My dear sir: 

Your favor with the pamphlet came safe to hand. I am exceedingly 
obliged to you for it ; and I am not without hopes it may produce good 
here, where there is among most of our opulent families a strong bias to 
aristocracy. I tell my friends you are the author. Upon that supposition, 
I have two reasons for liking the book. The sentiments are precisely the 
same I have long since taken up, and come recommended by you. Go on, 
my dear friend, to assail the strongholds of tyranny ; and in whatever form 
oppression may be found, may those talents and that firmness which have 
achieved so much for America be pointed against it. 

Before this reaches you, the resolution for finally separating from 
Britain will be handed to Congress by Colonel Nelson. I put up with it 
in the present form for the sake of unanimity. 'Tis not quite so pointed 
as I could wish. Excuse me for telling you of what I think of immense 
importance ; 'tis to anticipate the enemy at the French Court. The half of 
our continent offered to France may induce her to aid our destruction, 
which she certainly has the power to accomplish. I know the free trade 
with all the states would be more beneficial to her than any territorial 
possessions she might acquire. But pressed, allured, as she will be — but, 
above all, ignorant of the great things we. mean to offer, may we not lose 
her? The consequence is dreadful. Excuse me again. The confederacy ; 
that must precede an open declaration of independency and foreign 
alliances. Would it not be sufficient to confine it, for the present, to the 
objects of offensive and defensive natures, and a guaranty of the respective 
colonial rights? If a minute arrangement of things is attempted, such as 
equal representation, etc., etc., you may split and divide; certainly will 
delay the French alliance, which with me is everything. The great force 
in San Domingo, Martinique, etc., is under the guidance of some person 
in high office. Will not the Mississippi lead your ambassadors thither 
most safely ? 



PATRICK HENRY AND JOHN ADAMS ON GOVERNMENT MAKING 55 

Our convention is now employed in the great work of forming a con- 
stitution. My most esteemed republican poem has many and powerful 
enemies. A silly thing, published in Philadelphia, by a native of Virginia, 
has just made its appearance here, strongly represented, 'tis said, by one 
of our delegates now with you — Braxton. His reasonings upon and dis- 
tinction between private and public virtue, are weak, shallow and evasive, 
and the whole performance an affront and disgrace to this country ; and, 
by one expression, I suspect his whiggism. Our session will be very long, 
during which I cannot count upon one coadjutor of talents equal to the 
task. Would to God you and your Sam Adams were here ! It shall 
be my incessant study, so to form our portrait of government, that a 
kindred with New England may be discerned in it, and if all your 
excellencies cannot be preserved, yet I hope to retain so much of the 
likeness, that posterity shall pronounce us descended from the same 
stock. I shall think perfection is obtained if we have your approbation. 
I am forced to conclude; but first let me beg to be presented to my 
ever-esteemed S. Adams. Adieu, my dear sir ; may God preserve you, 
and give you every good thing. P. Henry, Jr. 

To John Adams, Esq. 

P. S. — Will you and S. A. now and then write ? " 

John Adams to Patrick Henry 

"Philadelphia, June 3, 1776 
My dear sir: 

I had this morning the pleasure of yours of 20, May. The little 
pamphlet you mention is nullius filius ; and if I should be obliged to 
maintain it, the world will not expect that I should own it. My motive 
for inclosing it to you, was not the value for the present, but as a token 
of friendship, and more for the sake of inviting your attention to the 
subject than because there was anything in it worthy your perusal. The 
subject is of infinite moment, and perhaps more than adequate to the 
abilities of any man in America. I know of none so competent to the 
task as the author of the first Virginia resolutions against the Stamp Act, 
who will have the glory with posterity of beginning and concluding this 
great revolution. Happy Virginia, whose constitution is to be framed by 
so masterly a builder! Whether the plan of the pamphlet is not too 
popular, whether the elections are not too frequent for your colony, I 
know not. The usages, the genius and manners of the people must be 
consulted. And if annual elections of the representatives of the people 



56 PATRICK HENRY AND JOHN ADAMS ON GOVERNMENT MAKING 

are sacredly preserved, those elections by ballot, and none permitted to be 
chosen but inhabitants, residents as well as qualified freeholders of the 
city, county, parish, town or borough for which they are to serve — three 
essential prerequisites of a free government — the council, or middle branch 
of legislation may be triennial, or even septennial, without much incon- 
venience. I esteem it an honor and a happiness, that my opinion so often 
coincides with yours. It has ever appeared to me that the natural course 
and order of things was this: for every colony to institute a government; 
for all the colonies to confederate, and define the limits of the continental 
constitution ; then to declare the colonies a sovereign state, or a number 
of confederated sovereign states; and last of all, to form treaties with 
foreign powers. But I fear we cannot proceed systematically, and that 
we shall be obliged to declare ourselves independent states, before we 
confederate, and indeed before all the colonies have established their 
governments. 

It is now pretty clear that all these measures will follow one another 
in a rapid succession, and it may not perhaps be of much importance which 
is done first. The importance of an immediate application to the French 
Court was clear ; and I am very much obliged to you for your hint of the 
route by the Mississippi. Your intimation that the session of your repre- 
sentative body would be long, gave me great pleasure, because we all 
look to Virginia for examples; and in present perplexities, dangers and 
distresses of our country, it is necessary that the supreme councils of the 
colonies should be almost constantly sitting. Some colonies are not sen- 
sible of this ; and they will certainly suffer for their indiscretion. Events 
of such magnitude as those which present themselves now in such quick 
succession require constant attention and mature deliberation. The little 
pamphlet you mention, which was published here as an antidote to the 
Thoughts on Government, and which is whispered to have been the joint 
production of one native of Virginia and two natives of New York, I 
know not how truly, will make no fortune in the world. It is too absurd 
to be considered twice ; it is contrived to involve a colony in eternal war. 

The dons, the bashaws, the grandees, the patricians, the sachems, the 
nabobs, call them by what name you please, sigh, and groan, and fret, and 
sometimes stamp, and foam, and curse, but all in vain. The decree is 
gone forth, and it cannot be recalled, that a more equal liberty than has 
prevailed in other parts of the earth must be established in America. That 
exuberance of pride which has produced an insolent domination in a few, 
a very few opulent, monopolizing families will be brought down nearer to 
the confines of reason and moderation, than they have been used to. This 



PATRICK HENRY AND JOHN ADAMS ON GOVERNMENT MAKING 57 

is all the evil which they themselves will endure. It will do them good in 
this world and in any other. For pride was not made for man, only as a 
tormentor. 

I shall ever be happy in receiving your advice by letter, until I can be 
more completely so in seeing you here in person, which I hope will be 
soon. Yours, etc., 

John Adams 

To Patrick Henry, Esq." 

Patrick Henry to Richard Henry Lee 

" Williamsburg, May 20, 1776 
Dear sir : 

Your two last favors are with me ; and for them both, I give you many 
thanks. Ere this reaches you, our resolution for separating from Britain 
will be handed you by Colonel Nelson. Your sentiments as to the neces- 
sary progress of this great affair correspond with mine. For may not 
France, ignorant of the great advantages to her commerce we intend to 
offer, and of the permanency of that separation which is to take place, be 
allured by the partition you mention ? To anticipate therefore the efforts 
of the enemy by sending instantly American ambassadors to France 
seems to me absolutely necessary. Delay may bring on us total ruin. 
But is not a confederacy of our states previously necessary ? If that 
could be formed, and its object for the present be only offensive and 
defensive, and guaranty respecting colonial rights, perhaps dispatch 
might be had, and the adjustment of representation and other lesser mat- 
ters, be postponed without injury. May not the fishery be a tempting 
object? I think from the great French force now in the West Indies 
some person of eminent rank must be there to guide it. The Mississippi 
should be tho't of. I thank you for the hint of the back lands. I gave 
an opinion, as a lawyer, to Brent, on the subject of his and Croghan's pur- 
chase, and notwithstanding solicitations from every great land company 
to the West, I've refused to join them. I think a general confiscation of 
royal and British property should be made; the fruits would be great, and 
the measure in its utmost latitude warranted by the late act of parliament. 

The grand work of now forming a constitution for Virginia is now 
before the convention, where your love of equal liberty and your skill in 
public counsels might so eminently serve the cause of your country. 
Perhaps I am mistaken, but I fear too great a bias to aristocracy prevails 
among the opulent. I own myself a democrat on the plan of our 
admired friend John Adams, whose pamphlet I read with great pleasure. 



58 PATRICK HENRY AND JOHN ADAMS ON GOVERNMENT MAKING 

A performance from Philadelphia is just come here, ushered in, I'm told, 

by a colleague of yours, B , and greatly recommended by him. I don't 

like it. Is the author a whig? One or two expressions in the book 
make me ask. I wish to divide you, and have you here, to animate by 
your manly eloquence the sometimes drooping spirits of our country, and 
in congress, to be the ornament of your native country and the vigilant, 
determined foe of tyranny. 

To give you colleagues of kindred sentiments is my wish. I doubt 
you have them not at present. A confidential account of the matter to 
Colonel Tom, desiring him to use it according to his discretion, might 
greatly serve the public, and vindicate Virginia from suspicions. Vigor, 
animation, and all the powers of mind and body must now be summoned 
and collected together into one grand effort. Moderation, falsely so 
called, hath nearly brought on us final ruin. And to see those who have 
so fatally advised us, still guiding or at least sharing our public counsels, 
alarms me. 

Adieu, my dear sir; present me to my much esteemed F. L. L. and 
believe me 

Your very affec. and obliged, 

P. Henry, Jr. 

Pray drop me a line now and then. 

To Col. R. H. Lee. 

P. S. — Our mutual friend the general will be hampered if not taken. 

Some gentry throw out alarms that a cong power has swallowed up 

everything. My all to [ know how to feel for him." 

Life, Correspondence, and Speeches of Patrick Henry, 
by Hon. William Wirt Henry. 



MINOR TOPICS 
COLLIS P. HUNTINGTON 

" Huntington is an old name which is said to have reached England with the 
Normans in the eleventh century," writes Mr. Hubert Howe Bancroft in his new 
volume of Chronicles of the Builders (Vol. V.), " and among the noted men of 
this stock in America was Samuel Huntington, one of the signers of the declaration 
of independence, president of the continental congress, and chief-justice of Con- 
necticut. Ebenezer Huntington was a lieutenant-colonel in the revolutionary war, 
and in 1799, when the French war threatened, was, on the recommendation of 
Washington, appointed brigadier-general. To the same stock belongs the Right 
Reverend Frederick D. Huntington, bishop of New York, also Daniel Huntington, 
the distinguished painter, president of the national Academy of Design. The 
Huntington family first emigrated to America early in the seventeenth century. 
William Huntington, the father of Collis P. Huntington, was of large frame, stand- 
ing six feet two inches in his stockings. A man of severe character, his puritanism 
expressed itself in an austere virtue based upon radical convictions of right and 
wrong. He was a marked personage of singular and powerful individuality. 
Among the sage maxims through which he expressed his knowledge of men and 
business was this : ' Do not be afraid to do business with a rascal — only watch 
him ; but avoid a fool, for you can never make anything out of him.' 

Collis P. Huntington, born October 22, 1821, was the fifth of nine children, 
and industry was the motto of the household. That of his native town was a hard- 
working community. Labor was the criterion of respectability. Children who 
were too young to bring in wood brought in chips. This story is told of Collis : 
When he had attained his ninth year, being employed by a neighbor to pile up in a 
woodshed a quantity of wood, he did it neatly, and then with that liking for good 
work which has since distinguished his railroad constructions, he picked up all the 
chips in the woodyard and put them into barrels. His employer was so well 
pleased that when he gave him his dollar — the first the boy had ever earned — he 
patted him on the head and said, ' You have done this so well I shall be glad to 
have you pile up my wood again next fall.' He who told the story as being within 
his own remembrance added, ' and Collis was much delighted with the praise and 
with the dollar, but he said to me with a bright laugh, " You don't suppose I am 
going to pile wood for a living the rest of my life, do you ? " ' 

When he was fourteen years of age his school life ended, and his father con- 
sented that he should be his own master on condition that he should thenceforth 
support himself. That year Collis worked for a neighbor for seven dollars a month 



60 MINOR TOPICS 

and board. He saved all he earned — eighty-four dollars. When a friend remarked 
to him, ' Why, that is all the money you received for the whole year's work ! ' 
' Exactly,' he replied, ' that's the reason I did not save any more.' " Mr. Bancroft 
traces Mr. Huntington's history from the time of his departure from Connecticut 
until he reached California : a history which furnishes many practical and valuable 
lessons for young men. In whatever undertaking, he vigorously worked with a 
will. In his wanderings from place to place he studied the country, becoming 
familiar with its outlines, capes, headlands, rivers, and other physical features ; 
and with a retentive memory mastered the geographical relations of trade between 
the different parts of the nation. This knowledge became of immense use to him 
when he had reached the Pacific coast and turned his attention to the importance 
of transportation facilities as a factor in business undertakings. When the question 
of building a railroad across the continent was first agitated, there were many men, 
even in the congress of 1842-43, who opposed the project and ridiculed the idea 
that steam could ever be employed to facilitate communication across the conti- 
nent, and it was ten years later before congress made the necessary appropriation 
for surveys, and twenty years before the Central Pacific Railroad Company entered 
into a contract with the government to construct a railroad and telegraph line 
from the Pacific coast, at or near San Francisco or the navigable waters of the 
Sacramento river, to the eastern boundary of California, having the right to build 
eastward until it met the Union Pacific — the Union Pacific having the right to 
build westward until it met the Central Pacific. 

It was difficult to convince the public of that period that the government had 
an empire of vast magnitude lying west, between the waters of the Missouri and 
the Pacific ocean, and that there was an immense field of waste land which would 
never be worth a cent without a railroad. A senator from Missouri in 1878 said, 
"I look upon the building of the railroad from the waters of the Missouri to the 
Pacific ocean, at the time particularly in which it was built, during the war, as 
perhaps the greatest achievement of the human race." 

Mr. Bancroft chronicles the series of efforts and obstructions which character- 
ized the scheme in its progress, and places them upon permanent record. He says : 
" The names of Huntington, Hopkins, Crocker, Miller, and Stanford form an inte- 
gral part of the history of the great advance in civilization and enlightenment which 
has produced the California of to-day. As the financial agent, by whose finesse, 
address, and skill the funds necessary for the prosecution of the work must be 
obtained, and as purchasing agent, who must procure and ship everything used in 
the construction and equipment of the road, Mr. Huntington confronted difficulties 
compared with which the mere mechanical feat of removing earth, constructing 
bridges, and drilling tunnels sinks into insignificance. The masterly manner in 
which the problems committed to him were solved entitles him to the foremost 
rank among those by whom has been accomplished the greatest financial and 
engineering feat in an age which surpasses all others in such achievements." 



MINOR TOPICS 



6l 



THE HISTORICAL PETITION AND ITS FATE. 



A passage in Mrs. Davis' recently published book recalls to me a little war 
incident, which came under my knowledge and which has never been in print. 

The tidings of the capture of Jefferson Davis struck the south with conster- 
nation. Every one felt that, though there might be still some show of resistance, 
the defeat at Appomattox practically closed the war. But that the president of 
the confederacy should be a prisoner in the hands of the victors was a doubly 
bitter pill. Then came stories of the inhumanity with which he was treated at Fort- 
ress Monroe, stories which were utterly unfounded, but nevertheless were implicitly 
believed through the south. So the Maryland women, as closest to the scene of 
action, drafted a petition to the President at Washington, for the release of Mr. 
Davis, which was signed by fifteen thousand of them. A deputation from Balti- 
more with Mrs. Chapman Coleman, a well-known society leader, at their head, was 
appointed to present the petition. Mrs. Coleman was not a native Marylander, 
but a Kentuckian, and it was objected to by some that she should represent the 
women of Maryland ; but she was the daughter of the distinguished senator, 
John J. Crittenden, and it was thought the effect of his influence might be of 
service in favoring the cause. 

When the delegation reached Washington, they accidentally met General T. L. 
Crittenden, one of the corps commanders in the federal army. His quarters were 
at the National Hotel, and as accommodations were very difficult to obtain in those 
crowded days, he offered them the freedom of his rooms. But on hearing their 
errand, he told them that it was quite useless to hope for an audience, for he had 
been waiting there two weeks, and had never been able to see the President. 

However, after rest and refreshment, they did go on their mission to the White 
House, and sending in their cards were admitted in a very short time, although the 
ante-chamber was full of applicants, some of whom had been waiting there since 
daybreak. Courteously, Mr. Johnson received them, listened to the address Mrs. 
Coleman had prepared, and read the petition ; then he replied : " I have not the 
least ill will towards Mr. Davis, ladies, I assure you, and personally I should not 
mind his being released, but believe me it would be no act of kindness to him. 
There are those who would pursue him to the bitter end, and his life would be in 
danger on every side. The government has no animosity to your president, but, 
take my word for it, he is safer where he is, for the present at least." 

Convinced, in spite of themselves, that what he said was true, and satisfied at 
least with the courtesy they had received, they took their leave. Returning to the 
hotel, they found General Crittenden waiting for them and curious to know if they 
had succeeded in obtaining an audience. When he heard the result of their mis- 
sion, his amazement was beyond bounds. "Well," he said, " this is too much ; here 
I have been for two weeks trying to see the President. I want an order of admission 
to see Mr. Davis myself, we were old comrades in Mexico, and I have never even 



62 MINOR TOPICS 

been able to get a chance to ask for it, and here you go and get admitted at once. 
I verily believe the government will be turned over to the women yet. " 

Leigh Young 
Danville, Ky. 



CANADA, FROM A EUROPEAN POINT OF VIEW IN 1761 

EXTRACT FROM THE "UNIVERSAL MAGAZINE," OF FEBRUARY, 1761 

Canada, a colony in North America, belonged to the French before the present 
war. It is reported, in order to account for the etymology of the word ' Canada,' 
that the Spaniards had, long before the French, visited this coast ; but, finding no 
signs of any minerals, they were in a hurry to go off again, crying out in their lan- 
guage, ' Aca Nada ! ' that is, ' There is nothing here ; ' meaning the country was 
good for nothing ; which words the Indians retained, and, when the French came 
ashore, cried out, ' Aca Nada ! Aca Nada ! ' which they took for the name of the 
country ; so that it has been called Canada ever since. 

Geographers are not agreed in fixing the limits of this large country. It will 
be sufficient to say, that, as its extent is very considerable, both in length and 
breadth, its temperature, climate, soil, &c, cannot but vary accordingly : All that 
part which was inhabited by the French, and which is mostly along the banks of 
the great river St. Laurence, is, generally speaking, excessive cold in winter, 
though hot in summer, as most of those American tracts commonly are, which do 
not lie too far to the northward. The rest of the country, as far as it is known, is 
intersected with large woods, lakes, and rivers, which render it still colder. It has, 
however, no inconsiderable quantity of good fertile lands, which by experience are 
found capable of producing wheat, barley, rye, and other grain, grapes, and fruit, 
and, indeed, almost every thing that grows in France ; but its chief product is 
tobacco, which it yields in large quantities. 

There is likewise plenty of stags, elks, bears, foxes, martins, wild cats, and 
other wild creatures in the woods, besides wild fowl and other game. The southern 
parts, in particular, breed great numbers of wild bulls, deer of a small size, divers 
sorts of roe-bucks, goats, wolves, &c. 

The meadow-grounds, which are all well watered, yield excellent grass, and 
breed great quantities of large and small cattle ; and, where the arable land is 
well manured, it produces large and rich crops. The mountains abound with coal 
mines, and some, we are told, of silver and other metals, though we have not 
learned that any great advantage has been made of them. The marshy grounds, 
which are likewise very extensive, swarm with otters, beavers, &c. 

The lakes are both large and numerous ; the principal of which are those of 
Erie, Michigan, Huron, Superior, Frontenac or Ontario, Temiscaming, besides 
others of a smaller size ; but the largest of them is that which they name Superior, 






MINOR TOPICS 63 

or Upper Lake ; which is situated the farthest north, and is reckoned above one 
hundred leagues in length, and about seventy where broadest, and hath several 
considerable islands on it ; the chief whereof are the Royal Isle, Pont Chartrain, 
Maurepas, St. Ann, St. Ignatius, Hocquart, Minong, and a number of smaller ones. 

The whole country abounds with very large rivers, which it is endless to enter 
into a detail of ; the two principal are those of St. Laurence and the Mississipi ; 
the former of which abounds with no less variety than plenty of fine fish, and 
receives several considerable rivers in its course. The entrance into the bay of St. 
Laurence lies between the cape de Retz, on the isle of Newfoundland, and the 
north cape in that called the Royal Island, or more commonly Cape Breton. That 
of the Mississippi, which runs through the greatest part of the province of Louis- 
iana, from north to south, is called by the French the river of St. Louis, and by 
the natives Mischisipi, Mississipi, and Meschagamisii, on account of the vast 
tract of ground which it overflows at certain seasons ; and by the Spaniards also 
called la Palissada, from the prodigious quantities of timber which they send down 
upon it in floats to the sea. It is navigable above four hundred and fifty leagues 
up from its mouth. The spring head of this river is not yet satisfactorily known ; 
but it is certain that it discharges itself into the gulph of Mexico by two branches, 
which form an island of considerable length. 

Canada, in its largest sense, is divided into eastern and western, the former of 
which is commonly known by the name of Canada, or New France, and the latter, 
which is of much later discovery, Louisiana, in honour of the late Louis XIV. The 
eastern Canada contains the following provinces, viz. Canada, properly so called ; 
2. Sanguenay ; 3. Acadia ; 4. Atrurumbeg ; 5. New England ; 6. New Holland ; 
7. New Sweden ; the five last of which have been dismembered from it some time 
since ; so that there are but two provinces in this eastern Canada that belonged to 
the French before the present war, viz. Canada proper and Sanguenay. 

The former of these, including all to the north and west of the great river and 
lakes, contained formerly twenty-eight tribes, but at present is divided into the 
thirteen following provinces, most of them named from their capital towns or 
forts, viz. 1. Gaspe ; 2. St. Jean isle ; 3. Miscon isle ; 4- Richelieu ; 5. Les Trois 
Rivieres, or the Three Rivers ; 6. Montreal isle ; 7. Fort Frontenac ; 8. De Conti ; 
9. St. Francois : 10. Notre Dame Des Anges ; n. St. Alexis; 12. St. Michael ; 
13. St. Joseph. 

Canada proper is by far the most considerable province of all New France, the 
farther subdued, the best peopled, and the best cultivated. It has on the north 
the Terra de Labrador, Hudson's bay, and New Wales ; on the east the great river 
Sanguenay divides it from the province of that name ; on the south the great pro- 
vince of Louisiana, and the Iroquois and Etechemins ; as to the northern bound- 
aries, they are not known, and must be left to time to discover. This province is 
allowed to have greater plenty of beavers, and larger and finer than any other that 
are bred throughout Canada. These, as well as the castors, are very much valued, 



04 MINOR TOPICS 

not only for their furs, but the latter for its testicles, which have been from long 
experience found to be an efficacious remedy against several diseases, especially 
those of the hysteric kind ; and accordingly the natives carry on a large commerce 
of both. The rivers of Canada abound with variety of fish, especially carp of a 
prodigious size, and white porpoises as large as oxen, besides great numbers of 
crocodiles, and other amphibious creatures. 

This colony, before the present war, was said by some to be inhabited by eighty 
thousand French, who lived in plenty and tranquillity : They were free from all 
taxes, and had full liberty to hunt, fish, fell timber for fuel or building, and to 
sow and plant as much land as they could cultivate. Their greatest hardship was 
the winter cold, which is there so excessive, from December till April, that the 
greatest rivers freeze over, and the snow lies commonly two or three feet deep on 
the ground, though this part lies no farther north than forty to forty-eight degrees 
of latitude. 

Trois Rivieres, or the Three Rivers, so called from the three rivers which join 
their currents about a quarter of a mile below it, and fall into the great one of St. 
Laurence, was the capital of the French government in New France, and much 
resorted to by several nations, which come down these rivers to it, and trade with 
it in various kinds of furs. The town here is surrounded with pallisades, and 
advantageously situated in the center of the country, and consequently free from 
the incursions of the savage Iroquois. It was the residence of the Governor, who 
kept a Major under him, and it has a monastery of Recollects, who act as Curates. 
It was formerly the common empory, where the wild natives brought their furs, 
and other commodities, for sale, before the English seized it, and their settlement 
at Montreal. The colony was again restored in 1635, ar >d the Monks who had 
settled a mission there returned to it in 1673. The country about it is pleasant, 
and fertile in corn, fruits, &c, and has a good number of lordships and hand- 
some seats. On each side of the river stands a vast number of genteel houses, 
scarce above a gun-shot from each other, and the river is full of pleasure and 
fishing boats, which serve for catching vast quantities of fish. 

Montreal is situated on an island of the same name, in the river of St. Laurence, 
about fourteen leagues long, and four wide where broadest, and is very fertile in 
corn, fruits, &c. This town carried on a prodigious trade with the natives, whose 
Chiefs went first to pay their duty to the Governor, and make him some presents, 
in order to prevent the prices of goods, which they came for, being raised to an 
exorbitant height. This concourse began about June, and some of them came 
hither from places distant above five hundred leagues ; the fair was kept along the 
banks of the river, where these natives exchanged their commodities with the 
French ; and centinels were placed at proper distances, to prevent the disorders, 
which might otherwise happen from such vast crouds of different nations. This 
concourse lasted for near three months. The natives brought thither all sorts of 
furs, which they bartered for guns, powder, ball, great-coats, and other garments 



\ 



MINOR TOPICS 65 

of the French manufacture ; iron and brass work, and trinkets of all sorts. — See a 
more ample description of Montreal, and the trade carried on there, as referred to 
in the title. 

Sanguenay, a province in the eastern Canada, is divided on the west, from that 
properly so called, by the river of its name. It has on the north-east the nation 
called Kilestinaos, or Crestinaux ; on the north-west that of the Esquimaux ; on 
the south-east it is bounded by the river St. Laurence, and on the south-west by 
that of Sanguenay, at the mouth of which is the town of Three Rivers, before 
mentioned. Its extent is computed from this town, which is the frontier of Canada 
proper, quite to the farther end of the bay called the Seven Isles. The territory 
and lands on each side of the river were found so indifferent, that the colony 
which settled at Tadoussac suffered so much there, that it quite discojuraged the 
French, for a long time, from settling ; but at length, upon their sailing up as high 
as Quebec, they found such encouragement as was sufficiently productive of their 
prosperity there. The river of Sanguenay springs from the lake of St. John, and 
falls into that of St. Laurence, at the town of Tadoussac. The haven is capable 
of containing 25 men of war, and has a good anchorage and shelter from storms, it 
being of a round figure and deep, and surrounded at a distance with very high 
rocks. This province is much the same, as to its soil, climate, and inhabitants, 
with that of Canada proper. It is remarkable, indeed, for an extraordinary plenty 
of marble of several kinds, insomuch that not only the principal towns, forts, 
churches, and palaces, but even the houses of private men, are built of it. 

Quebec is the capital of this province ; and the other principal places are, 
Sillery, Tadoussac, Port neuf, Beau-port, St. Ann, Chicheque de Port, St. Nich- 
olas, Port Castier, and Necouba. Quebec, the metropolis of all Canada, and an 
episcopal see, is in the latitude of 46. 53, and west longitude 70. 40 : It is situated 
on the confluence of the rivers St. Laurence and St. Charles, or the little river, and 
on the north side of the former, and about one hundred and forty leagues from the 
sea. The haven is large, and capable of containing at least 100 ships of the line ; 
and the great river whereon it stands, though about four leagues wide, here con- 
tracts itself at once to the breadth of about a mile ; and it is on that account that 
the name of Quebec was given, which, in the Algonkine Indian language, it seems, 
signifies a shrinking, or growing narrower, which is a natural etymology enough of 
the name. 

The Esquimaux, or Eskimaux, are one of the fiercest and hitherto unpolished 
people in all North America. They are seated on the most eastern verge of it, 
beyond the river of St. Laurence, and spread themselves up north and east, into 
the large tract of land called Terra de Labrador, opposite Newfoundland, from 51 
to 53 degrees of north latitude, and from 52 to 63, or more, of west longitude. 
Their chief trade is in furs of divers sorts, for other European goods. The Beisia- 
mites are seated on the west of the Esquimaux, and are divided from them by the 
river of St. Margaret, and run along the north coast of the river St. Laurence, 

Vol. XXVII.-No. x.-j 



66 MINOR TOPICS 

over against Canada : They are a people much resembling the Esquimaux, and 
carried on a traffic with the French of the same kind. 

The Iroquois are the most considerable, and best known of all the Indian 
nations in these parts ; they are seated along the north side of the lake Ontario, 
Frontenac, and along the river of their name, which is that which carries the 
waters of the lake into the river of St. Laurence. They are bounded on the north 
by the nations called Algonkins and Outavais, and the settlements at and about 
Montreal ; on the east and south-east by New England, New York, Jersey, &c, on 
the south by part of Canada proper and the lake Erie ; and on the west by that of 
the Hurons and the canal between these two lakes. They are so advantageously 
situated between the English and French, that they could join forces with the 
highest bidder, or with those who kept them in the greatest subjection. Their soil 
is high and rich ; their water-melons, pompions, &c, very large, sweet, and of a fine 
colour and flavour ; but they are too proud and lazy to give themselves much 
trouble about cultivating their lands, which is, perhaps, the cause of their producing 
so little. Their manner of traffic is no way unlike that before described. 

Louisiana contains a vast tract of land, and, according to the most modest of 
the French geographers, is bounded on the south by the gulph of Mexico ; on the 
north by the Illinois, last described, and by the territories of the Parniassus, 
Paoducas, Osages, Tiontetecagas, Chavanons, and other Indian nations ; on the 
east by part of Florida, Georgia, and Carolina ; and on the west by New Mexico 
and New Spain. • 

It extends itself from north to south about 15 degrees, that is, from the 
25th to the 40th of north latitude ; and from east to west about 10 or n, that is, 
from 86 to 96 or 97, according to Charlevoix. Monsieur de Lisle gives these 
boundaries a much larger extent, especially on the north side, where it is made 
contiguous to Canada, last described ; so that part of it is bounded, according to 
him, by New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, &c, and on the west by the rivers 
called Rio Bravo and Salado. According to Le Sieur, another French writer, the 
northern boundaries of Louisiana may reach as far as the northern pole. Neither 
are those on the north-west less uncertain, the Missouri, a great river, which gives 
name to a vast tract of land unknown, flowing from that point into the Mississipi, 
about four leagues above its mouth ; so that, if we except the south, where the sea 
bounds it, all the rest must be left an uncertainty ; and so indeed it is likely to 
remain, till proper persons are appointed to settle those boundaries, on the east 
with the English, and on the west with the Spaniards. Till then they will ever be 
liable to disputes, and perhaps to a continual fluctuation, according as either of 
the three nations shall have opportunity to enlarge their own conquests, or incroach 
upon their neighbours. 

The most considerable nations in Louisiana are the Chicaches, Chikai, or 
Chicas, Maubilians, Clamcoats, Cenos, Cadedaguios, Ibitoupas, Tabactas, Vaccay, 
and many others. 



MINOR TOPICS 67 

Their various rivers, frequently overflowing, render the country in general 
extremely fertile and pleasant. Nothing is more delightful than their meadows, 
which are fit for seed of all kinds. In some parts, the soil yields three or four 
crops in a year, for the winter consists only in heavy rains, without any nipping 
frosts. Almost all sorts of trees that Europe affords are to be found here, besides 
variety of others unknown to us ; and some of them very estimable, such as their 
tall and admirable cedars, a tree that distils gum, which is said to excel all our 
European noblest perfumes ; and cotton-trees, which are of a prodigious height. 
The whole country abounds with an infinite variety of game, fowl, cattle, and, 
indeed, every thing that life can desire. 

But the chief glory of Louisiana is the famous Mississipi, already mentioned, 
in many respects the finest river in the world ; it is free from shoals and cataracts, 
and navigable within sixty leagues of its source : The channel is every-where deep, 
and the current gentle, except at a certain season, when, like the Nile, it floods. 
Its banks are adorned with a delightful variety of meadows and groves, and 
inhabited by almost 200 different nations, whom the French found tractable to 
their measures. Our American seamen assert, that their rivers are fit to receive 
ships of the largest burthens, and they have safe and commodious harbours. 

What renders the Mississipi more considerable, is a great number of other 
large and navigable rivers, that run from eastward and westward, and mix at last 
with its stream. Of the first, Mons. Desale, in the relation he presented to Count 
Frontenac of his voyage on this river, affirms there are six or seven, three hundred 
leagues each in length, that fall below the Illinois. 

The French, before the present war broke out, imported from Canada, in beaver, 
75,000 1., in deer-skins, 20,000 1. , in furs, 40,000 1., total 135,000 ]. The English 
import from North America, in the same articles, to the amount of 90,000 1. The 
great advantages, gained by the French from such a surprising increase in trade, 
are conspicuous from the immense sums they drew annually from other countries, 
in return for their American products, as well as for their cambrics, tea, brandy, 
wine, and other home manufactures. It is from hence that they chiefly maintained 
such powerful armies, and afforded such plentiful subsidies and pensions to several 
Powers in Europe, when subservient to their views and interests ; and it is from 
hence that they built their ships of war, and nourished and maintained seamen to 
supply them. It is computed, that they drew from two to three millions of pounds 
sterling per annum from foreign countries, in return for sugars, indigo, coffee, 
ginger, beaver manufactured into hats, salt fish and other American products ; 
and near one million more from Great Britain and Ireland only, in wool and cash, 
in return for cambrics, tea, brandy, and wine ; and thereby fought us in trade, as 
well as in war, with our own weapons. Whether this great increase of the French 
commerce was owing to the extent and fertility of their territories, or to their 
prudent regulations and encouragements thereof, both at home and abroad, or to 
the experience and vigilance of the Council of Commerce, we will not determine. 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 

UNPUBLISHED LETTER OF DR. BENJAMIN RUSH, 
WRITTEN IN 1793 

FROM THE COLLECTION OF COLONEL CHARLES C. JONES, JR., LL.D. 

[Editor Magazine of American History: So far as I know the following letter 
has never found its way into type. It is of interest, as showing the conduct of the 
negroes in Philadelphia during the yellow fever epidemic of 1793. 

Charles C. Jones, Jr.] 
" Dear Sir, 

Accept of my thanks for your friendly note and the interesting paper inclosed 
in it. 

The facts which I have preserved during our late calamity relate only to the 
origin, history, and cure of the disease. 

The only information which I am capable of giving you relates to the conduct 
of the Africans of our City. In procuring nurses for the sick, AV m Grey and 
Absalom Jones were indefatigable, often sacrificing for that purpose whole nights 
of sleep without the least compensation. Richard Allen was extremely useful in 
performing the mournful duties which were connected with burying the dead. 
Many of the black nurses, it is true, were ignorant, and some of them were negli- 
gent, but many of them did their duty to the sick with a degree of patience and 
tenderness that did them great credit. 

During the indisposition and confinement of the greatest part of the Physicians 
of the City, Richard Allen and Abraham Jones procured copies of the printed 
directions for curing the fever — went among the poor who were sick — gave them 
the mercurial purges — bled them freely, and by these means, they this day informed 
me, they had recovered between two and three hundred people. 

I was the more pleased with the above communication as it shewed the safety 
and simplicity of the mode of treating the disease which you have politely said 
was generally successful. From, Dear Sir, 

Yours sincerely, 

October 29th, 1793. Benj n Rush 

P. S. The merit of the Blacks in their attendance upon the sick is enhanced 
by their not being exempted from the disorder. Many of them had it ; but, in 
general, it was much milder and yielded more easily to art than in the white 
people." 



NOTES 

NOTES 



69 



Characteristic replies of presi- 
dent Lincoln — " This finishes the job" 
he said, when Illinois had voted, making 
the number of states requisite to ratify the 
amendment to the Constitution abolish- 
ing slavery. Cuthbert Bullitt and other 
citizens of Louisiana had written to 
him, protesting against the severity with 
which the war was waged. " Would you 
prosecute the war with elder-stalk 
squirts charged with rose-water, if you 
were in my position ? " he demanded, 
and there was no reply. In his message 
to the extra session of Congress of July 
4, 1 861, he wrote of southern political 
leaders that, "with rebellion thus sugar- 
coated, they have been drugging the pub- 
lic mind of their section for more than 
thirty years." Mr. Defrees, the public 
printer, advised the omission of the com- 
pound word on the ground that it was not 
dignified. " Let it stand," said the Presi- 
dent ; " I was not attempting to be digni- 
fied, but plain. There is not a voter in 
the Union who will not know what sugar- 
coated means." — Chittenden's Recollec- 
tions of President Lincoln. 



The englishman and the Indian — 
Taking a general view of the growth of 
the American nation, it is now easy to 
see that it was fortunate that English- 
men met in the Indian so formidable an 
antagonist ; such fierce and untamed 
savages could never be held long as 
slaves ; and thus were the American 
colonists of the North, the bone and 
sinew of the nation, saved from the 
temptations and the moral danger which 
corne from contact with a numerous ser- 



vile race. Again, every step of progress 
in the wilderness being stubbornly con- 
tested, the spirit of hardihood and brav- 
ery, so essential an element in nation 
building, was fostered among the bor- 
derers ; and as settlement moved west- 
ward slowly, only so fast as the pressure 
of population on the seaboard impelled 
it, the Americans were prevented from 
planting scattered colonies in the in- 
terior, and thus were able to present a 
solid front to the mother country when, 
in due course of time, fostering care 
changed to a spirit of commercial con- 
trol, and commercial control to jealous 
interference and menace. In intellect- 
ual activity the red man did not occupy 
so low a scale as has often been as- 
signed to him. He was barbarous 
in his habits, but was so from choice ; 
it suited his wild, untrammeled nat- 
ure. He understood the arts of polite- 
ness when he chose to exercise them. 
He could plan ; he was an incompara- 
ble tactician and a fair strategist ; he 
was a natural logician ; his tools and 
implements were admirably adapted to 
the purpose designed ; he fashioned 
boats that have not been surpassed in 
their kind ; he was remarkably quick in 
learning the use of firearms, and soon 
equalled the best white hunters as a 
marksman. A rude sense of honor was 
highly developed in the Indian ; he had 
a nice perception of public propriety ; 
he bowed his will to the force of custom ; 
these characteristics doing much to 
counteract the anarchical tendency of his 
extreme democracy." — Epochs of Amer- 
ican History, by Reuben Gold Thwaites. 



;o 



QUERIES — REPLIES 



Traveling on the ohio river in 
1816 — Timothy Flint's experiences in 
moving into the wild West with his wife 
and five children are graphically de- 
scribed by Dr. Venable in his sketches 
of the Ohio valley. He embarked early 
in November at Pittsburgh, on a small 
flatboat owned by a Yankee trader, 
which was laden with " factory cottons 
and cutlery." Instead of floating gently 
along, as its owner and its passengers 
had expected, the frail boat was whirled 
and tossed about in a manner altogether 
alarming to all on board. Now the help- 
less craft was carried swiftly through a 
chute ; now it stuck on a bar ; and now 



it was dashed upon the rocks of " Dead 
Man's Rifle " and almost capsized, while 
the children shrieked, and the merchan- 
dise of cotton stuffs and hardware fell 
upon and buried poor Mrs. Flint. The 
scared Yankee trader and his reverend 
first mate forgot, in their confusion, to 
resort to their oars, but tried to save 
themselves by consulting the Navigator, 
a guidebook descriptive of the Ohio and 
the Mississippi. The reader will not 
wonder that, when they reached the vil- 
lage of Beaver, the family forsook the 
risky flatboat and bought a pirogue, or 
large skiff, in which they continued their 
voyage. 



QUERIES 



Churchill's poems — An edition of 
Poems by Charles Churchill, printed in 
1768, was recently sold in Boston.; the 
volumes have no place of publication on 
the titlepage, but from the long list of 
American subscribers attached to the 
second volume it is supposed that they 
were printed in some of the colonies. 

Can any of your readers give the place 
of imprint and the name of the printer ? 
I do not find the work in Sabin's Dic- 
tionary or in lists of Churchill's works 
printed in England. 

Boston Collector 



origin of the word News in the name 
Newport News ? 

E. W. Wright 
Vicksburg, Miss. 



Church of England ceremonies — 
When did the Puritans, a part of whom 
became pilgrims in the Mayflower, cease 
to use the forms of worship and cere- 
monies of the Church of England ? 

Chautauquan Circle 



News — Will some one kindly give the 



Gotham — Editor Magazine of Amer- 
ican History : Can you tell me when 
and how the name of " Gotham " became 
connected with New York, and what its 
meaning and origin ? Whig 



REPLIES 



The harleian collection [xxvi, 
476] now in the British Museum takes 
its name from Edward Harley, second 
Earl of Oxford, so well known to fame 



from being the friend and associate of 
Swift, Pope, and Prior. He had a pas- 
sion for collecting books, manuscripts, 
pictures, coins, etc., which were sold by 






REPLIES 



71 



his widow after his death. .In order 
that the manuscripts should not be dis- 
persed, Lady Oxford sold them to the 
nation in 1753 (the second George was 
then on the throne), for the insignificant 
sum of ^10,000. They now form the 
Harleian Collection, and consist of 7,639 
volumes, besides 14,236 original rolls, 
charters, deeds, and other legal docu- 
ments. Anew index to the collection is 
at present in course of preparation. 

David FitzGerald 
Washington, D. C. 



Harleian collection [xxvi, 476] — 
"Investigator" will find some account 
of this wonderful mass of historical 
material in Edward Edwards's "Lives of 
the Founders of the British Museum," 
London and New York, 1870. Robert 
Harley, son of Sir Edward Harley, was 
born in London, in 166 1. He sat in the 
first parliament of William and Mary, 
for Tregony, and continued in parlia- 
ment for many years, being chosen 
speaker in 1701. In 1704 he was sworn 
of the privy council, and a few weeks 
later became one of the principal secre- 
taries of state, but was crowded out 
four years afterward. In 17 10 he was 
recalled and was made chancellor of 
the exchequer, and on May 24, 171 1, he 
was by the queen raised to the peerage 
as Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer. 
In 1714 he was again forced out of the 
ministry, and soon afterward was im- 
peached by his political rivals, who 
caused him to be imprisoned for two 
years. He was unanimously acquitted 
by the lords in 1717, and resumed his 
seat as a peer. He died May 21, 1724. 
Daniel Defoe and Dean Swift were 



among his warmest friends. He began 
the collection of his library in his early 
youth, and in his public and private sor- 
rows found much consolation in his lit- 
erary treasures. He secured the manu- 
scripts of Sir Thomas Smith, John Fox 
the martyrologist, John Stowe the 
historian, Edward, Lord Herbert of 
Cherbury; Archbishop Sancroft and 
many distinguished foreigners, particu- 
larly the great mass of manuscripts 
gathered by Sir Symonds D'Ewes, which 
included a rich series of materials bear- 
ing on the history of Elizabeth and 
Cromwell ; also the manuscripts of John 
Warburton (Somerset Herald) ; Arch- 
deacon Battely ; Pierre Seguier (Chan- 
cellor of France) ; Thomas Gray, second 
Earl of Stanford ; Robert Paynell of 
Relaugh in Norfolk ; John Robartes, first 
Earl of Radnor, and many others. When 
Lord Oxford died, his library contained 
more than 6,000 volumes of manuscripts 
and 14,500 charters and rolls. The 
second earl added to it largely, so that 
at his death, in 1741, there were 8,000 
volumes of manuscripts, 50,000 printed 
volumes, and 400,000 pamphlets. The 
second earl's daughter (the Duchess of 
Portland) sold the printed library, but 
accepted an offer in 1753 from parlia- 
ment of ^10,000 for the manuscripts, 
stipulating that they should be kept to- 
gether and called by the name of " The 
Harleian Collection of Manuscripts." 
A catalogue of the collection was printed 
in 1759-63, in two volumes, folio, with 
an introduction by Dr. Johnson ; an- 
other catalogue was printed in 1808-12, 
in four volumes, folio, with indexes of 
persons, places, and matters. " The 
Harleian Miscellanys : a collection of 



72 



REPLIES 



scarce, curious and entertaining pamph- 
lets and tracts, as well in manuscript as 
in print, selected from the library of 
Edward Harley, second Earl of Oxford," 
was printed in London in 1808-13, in 
ten royal quarto volumes ; in 1744, in six 
quarto volumes ; in 1753, in eight quarto 
volumes; in 1 808-11, in twelve octavo 
volumes. Lowndes says : " This valu- 
able political, historical, and antiquarian 
record, an indispensable auxiliary in the 
illustration of British history, contains 
between 600 and 700 rare and curious 
tracts." The edition in twelve volumes 
has the tracts arranged in chronological 
order, an obvious advantage. The tracts 
are not all adapted for family reading. 

Wm, Nelson 
Paterson, N. J. 



DELAWARR, OR DELAWARE, THOMAS 

west [xxvi, 74, 317], lord, governor 
of Virginia, died in 16 18. He suc- 
ceeded his father as third Baron Dela- 
warr in 1602, was appointed governor 
and captain-general of Virginia in 1609, 
and arrived at Jamestown, June 9, 1610, 
with three ships, after a voyage of three 
months and a half. He was the first 
executive officer of Virginia who bore 
the title of governor. — American Cyclo- 
pedia. 

Thomas West was gathered to .his 
fathers a hundred years and more before 
John West, Lord De-La-Warr, was ap- 
pointed governor of New York. And 
no writer of Virginia history, so far as I 
know, has ever said that John West was 



at any time governor of the Old Do- 
minion. 

It seems to me that, if persons outside 
the state would only keep in mind the 
difference in the names of Thomas and 
John, and the difference in time between 
the years 1609-10 and 1737, they need 
not find the Virginia data so inexplica- 
ble. 

W. A. W. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 



The st. Croix of the northeastern 
boundary [xxvi, 261] — After the article 
under the above title in the October 
number of this magazine had been for 
some time in type, I had an opportunity 
to study again, among the Passamaquod- 
dies, their name for Grand Lake. Then 
I found that they always put an extra 
syllable in the word which my ear had not 
caught before, and that they more fre- 
quently pronounce the first syllable like 
Ke-ok rather than Ka-ouk. Thus they 
say not Ka-ouk-sak, as it is in the article 
above-mentioned, but rather Ke-ok-qii- 
sak, and the syllable qii is always pres- 
ent, though not strongly sounded. This 
brings the word even closer to the Ka- 
ouak-ou-sak-i of the French maps and 
the Rou-sak-i of Mitchell. Further than 
this, to my great surprise, one squaw pro- 
nounced again and again, independently 
of the other Indians, the name of a lake 
at the head of the east branch of the 
St. Croix, which she thought was Grand 
Lake, as Kwee-ok-qu' -sak-ik (with the 
last syllable perfectly distinct), a form 
even nearer that of the old maps. 

W. F. Ganong 



SOCIETIES 

SOCIETIES 



73 



NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY — 

The first meeting of the fall season was 
held on the evening of October 6, the 
president, Hon. John A. King, in the 
chair ; the paper of the evening, entitled 
" The Colonial Clergy of New York city," 
was read by the Rev. Ashbel Green Ver- 
milye, D.D., of Englewood, New Jersey. 

The stated meeting for November was 
held on the 3d instant, when a resolu- 
tion was adopted creating a " committee 
of fifteen " to raise funds for the erec- 
tion of a building on the site recently 
purchased by the society on Eighth 
avenue (Central park west) between 
Seventy-sixth and Seventy-seventh 
streets. Mr. Greenville Temple Snell- 
ing read a paper, illustrated b,y stere- 
opticon views, on " The Colonial Archi- 
tecture of New York city." 

Oh Tuesday evening, November 17, 
the society celebrated in its hall the 
e'ghty-seventh anniversary of the found- 
ing of the society. The exercises were 
opened with prayer by the Rt. Rev. 
Henry B. Potter, D.D., LL.D., bishop 
of New York. The anniversary address 
was delivered by the Hon. Seth Low, 
LL.D., president of Columbia college ; 
his subject was " New York in 1850 and 
1890. A Political Study," On its con- 
clusion the Rev. Dr. Eugene A. Hoff- 
man, dean of the General Theological 
seminary, moved a vote of thanks to the 
orator. The meeting concluded with a 
benediction pronounced by the Rev. 
David H. Greer, D.D., rector of St. 
Bartholomew's church. 

The meeting for December was held on 
the 1st instant. The librarian announced 



the gift from Edmund B. Southwick, 
Ph.D., of the portraits of Captain John 
Waddell and Anne Kirton, his wife, 
painted in New York prior to 1762. 
Mr. Eugene Lawrence read a paper on 
" Colonel Richard Nicolls, the first 
English governor of New York." 



The Chicago historical society 
held its annual meeting on Tuesday 
evening, November 17. 1891, at its hall 
in Dearborn avenue, Chicago, President 
Edward G. Mason in the chair. The 
secretary and librarian, Mr. John Moses, 
reported many valuable additions to the 
library by gift and purchase, including a 
package of manuscript letters containing 
the correspondence of General H. A. 
Dearborn. He also acknowledged the 
portrait in oil of Mrs. John Edgar, one 
of the early settlers of Kaskaskia, a 
companion piece to the portrait of her 
husband, General Edgar. A photo- 
graphic group of the Union Defense 
committee of Chicago during the late 
civil war was presented by Mr. George 
Schneider. The library now contains 
19,008 volumes, a catalogue of which 
has been completed. The executive 
committee also made an interesting re- 
port. The officers elected for the 
coming year were Edward G. Mason t 
president ; Alexander C. McClurg and 
George W. Smith, vice-presidents ; Gil- 
bert B. Shaw, treasurer ; and John 
Moses, secretary and librarian. 

The paper of the evening, " Some 
Recollections of Chicago in the Forties," 
by Samuel C. Clarke of Marietta, Georgia, 
was read by the secretary. Henry B. 



74 



SOCIETIES 



Mason, in moving a vote of thanks to 
Mr. Clarke for his excellent paper, re- 
marked that the members had been 
entertained by the presentation of an 
enjoyable and vivid picture of Chicago 
in her early days, when a man without 
much exertion could get his breakfast 
fresh from the stream near by, and for 
his dinner could shoot a mess of ducks 
from his back yard ; in the afternoon he 
could casually buy a lot on Madison 
street, and go broke the next day on 
wild-cat or red-dog money. Those were 
the days of dust clouds in summer and 
of mud bogs in winter — the days of 
crude beginnings and good fellowship, 
out of which has grown the mighty 
Chicago of to-day. 



THE WASHINGTON STATE HISTORICAL 

society was organized at Tacoma, 
Washington, October 8, 1891, with 
twenty-four charter members, and the 
following officers : president, Elwood 
Evans of Tacoma ; vice-president, Ed- 
ward Eldridge of Whatcom ; secretary, 
C. W. Hobart of Tacoma ; treasurer, 
T. J. McKinney of Olympia ; curators, 
C. M. Barton, Olympia ; James Wicker- 
sham, Tacoma ; C. B. Bagley, Seattle ; 
W. P. Gray, Pasco ; Henry Roeder, 
Whatcom ; Edward Higgins, Tacoma. 

The object of the society is to gather, 
formulate, and preserve in substantial 
form the traditional and record history 
of the state, including accounts of early 
explorers and explorations ; of Indian 
tribes, their reservations, and progress 
toward civilization ; of early pioneers, 
their hardships, privations, dangers, and 
the work they did in opening the way 
for the development and civilization that 



followed; together with material objects, 
relics, pictures, views, and paintings 
illustrative of early traditions, history, 
places, and persons ; the flora and fauna 
of the state ; also the history, records, 
and objects illustrative of the perils and 
heroism of those who served as soldiers 
in the Indian conflicts or other wars of 
the country ; all to the end that these 
things may be accomplished as far as 
possible during the lives of those then 
and now living, and preserved as the 
historical archives of the state. 

The membership is increasing rapidly 
and the society has a bright future. 



THE ROCHESTER HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

(New York) resumed its meetings on 
Friday, November 13, at the house of 
Gilman H. Perkins. Hon. E. M. Moore, 
M.D., read a most interesting paper, 
"The Parks of Rochester," giving a his- 
tory of what will yet give Rochester the 
finest park in the country. 



The Wisconsin state historical 
society held its thirty-ninth annual 
meeting on the 10th of December, in the 
senate chamber in the capitol. There 
was a full attendance of members, both 
resident and out-of-town. President 
John Johnston of Milwaukee occupied 
the chair, and by his side were vice- 
presidents General Simeon Mills and 
Dr. James D. Butler. 

The president in his opening address 
made a touching allusion to the late 
Dr. Draper, saying, " He lived for this 
society and did not forget it in the hour 
of death, but set an example to wealth- 
ier men by his benefactions." 

In his annual report, secretary Reu- 



SOCIETIES 



75 



ben G.Thwaites said that the work of the 
society had been crowned by success 
during the fiscal year. Feeling refer- 
ences were made to the death of Dr. 
Draper, Benson J. Lossing and Luther 
S. Dixon. 

After naming the various gifts and li- 
brary accessions the proposed exhibit of 
the society at the World's Fair was out- 
lined. It was shown that much can be 
done in this direction, but that a location 
in some central building, alongside of 
similar historical and archaeological ex- 
hibits from other states, would be more 
advantageous both to the public and to 
the society than being housed in the 
state building, which would probably be 
visited by few persons not directly inter- 
ested in Wisconsin affairs. 

Secretary Thwaites then delivered a 
memorial address on the late Lyman 
Copeland Draper, LL.D., his distin- 
guished predecessor in office. " Weigh- 
ing his own words carefully," said the 
speaker, concerning the doctor, " and as 
becoming an historical student, abhor- 
ring exaggeration, it is not fitting that 
what we say to-night of his life and 
work would be mere eulogy. Were he 
here in spirit and could speak, his words 
would be,' Tell the truth if you tell any- 
thing.' Firm in the belief that such 
would be his will, I shall with loving 
freedom talk to you of Dr. Draper as 
those found him who knew him best." 
The secretary then told of Dr. Draper's 
birth as a humble farmer's lad in Evans, 
New York, September 4,1815. His long 
Puritan lineage was alluded to, and the 
careers of his ancestors as soldiers 
in the wars of the revolution and of 
1 81 2-15. He was for a time at Gran- 



ville (Ohio) college, now Denison uni- 
versity. Then he went to Alabama, liv- 
ing with his cousin's husband, Peter A. 
Remsen, a cotton factor, who was inter- 
ested in the lad and became his patron. 
In Alabama, when but eighteen years of 
age (1833), he interviewed the Creek 
chieftains, and had a notion of writing 
a book, but the work never progressed 
any farther than the notes. In 1838 he 
conceived the idea of writing a long 
series of biographies of trans-Alleghany 
pioneers, to be wholly based upon orig- 
inal investigation. This at once be- 
came his controlling thought, and he 
entered upon its execution with an en- 
thusiasm which never lagged through a 
half century ; but unfortunately he only 
collected and investigated, and the biog- 
raphies were never written. 

By the year 1852 Dr. Draper had ac- 
quired what was for those days a really 
remarkable private library of rare Amer- 
icana ; his collections of original manu- 
scripts also numbered about 15,000 pages, 
while he had hundreds of bulky note 
books filled with his interviews and odds 
and ends of detailed information. His 
great mass of unique material "covered 
the entire history of the Northwest from 
1742, the date of the first skirmish with 
the Indians in the Virginia valley, to 
1813-14, when Tecumseh was killed and 
the Creeks were defeated." Many of 
his manuscripts, such as Clark's journal 
of his famous expedition to Kaskaskia 
and Vincennes in 1778, are of priceless 
value. 

In 1854 Lossing went so far as to 
enter into a literary copartnership with 
Draper for the joint production of a 
series of border biographies — Boone, 



7 6 



SOCIETIES 



Clark, Sevier, Robertson, Brady, Kenton, 
Martin, Crawford, Whitley, the Wetzels, 
Harman, St. Clair, Wayne, and others 
being selected. The titles of the sev- 
eral biographies were agreed upon at a 
meeting in Madison between Lossingand 
Draper, but while, as a collector, Draper 
was ever in the field, eager, enterprising, 
and shrewd, as a writer he was a procras- 
tinator, and nothing was done at the time. 
In October, 1852, Draper came to Madi- 
son on the invitation of the State His- 
torical society, which had been organized 
in 1849, but had not grown. In Jan- 
uary, 1854, he became the correspond- 
ing secretary. The institution at once 
leaped forward. His administration 
opened with a library of fifty volumes 
m a little bookcase then kept in the 
secretary of state's office. 

Dr. Draper's great services as state 
superintendent of public instruction 
(1855-59) were alluded to, and his serv- 
ices as the pioneer in the township 
library system pointed out. His few 
miscellaneous literary ventures actually 
published were described — his King's 
Mountain and its Heroes, a bulky store- 
house of information obtained at first 
hand regarding the revolutionary war in 
the South, and a permanently valuable 
contribution to American historical liter- 
ature ; his pamphlet on Madison, issued 
during 1857 ; his essay on Autograph 
Collections of the Signers, in 1887 ; and 
his Forman's Narrative, a pamphlet 
edited in 1888. By 1854 he had written 
probably one-half of his projected Life 
of Boone. Of the other proposed bor- 
der biographies he left only a few scat- 
tered skeleton chapters ; a monograph 
on the Mechlenburg declaration of in- 



dependence he had made considerable 
progress upon, and he had about half 
finished editing a proposed republication 
by a Cincinnati firm of a little book 
originally issued in 1831, styled Withers' 
Border Forays. The above constitutes 
his life work, except that which he de- 
voted to the Wisconsin Historical Society 
Collections. These latter, in ten volumes, 
he made famous as a storehouse of mate- 
rials for Wisconsin history doing very effi- 
cient editorial work in their production. 
Dr. Draper was the most successful of 
all collectors of material for American 
border history, and it will ever be a 
source of great regret to historical 
students that he was prevented from 
giving to the world that important series 
of biographies for which he so eagerly 
planned over half a century ago. He 
has generously left to us his materials — 
so much bricks and stone, ready for 
some aspiring architect of the future ; 
these will be of incalculable value to 
original workers in many branches of 
western history. But even had Dr. 
Draper never been a collector of border 
lore, never entertained ambitions in a 
broader field, his work for this society 
has of itself been sufficient to earn for 
him the lasting gratitude of the people 
of Wisconsin and of all American his- 
torical students. The Wisconsin His- 
torical library, which he practically 
founded and so successfully managed 
and purveyed for through a third of a 
century, will remain an enduring monu- 
ment to his tireless energy as a collector 
of Americana. We can say with one ac- 
cord that the name of Lyman C. Draper 
shall ever be foremost in the annals of 
this society. 



BOOK NOTICES 

BOOK NOTICES 



77 



PATRICK HENRY, LIFE, CORRESPOND- 
ENCE AND SPEECHES. By William 
Wirt Henry. With portrait. Vol. I., 8vo, 
pp. 622. New York: Charles Scribner's 
Sons. 1S91. 

Nothing could be more welcome to historical 
scholars than this handsome work, of which the 
first volume, prepared with consummate care by 
the scholarly grandson of its distinguished sub- 
ject, is now before us. The author has had free 
access to a vast amount of material not hitherto 
published, besides collecting the correspondence 
of Patrick Henry from different quarters, many 
well-known persons having furnished copies of 
original letters in their possession. The author 
has also had use of the executive journal kept 
during nearly all of Mr. Henry's service of five 
years as governor of Virginia, and has found 
either in print or in manuscript the journals of 
nearly every session of the deliberative bodies in 
which Patrick Henry served prior to the Revo- 
lution. From the state department at Wash- 
ington he has been able to copy many unprinted 
Henry letters from the papers of Washington 
and of the continental congress. With all this 
new matter a flood of light has been turned 
upon the career of the great patriot. 

The beautiful volume, which is printed in 
excellent taste, opens with a biographical sketch. 
John Henry, the son of Alexander Henry and 
Jean Robertson, of Aberdeen, Scotland, a 
young man of classical education, emigrated to 
Virginia in 1730. He was a friend of Robert 
Dinwiddie, who was governor of Virginia 
twenty years later. He married in Virginia, 
and his son, Patrick Henry, was born in 1736. 
An account is given of the boyhood and early 
life and training of young Henry, and of his 
^beginnings in professional life. He first prac- 
tised law in the autumn of 1760. His 
wonderful successes at the bar are very mod- 
estly chronicled. While he was winning a high 
position, the political troubles between Eng- 
land and her American colonies were assuming 
a serious aspect. It was at the critical period 
when the great mass of the people of the colonies 
were rising against the Stamp Act, in 1766, that 
Patrick Henry entered upon public life. He 
took his seat in the House of Burgesses on the 
20th of May, and was at once placed on the 
committee of courts of justice. He entered a 
body of intellectual and patriotic men whose 
proceedings were conducted with the utmost 
decorum, and whose leaders were possessed of 
ability, of culture, and of deserved influence. 
John Rolinson, the speaker of the house, had 
filled the chair for twenty-five years with great 
dignity. Peyton Randolph, who as attorney- 



general, held the rank next the speaker, was 
an eminent lawyer, an accomplished parliamen- 
tarian, and a practical statesman of a high 
order. Edmund Pendleton was one of whom 
Jefferson said, " Take him all in all, he was the 
ablest man in debate I ever met : he was cool, 
smooth and persuasive ; his language flowing, 
chaste and embellished ; his conceptions quick, 
acute and full of resource." George Wythe 
was there, the best Latin and Greek scholar in 
the colony ; and George Washington. This 
portion of the volume is most interesting and 
informing. The following chapters lead to the 
great events with which Patrick Henry was inti- 
mately concerned. The twenty-first chapter 
treats of the measures of the British ministry 
during Mr. Henry's second term as governor 
of Virginia ; and the twenty-second chapter 
describes the brilliant success of the expe- 
dition of George Rogers Clark, sent out by 
Governor Henry. The volume is interesting 
from cover to cover, and a most valuable contri- 
bution to the literature of American history. 



GLIMPSES OF PILGRIM PLYMOUTH. 

With forty-eight illustrations, showing the 

Plymouth of 1620 and to-day. Plymouth, 

Mass. : A. S. Burbank. 1891. 

This unique work has been issued in good 
style, and its pictures are excellent. The first is 
of the Mayflower in Plymouth harbor, and the 
second the canopy over Plymouth Rock. Then 
comes the quaint house of Governor Bradford 
in 1621, followed by the pictures of streets, 
Burial Hill, the Town Brook, the national monu- 
ment to the forefathers, and man)' views on both 
land and sea. These illustrations are accompa- 
nied by descriptive text. The volume is one 
that will be greatly prized as a souvenir among 
the descendants of the pilgrims. 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE POLITICAL 
HISTORY OF EUROPE. By Ernest 
Lavisse. Translated with the author's sanction 
by Charles Gross, Ph.D. i2mo, pp. 188. 
New York : Longmans, Green & Co. 1891. 
The author of this work while giving the es- 
sential facts of universal history, describes the 
formation and political development of the 
states of Europe, and indicates the historical 
causes of their present condition and mutual 
relations. It is a stretch of three thousand 
years brought into focus through the remarkable 
ability of Professor Lavisse. It is a small vol- 
ume which presents the sequence of the great 
phenomena of history. "Nature has written, 



78 



BOOK NOTICES 



on the map of Europe, the destiny of certain 
regions," writes the author. "She determines 
ihe aptitudes and, hence, the destiny of a people. 
The very movement of events in history creates, 
moreover, inevitable exigencies, one thing hap- 
pening because other things have happened. 
On the other hand, nature has left on the map 
of Europe free scope to the uncertainties of 
various possibilities. History is full of accidents, 
the necessity of which cannot be demonstrated, 
and people do not possess history by the mere 
fact of its existence; its life must be aclive and 
fruitful." 



JAPONICA. By Sir Edwin Arnold, M.A., 
K.C.I.E., C.S.I., with illustrations by Robert 
Blum. Svo, pp. 128. New York : Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 1891. 

This charming volume from the pen of an en- 
thusiastic traveler is rendered doubly welcome 
through the artistic sketches of Japanese scenes 
with which it is profusely illustrated. Sir Ed- 
win Arnold thinks a great future awaits Japan 
and the Japanese man ; but he says, " perhaps 
the new civil code and the opening parliament 
will introduce nobler laws and new recognition 
of the debt which Japan owes to her gentle, 
patient, bright and soft-souled womankind. 
Perhaps on the other hand, in meddling with 
her old world Asiatic grace and status, modern 
ideas will spoil this sweetest daughter of the 
sun ! " He says there are two Japans, one com- 
menced its life, according to mythical history, 
six hundred and sixty years before our era ; and 
the other came into existence about twenty-three 
years ago. These two Japans are continually 
blended. The younger nation is all for railways, 
telegraphs and all manner of European devel- 
opments. Yet the older nation lives on, within 
and around the Japan of new parliaments and 
Parisian costumes. And its administration gen- 
erally, and the censorship of the press in partic- 
ular, will have no trifling with the established 
traditions of Dia Nippon. Japan took from 
China, along with her earliest imported religion 
(shintoism), a vast respect for ancestors, how- 
ever fabulous ; and strangely enough, while her 
educated people disbelieve the legends of the 
gods, they demurely repeat the historic stories 
such as show how an empress stilled the waves 
of the sea by sitting down upon them, and how 
emperors had fishes for their ministers and 
were transformed into white and yellow birds. 
Not long since " the editor of a Japanese jour- 
nal was sentenced to four years imprisonment for 
speaking disrespectfully in a leading article about 
that very ancient dignitary, the Emperor Jim- 
mu." Sir Edwin Arnold thinks, however, that 
" considering the potentate in question — albeit 
first of all Mikados — was so vastly remote as 
to be declared grandson or grandnephew of the 



Sun Goddess herself, and is said to have con- 
quered Japan with a sword as long as a fir- 
trunk, and the aid of a miraculous white crow's 
beak, one would suppose criticism was free 
as to His Majesty Kamu-Yamato-Iware-Biko." 
Regarded as a gift-book for the holiday sea- 
son, nothing could be more appropriate than 
this beautiful volume. It is filled with delight- 
ful reading, and its clever pictures supplement 
the text in the most picturesque and attractive 
manner. 



THE PERFUME-HOLDER. A Persian 
Love Poem. By Craven Langstroth 
Betts. i2mo, pp. 48. New York : Saal- 
field & Fitch. 1891. 

This is a dainty and attractive little volume 
containing a Persian love poem, presented in 
an easy, flowing style that is quite captivating. 
Mr. Betts seems 10 have caught the spirit of 
Persian love-making, and with true poetic in- 
stinct has harnessed it into sweetest song. He 
is to be congratulated on a most exquisite pro- 
duction. 



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN NOVA 
SCOTIA, AND THE TORY CLERGY OF 
THE REVOLUTION. By Arthur Went- 
worth Eaton, B. A. *i2mo, pp. 320. New 
York : Thomas Whittaker. i8gr. 
There are facts other than ecclesiastical 
about the sea-girt province of Nova Scotia 
which lend interest to its church history. It is 
the ancient Acadia, the camping ground of the 
two great nations that for more than a century 
fiercely contended for supremacy in these west- 
ern wilds. The present diocese of Nova Scotia 
comprises the province of Nova Scotia (includ- 
ing Cape Breton) and Prince Edward Island, 
with ninety-four parishes sending delegates to 
the Diocesan Synod, and over a hundred names 
on the clergy list. There have been three note- 
worthy epochs in the history of Nova Scotia ; 
the period of the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, the 
founding of Halifax under Lord Cornwallis in 
1749, and the Tory emigration from the revolt- 
ing colonies — chiefly New York and Massa- 
chusetts — between 1775 and 1784. When De 
Monts in 1604 sailed into the tranquil bay, he 
had with him both a Huguenot minister and a 
Roman Catholic priest. But the church proper 
was not really established until 1758. The 
author traces its rise with close attention to de- 
tail, and describes its condition at the time of 
the arrival of the loyalists. There were al- 
most without exception church of England 
people, among whom were many clergymen. 
Of the latter were Drs. Seabury, Inglis, and 



BOOK NOTICES 



79 



Moore, who became successively bishops of the 
newly organizing' church. 

The biographical sketches of the exiled clergy 
of the revolution forms a striking feature of 
the volume. In the eleventh chapter we come 
to the new era of education which dawned upon 
the province, and which resulted in the found- 
ing of Kings College ; the buildings of this in- 
stitution were begun in 1791, on a picturesque 
slope a little out of the town of Windsor, not 
far from the Avon river. Sketches are given of 
the pre-charter students of this college, of the 
later bishops of the church, and of many of the 
distinguished laymen. Mr. Eaton says: "On 
no part of the American continent, it is safe 
to say, has the church, within corresponding 
limits, had so many remarkable people among 
her lay members as in the diocese of Nova 
Scotia. For many years after the loyalist emi- 
gration, the judges of the courts, the members 
of the council, and of the assembly, and those 
who filled the chief provincial offices, were men 
whose ability would have given them a promi- 
nent place in any country where they might 
have lived." The volume is admirably written 
and it is a mine of weahh in the way of valu- 
able information. It is the first history of Nova 
Scotia which has touched upon so many of the 
various features of the country and its people, 
including the church, and we cordially com- 
mend it to our intelligent readers. 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF THE 
DELEGATES FROM GEORGIA TO 
THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS. By 
Charles C. Jones, Jr., l.L.D. Svo, pp. 
211. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Company. 
1891. 

The eminent historian of Georgia, who in the 
past has done such excellent service in the pre- 
sentation of American history to the reading 
public, adds again to the obligations of all stu- 
dents in the biographical work before us. We 
should never lose sight of the noble and heroic 
delegates to the continental congress, and since 
the makers of our cyclopaedias do not seem to 
know much about them, we rejoice whenever 
we meet with a volume like this devoted to 
sketches of any portion of their number. They 
were selected for their mission from the best 
class of men of their time, and the delegates 
from Georgia were no exception to the rule. 
These patriots were all good and true and capa- 
ble, and many of them were gentlemen of high 
culture, superior education, and attractive social 
qualities. Fourteen of them in one capacity or 
another bore arms in the struggle for independ- 
ence. Abraham Baldwin, William Few, Button 
Gwinnett, Lyman Hall and some others, have 
been brought before the readers of this magazine 
from time to time in various articles. But there 



are twenty-five of the biographies which appear 
in this well-prepared volume, and they are all of 
men worth knowing. Of eleven of them en- 
graved portraits exist. 

William Gibbons is mentioned as the greatest 
lawyer in Georgia, a gentleman of large wealth. 
It was at one of his rice plantations on the 
Savannah river, and while a guest of Mr. Gib- 
bons, that General Nathanael Greene in 1786 
contracted the illness which so speedily termi- 
nated his valuable life. Upon another of Mr. 
Gibbons's plantations General Wayne, in 1782, 
met and overcame the famous Indian chief 
Guristersigo. John Houstoun was one of those 
who called a meeting in July, 1774, to consider 
the rights and liberties of the colonists. He 
was governor of Georgia during the war, and 
afterwards chief-justice of the state. Georgia 
perpetuates his name and his memory by one of 
her largest and most fertile counties. This vol- 
ume is one that should have a place in every 
library in the land. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE LITERARY 
AND HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF QUE- 
BEC. 1889-1891. 8vo, pp. 178. Pamphlet. 
Quebec. 1 891. 

Several excellent papers are published in this 
issue of the Transactions, among which " The 
Royal William," the pioneer of ocean steam 
navigation, by vice-president Archibald Camp- 
bell, is one of the foremost in interest. The au- 
thor claims that Canada established a new epoch, 
" and in so doing encircled her own brow with 
a halo of renown." "The English Cathedral 
of Quebec " is the title of an elaborate and valu- 
able paper read before the society, March 10, 
1891, by Fred C. Wurtele. The journal of the 
voyage of the Brunswick Auxiliaries from 
Wolfenbuttel to Quebec, by F. V. Melsheimer, 
is printed here. There is also a valuable index 
of the subjects of all the lectures, papers and his- 
torical documents read before this society since 
1829, with the names of their authors. George 
Stewart, D.C.L., F.R.G.S.. has been the presi- 
dent of the society for the last seven years. 

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, AND HOW 
HE RECEIVED AND IMPARTED THE 
SPIRIT OF DISCOVERY. By Justin 
Winsor. 8vo, pp. 674. Boston: Houghton, 
Mifflin & Company. 1891. 

Dr. Winsor has written this work in a style 
similar to that of his Narrative and Critical 
History of America, giving with the utmost par- 
ticularity the original sources of information 
upon which his statements and opinions are 
based. He makes a strong point in the open- 
ing chapter of the documentary legacies of 



8o 



BOOK NOTICES 



Columbus himself, noting' ninety-seven distinct 
pieces of writing from the hand of Columbus, 
either now existing or known to have existed. 
Of such, whether memoirs, relations, or letters, 
sixty-four are preserved in their entirety, and 
are of great importance in estimating his char- 
acter. The ground covered by this excellent 
volume is broad, and each chapter is admirably 
well described by its title. To the scholar who 
is already familiar with the various publications 
in other languages than our own to which refer- 
ence is constantly being made, this voiume is a 
treasure indeed, even though his opinions and 
conclusions drawn from the same references 
may be diametrically opposed to those of Dr. 
Winsor. But the general reader will need to 
prepare himself through study and research to 
understand much that is here recorded. The 
narrative is interrupted at every step with learned 
discussions of the numerous and oftentimes ob- 
scure authorities upon which it is founded. Dr. 
Winsor does not think Columbus was materially 
aided by the Norse discoveries, and doubts their 
having made any impression upon his mind, 
even if he knew of them. He says: "It was 
not till a long time after the period of Columbus 
that, so far as we know, any cartographical 
records of the discoveries associated with the 
Vinland voyages were made in the norih ; and 
not till the discoveries of Columbus and his suc- 
cessors were a common inheritance in Europe 
did some of the northern geographers, in 1570, 
undertake to reconcile the tales of the sagas with 
the new beliefs. The testimony of these later 
maps is presumably the transmitted view then 
held in the north from the interpretation of the 
Norse sagas in the light of later knowledge. 
This testimony is that the 'America' of the 
Spaniards, including Terra Florida, and the 
' Albania' of the English, was a territory south 
of the Norse region and beyond a separating 
water, very likely that of Davis' straits. The 



rendering of the old sagas into script came at a 
time when, in addition to the inevitable trans- 
formations of long oral tradition, there was 
superadded the romancing spirit then rife in the 
north, and which had come to them from the 
south of Europe. The result of this blending 
of confused tradition with the romancing of the 
period of the written preservation has thrown, 
even among the Scandinavians themselves, a 
shade of doubt, more or less intense at times, 
which envelops the saga record with much that 
is indistinguishable from myth, leaving little 
but the general drift of the story to be held of 
the nature of a historic record. The Icelandic 
editor of Egel's saga, published at Reikjavik in 
1856, acknowledges this unavoidable reflex of 
the times when the sagas were reduced to writ- 
ing, and the most experienced of the recent 
writers on Greenland, Henrik Rink, has allowed 
the untrustworthiness of the sagas except for 
the general scope." 

Dr. Winsor says a voyage to Iceland was no 
new thing, for the English traded there, and a 
laige commerce was maintained with Iceland by 
Bristol, and had been for many years. And 
that there was no lack of stories about venture- 
some voyages west along the latitude of Eng- 
land, of which Columbus might have heard. 
But if Columbus knew of the Norse expeditions, 
it is remarkable that he never mentioned the 
fact when he was summoning every scrap of 
available evidence to induce the sovereigns of 
Europe to listen to his scheme of finding India 
in the west ; and it is, moreover, in Dr. Win- 
sor's opinion, inconceivable that Columbus 
should have taken a course southwest from the 
Canaries if he had ever received any tidings of 
land in the northwest. The maps, portraits, 
and other illustrations which are scattered freely 
through the volume, add greatly to the interest 
and value of the scholarly work, which must be 
seen and examined to be thoroughly appreciated. 



MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 

Vol. XXVII FEBRUARY, 1892 No. 2 

THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 

IMPORTANT STATE PAPER PREPARED BY JUDGE ABBOTT IN 1 877 
[1V0 part of this document was ever before given to the reading public .] 

IN an address on the late Judge Abbott before the " Old Residents' 
Historical Association " of the city of Lowell, Massachusetts, Novem- 
ber 24, 1891, I made the first public announcement of the fact that I 
had in my possession the formal protest of the minority against the 
decision of the majority of the famous electoral commission, in the cases 
of the four contested states, which Judge Abbott was requested to prepare 
by his associates, and which was approved by them ; but some doubting 
the wisdom of publishing it at the time, it was never signed. As a friend 
of Judge Abbott for forty years, and as one of his " sons in the law" — as he 
was wont to call the lawyers who had studied in his office — I was per- 
mitted to take a copy of this document, with the injunction that it must 
not be published in his lifetime. He died on the 2d of July last, and 
the seal of secrecy being broken by his death, I now present it to the 
readers of the Magazine of American History, as an important historical 
state paper eminently worthy of consideration and preservation. 

*' To the People of the United States: 

The minority of the joint commission established by the act of con- 
gress of January 27, 1877, to decide questions arising in the count of the 
electoral votes, desire to address the people of the whole country on the 
subjects submitted to and decided by that commission. 

No more important questions can ever corne before any tribunal or 
people for consideration and determination. Upon their determination 
depends who shall be the President of this country, and whether he shall 
owe that great office to the free, honest choice of the people, or to bribery, 
forgery, and gross fraud. The minority of that commission, by the law 
establishing it, had no opportunity of reporting the reasons for their 
action to the two houses of congress. The presence of a stenographer 

Vol. XXVII. -No. 2.-6 



82 THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 

at these consultations was denied, so that no record thereof exists. No 
way is open to those who did not join in, but on the contrary protested 
against, the decisions of the commission, to make public their protest 
except by this address. 

The returns of the electoral vote of four states — Florida, Louisiana, 
Oregon, and South Carolina — were submitted to and decided upon by the 
commission. 

In the case of Florida there were three certificates. 

The first, signed by the governor, certified that the four Hayes electors 
were elected according to the law of Florida and the acts of congress. 
The second was signed by the attorney-general, and the third by the gov- 
ernor elected on the 7th of November last ; and both certified the election 
of the Tilden electors. The attorney-general was one of the three 
persons first canvassing the votes. To the third certificate were attached 
certified copies of all the returns of votes from every precinct in 
the state, which were originally made to the secretary of state, together 
with an act of the legislature providing for a new canvass of the vote 
according to the law as it had been decided by the supreme court, and the 
result of the new canvass thus ordered. 

It was offered to be proved, and it was not denied that such was the 
fact, that by counting all the votes returned to the secretary of state, 
according to the law of Florida as expounded by the supreme court, the 
Tilden electors had been duly elected. 

It was offered to be proved, and was not denied, that the Tilden 
electors commenced proceedings in quo warranto against the Hayes 
electors in the court of that state having jurisdiction by its constitution, 
notice of which was served on the latter before they gave their votes, and 
as soon as they were declared elected, and which was prosecuted to this 
judgment — that the Hayes electors had not been elected and had no title 
to the office, but that the Tilden electors had been legally elected and 
were entitled to the office. 

It was offered to be proved, and was not denied, that the two can- 
vassers who had made the certificate of election of the Hayes electors, 
which by the law of Florida was made only prima facie evidence, had 
erred in their construction of the law, and exceeded their jurisdiction by so 
doing, in their canvass of votes on which the certificate was based. 

Thus it was offered to be proved, and the facts were not denied, that 
the governor's certificate given to the Hayes electors was false, and that 
the determination and certificate of two of the three who made up the 
board of canvassers was false in fact and in violation of the laws of 



THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 83 

Florida, and that in making it the two had exceeded their jurisdiction. 
It was offered to be proved that the supreme court of Florida had, in 
effect, decided that the two canvassers had made a false certificate and 
exceeded their jurisdiction, and that the circuit court had so decided. It 
was offered to be proved that both the legislature and the executive of 
the state had so determined, and had attempted by all means in their 
power to prevent the state being, defrauded of its true and real vote. 

The majority of the commission decided that the determination and 
certificate of two of a board of three canvassers, with ministerial powers 
only, and which by law was prima facie, not conclusive, evidence, must 
stand and decide the great question of the Presidency, although it could 
clearly be proved to be false in fact, and that in making it the two can- 
vassers had exceeded their jurisdiction and authority as held by the 
supreme court of the state, and although the legislature and governor 
had both declared it false, and that by giving effect to it the state would 
be defrauded of its true and real vote, and although the electors, in whose 
favor it was made, had been declared by the courts not to have been 
elected. The injustice of this decision was the more marked and flagrant 
by contrast. All the state officers, from the governor down, who were- 
voted for on the same ticket with the Tilden electors, and had been counted 
in by the same two canvassers at the same time and by the same canvass 
by which the latter were counted out, had been declared elected by the 
action of the highest court of the state, and are now and have been 
holding their several offices to the general contentment of the citizens of 
Florida. But the Hayes electors alone are permitted by this decision 
to consummate the wrong, and act in offices to which they were never 
elected. 

Against this decision of the commission the undersigned protested and 
now protest as wrong in law, bad in morals, and worse in the consequences 
which it entails on a great country. 

It gives absolute power to two inferior ministerial officers to withhold 
their determination till the day when the electoral vote is cast, as was done 
in this case, and then give the vote of a state to a candidate who has never 
received it, as was done in this case, and tells the people there is no redress 
for such an outrage. It is a decision admirably calculated to encourage 
fraud, and insure its being perpetrated with success and impunity. It is 
a decision by which the people of a state may be defrauded and robbed of 
their dearest rights by a few unprincipled wretches, and be then compelled 
to acquiesce in the great wrong. It is a decision claimed to be based on the 
doctrine of state rights, but, in fact, is in direct conflict with that grand 



, 



84 THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 




KEY TO PICTURE OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION (FRONTISPIECE). 



Ohio. 



N.J. II 



~'£?l*. U. ^J? 



6./?Jfafc 



^—^ 







THE COMMISSIONERS. 

YtftfJ PmiU^ Ohio. 

ZpfC+^^-i^-^T^P*^- Va. 



Ind. 



Ohio. 



Mass. 




j& PraaMeol of th* Co»ow«*>p^.^ 



Maine. 



Cal. 



„ ^W^r6^ tZZr^ce^, „ 






N.Y. 

Subuituw (or Allan G. Taunnao during W» OIimu. 

17. William Windom Senator. Minnesota. 

18. W. W. Corcoran. 

19. John J. Ingalls Senator, Kansas. 

20. J. C. S. Blackburn M. C, Kentucky. 

21. JohnH. Reagan M. C, Texas. 

22. B. E. Cattin Assistant Secretary E. C. 

23. George A. Howard Assistant Secretary E. C. 

24. James H.McKenny Secretary E. C. 

25. John Sherman Senator, Ohio. 



THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 85 




KEY TO PICTURE OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION (FRONTISPIECE). 



Samuel Shellabarger Counsel for Hayes. 

William F. Cooper Page to E. C. 

D. F. Murphy Stenographer E. C. 

George W. McCrary Counsel for Hayes. 

Morrison R. Waite Chief Justice U. S. S. C. 

John G. Thompson Sergeant-at-Arms, H. R. 

John J. Nicolay Marshal, U. S. S. C. 

W. H. Reardon Marshal, E. C. 

E. P. Corvaizier Messenger, U. S. Senate. 

Mrs. Z. Chandler. 

Miss G. A. Boutwell. 

John R. French Sergeant-at-Arms. 

Miss G. F. Tucker. 
Mrs. Charles E. Hooker. 
Miss Caroline Bradley. 

Miss Lida Miller. 
Miss Julia D. Strong. 

Prof. Joseph Henry Smithsonian Institution. 

Charles G. Williams M. C, Wisconsin. 

Mrs. S. Virginia Field. 

Mrs. Mary A. Matthews. 

Mrs. Ruth A. Hoar. 

Mrs. Chapman Coleman. 

Hamilton Fish Secretary of State. 



51. Mrs. Julia K. Fish. 

52. Mrs. Myra Clark Gaines. 

53. Mrs. Julia G. Tyler. 

54. Mrs. I. V. Swearingen. 

55. Mrs. Virginia M. Wilson. 

56. Mrs. Rachael H. Strong. 

57. Charles Gordon. 

58. Mrs. Imogen R. Morrell. 

59. Mrs. Jean M. Lander. 

60. Miss Katherine Lee Bayard. 

6r. John J. Patterson Senator, South Carolina. 

62. Mrs. Catherine Hardenbergh. 

63. John H. Flagg Legislative Clerk. 

64. John Hitz Consul Gen. Switzerland. 

65. Charles Page Bryan. 

66. George M. Adams Clerk of House. 

67. Horatio King. 

68. S. W. Dorsey Senator, Arkansas. 

69. M. B. Brady. 

70. Ambrose E. Burnside Senator, Rhode Island. 

71. George C. Gorham Secretary, U. S. Senate. 

72. Samuel J.Randall Speaker of House. 

73. F. M. Cockrell Senator, Missouri. 

74. J. Proctor Knott M. C, Kentucky. 

75. John B. Clark, Jr M C, Missouri. 



86 



THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 



H. B.Anthony Senator, Rhode Island. 

Bainbridge Wadleigh. ..Senator, N. H. 

Benjamin H. Hill Senator, Georgia. 

Fernando Wood M. C, New York. 

A. C. Harmer M. C, Pennsylvania. 

Annanias Herbert Messenger, U. S. S. C. 

G. A.Clark Doorkeeper, U. S. S. C. 

Augustus W. Cutler M. C, New Jersey. 

A. R. Shepherd. 

S. L. Phelps Commissioner, D. C. 

J. W. Powell United States Survey. 

S. A. Hurlburt Counsel for Hayes. 

John A. Kasson Counsel for Hayes. 

George W. Childs. 

James L. Andem Reporter for N. Y. A. P. 

Stanley Matthews Counsel for Hayes. 

Mrs. J. A. Garfield. 

George M. Robeson Secretary of Navy. 

Alphonso M. Taft Secretary of War. 

Belva M. Lockwood. 

George S. Boutwell Senator, Massachusetts. 

Aaron A. Sargent Senator, California. 

Dr. Peter Parker. 

James O. Woodruff . .Scientific Expedition. 

Eugene Hale M. C, Maine. 

Charles Foster M. C, Ohio. 

John H. Mitchell Senator, Oregon. 

W. P Lynde M. C, Wisconsin. 

John D. C. Atkins M. C, Tennessee. 

A. A. Hardenbergh M. C, New Jersey. 

Thomas Ewing M. C, Ohio. 

William E. Chandler... Counsel for Hayes. 

James P. Root Counsel for Hayes. 

James N. Tyner . . Postmaster-General. 

William Lawrence M. C, Ohio. 

D. T. Corbin. 

C. D. Drake Chief Justice, U. S. C. C. 

Charles W. Jones Senator. Florida, 

P. Phillips. 

Saunders W. Johnston. 

N. P. Banks M. C, Massachusetts. 

J. G. Cannon M. C, Illinois. 

Flora Fassett. 
Elizabeth B. Johnston. 

W. A. J. Sparks M. C, Illinois. 

Frederick Douglass. 

William M. Evarts Counsel for Hayes. 

Edwin W. Stoughton .. Counsel for Hayes. 

Zachariah Chandler Secretary of Interior. 

Abram S. Hewitt M. C, New York. 

Americus V. Rice M. C, Ohio. 

Mrs. Ceha S. Sherman. 
Mrs. Jennie B. Bryan. 
Mrs. Susan M. Edmunds. 
Mrs. E. V. Miller. 

William D. Kelley M. C, Pa. 

Mrs. Mary Clemmer. 

Charles O'Conor Counsel for Tilden. 

Richard T. Merrick Counsel for Tilden. 

George A. Jenks Counsel for Tilden. 

W. H. Forney M. C, Alabama. 



J. Randolph Tucker Counsel for Tilden. 

Timothy O. Howe Counsel for Hayes. 

Henry Watterson M. C, Kentucky. 

Mrs. Ellen F. Windom. 
Thomas B. Bryan. 

Hiram P. Bell M. C, Georgia. 

L. Q. C. Lamar M. C, Mississipi. 

Hannibal Hamlin Senator, Maine. 

George Bancroft Historian. 

Justin S. Morrill Senator, Vermont. 

John A. Campbell Counsel for Tilden. 

Roscoe Conkling Senator, New York. 

Montgomery Blair Counsel for Tilden. 

Matt N. Ransom Senator, North Carolina. 

David Dudley Field... Counsel for Tilden. 

William C. Whitney Counsel for Tilden. 

Thomas W. Ferry Vice-President U. S. 

James H. Blount M. C, Georgia. 

J D. Cameron Senator, Pennsylvania. 

Martin I. Tov\yishend M. C, New York. 

William M. Spnnger M. C, Illinois. 

Lyman Trumbull . Counsel for Tilden. 

Matt H. Carpenter Counsel for Tilden. 

Jeremiah S. Black Counsel for Tilden. 

George Hoadly Counsel for Tilden. 

Ashbel Green. . Counsel for Tilden. 

Matthew G. Emery. 

Alex. Porter Morse Counsel for Tilden. 

H. B. Banning M. C, Ohio. 

Mrs. Nannie Merrick. 

Blanche K. Bruce Senator, Mississippi. 

Henry W. Blair M, C, N. H. 

Miss M.Y.Frelinghuysen. 

Mrs. Chiistine Tyner. 

Sir Edward Thornton.. .British Minister. 

Hiester Clymer M. C.,Pa. 

Mrs. Laura H. Tucker. 
Mrs. Fannie H. Gordon. 

John B. Gordon Senator, Georgia. 

John A. Logan Senator, Illinois. 

S. S. Cox M. C, New York. 

Mary F. Waite. 

Mrs. Helen M. Dorsey. 

Thomas Swan M. C, Maryland. 

Mrs. Mary Cameron. 
Mrs C Adele Fassett 
Mrs. Mary A. Rice. 

James G. Blaine Senator, Maine. 

Mrs. Sallic R. Knott. 

Carlile P.Patterson Sup't U. S. C. S. 

Mrs C. P Patterson 
Mrs. Mary M Gibson. 

W. B. Allison Senator, Iowa. 

Randall Lee Gibson M. C, Louisiana. 

Mrs. Lillie E. Willis. 

Charles W. Hoffman Librarian L. L., U. S. 

S. C 

C H. McCall Page. S. C. U. S. 

Robert Brown Page, S. C. U. S. 

Fred. M. Matterson Page, S. C. U. S. 

H. J. Lauck Messenger, E. C. 






THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 



87 



doctrine, for by it states and the peoples of states can be stripped of their 
rights and liberties with no power to resist. We protest against the 
decision, finally, because by it the people of the whole United States are 
defrauded and cheated, because by it a person is put into the great office 
of President who has never been chosen according to the Constitution and 
law, and whose only title depends on the false and fraudulent certificate oi 
two men in the state of Florida, instead of a majority of the legal voices of 
the whole people declared through and by their electoral colleges. 

In the case of Louisiana the decision of a majority of the commission 
is a stupendous wrong to the people of that state and all the other states, 
and in defiance of all right, justice, law, and fair dealing among men. The 
law of that state establishes a returning board to consist of five persons of 
different parties, with power to fill vacancies, and to canvass and compile 
the returns of votes from the different parishes and precincts, and declare 
the result. The board is given power and jurisdiction, provided affidavits 
are annexed to and received with the return from any precinct or parish, 
to inquire whether intimidation has existed, and if it is established to throw 
out the return for such parish ; but this jurisdiction is carefully confined 
to cases where affidavits are attached to and returned with the returns of 
the votes ; in no other case whatsoever is the power to reject votes given. 

It was offered to be proved, and was not denied, that the board giving 
the certificate to the Hayes electors consisted of four persons all of the 
Republican party, instead of five persons of different parties, as required 
by law ; that these four members had been requested and required by 
Democrats to fill the vacancy with a Democrat, but had uniformly refused 
to do so. 

It was offered to be proved, also, that this board of four persons, all of 
the Republican party, in order to perpetrate the frauds with ease and 
impunity, employed five disreputable persons as clerks and assistants, all 
of whom had been convicted or were under indictment for various offenses, 
ranging from subornation of perjury up to murder. Indictment, at least, 
if not conviction, seemed the only admitted qualification of employment 
by that extraordinary board. 

It was offered to be proved, and was not denied, that this board, in 
order to give the certificate of election to the Hayes electors, had rejected 
ten thousand votes, and this was done, although not a return thrown out 
had been accompanied by the requisite affidavit to give jurisdiction to 
act at all. 

It was offered to be proved that the members of this returning board, 
in order to give the certificate of election to the Hayes electors, had 



88 THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 

resorted to and used affidavits known to them to be false and forged, had 
themselves been guilty of forgery, and had been paid for making their 
determination, thus adding bribery to the catalogue of their crimes. 

Numerous other corrupt and fraudulent practices were offered to be 
proved against the members of this returning board, among the least of 
which was a wicked conspiracy to rob the people of Louisiana of their 
rights and liberties. 

The decision of a majority of the commission rejected all this evidence, 
and held that the certificate of election given to the Hayes electors must 
stand, and could not be inquired into, if all such offers of proof could be 
substantiated. 

By that decision the people of the United States are told, that the cer- 
tificate of a board constituted in direct defiance of the law establishing it, 
and made by grasping a jurisdiction never granted to it, arrived at by 
forgery, perjury, wicked conspiracy, and the grossest frauds, and finally 
bought and paid for, must stand, and cannot be set aside ; that, although 
thus steeped in sin and iniquity, it must make the chief magistrate of a 
great, free, and intelligent people. 

The undersigned protest against this decision, also, as bad in law, worse 
in morals, and absolutely ruinous in its consequences. They denounce it 
in the presence of the people of the United States, and in the face of the 
world, because, if intended and designed for such a purpose, it could not 
have been more cunningly contrived than it is to encourage the grossest 
frauds, conspiracies, and corruptions in the election of a President. They 
denounce it, because it will debase the national character, deaden the 
public conscience, and encourage fraud and corruption in all the public 
and private transactions and business of the people. They denounce it, 
because for the first time it declares to the people that by their organic 
law, the Constitution, it is ordained that a man may seek for, obtain, and 
hold this great office of chief magistrate of two and forty millions of free- 
men by fraud and cheating. 

Nay, more, that he may openly buy the votes to elect himself, and pay 
down the price when the purchase is consummated by the count by the 
two houses of congress, and call them to witness the payment ; and that 
there is no help for it but revolution. They denounce it, because, in 
effect, it puts up the great office of President at auction, and says to the 
whole world that it may be bought in safety, and that there is no way 
known to man by which the title by purchase can be disputed or gainsaid. 

In the Oregon case, a certificate signed by the governor and secretary 
of state, and under the great seal of the state, certified to the election of 



THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 



8 9 




KEY TO PICTURE OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION. 
IN THE GALLERY (THE PRESS). 



VV. H. Roberts New Orleans Times. 

John M Carson New York Times. 

Ben : Perley Poore Boston Journal. 

George W. Adams New York World. 

T. C. Crawford Chicago Times. 

A. M. Gibson New York Sun. 

W. Scott Smith New York Evening Post. 

C. W. Fitch. Pittsburgh Chronicle. 

H. V. Boynton Cincinnati Gazette. 

Wilson J. Vance Cincinnati Commercial. 

Mrs. Jane G. Swisshelm. 

L. A. Gobright N. Y. Associated Press. 

Mrs. S. J. Lippincott (" Grace Greenwood "). 

Miss AustineSnead f" Miss Grundy "). 

Miss Emma Janes Toledo Blade, etc. 

Mrs. Mary E. Nealy Home Journal. 

Mrs. M. D. Lincoln Cleveland Plaindealer. 

Miss Sallie Woodbury. . ..National Union. 

Mrs. Fannie B. Ward New Orleans Picayune. 

Mrs. Adfele M. Garrigues.Courier, East Saginaw. 

W M. Olin Boston Advertiser. 

W. O. Fishback St. Louis Republican. 

DeB. R. Keim Philadelphia Press. 

Crosby S. Noyes Ed . Even ing Star. 

James R. Young Phil. Evening Star. 

W. E.Curtis Chicago Inter-Ocean. 

E. B. Wight Chicago Tribune. 

E. H. Luther Boston Post. 

Charles Nordhoff New York Herald . 

Clifford Warden Pittsburgh Telegraph. 

F. A. Richardson Baltimore Sun. 



32. E. V. Smalley New York Tribune. 

33. L. Q. Washington Courier-Journal . 

34. Mrs. E.S.Cromwell Chicago Herald. 

35. Mrs. Nellie S. Stowell. . . .Kansas City Journal 

36. Mrs. Fayetta C. Snead .(" Fay") Courier-Journal. 

37. Mrs. A. J.Rowland Oxford (Pa.) Press. 

38. Frank Hatton Burlington Hawkeye. 

39. E. Stoddardt Johnson Ed. Frankfort Veoman. 

40. A. C. Buell The Capital . 

41. Mrs. A. D- Johnston Rochester Democrat. 

42. Miss Mary E. Mann Troy Daily Times. 

43. Charles L. Flanagan Phil. North American. 

44. Mrs. Elvira Bliss Sheldon. Grand Rapids Eagle. 

45. W. Harry Clarke Nat'nal Associated Press. 

46. I. N. Burritt Ed. Washington Herald. 

47. C. Cathcart Taylor Philadelphia Times. 

48. Wm. P. Copeland New York Bulletin. 

49. E. F. Waters Prop. Boston Advertiser. 

50. J. Edwards Clarke New York Mail. 

51. Jno. C. Burch Ed. Nashville American. 

52. Mr. Goddard Ed. Boston Advertiser. 

53. Howard Carroll New York Times. 

54. S. H. Kauffmann Evening Star. 

55. Wm. C. Macbride Cincinnati Enquirer. 

56. Z. L.White New York Tribune. 

57. Edwin Fleming Journal of Commerce. 

58. L. W. Kennedy Daily Chronicle. 

59. M. J. Dee Detroit Evening News. 

60. George Douglas Washington Capital. 

61. Mr. Parr Pittsburgh Post. 

62. Mrs. G. W. Thomson Journal. 



90 THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 

two Hayes and one Tilden elector. The three Hayes electors produced 
no certification of election signed by any person — only a certificate of cer- 
tain results — from which it was claimed that it could be inferred who were 
elected. The law of Oregon required a list of the persons elected to be 
signed by the governor and secretary of state, under the great seal, and 
this requirement, as well as that of the acts of congress, was fully met 
and satisfied by the first certificate. There was no certificate in the second 
case in any manner complying with the laws of Oregon or the acts of 
congress. Yet by the decision of the commission the first certificate 
was rejected and the second taken, although clearly neither in conformity 
with state or federal law. 

The undersigned voted against counting the vote of the Tilden elector, 
because, notwithstanding the certificate of the governor and secretary of 
state, they were satisfied he had not been elected by the people of 
Oregon, and that his vote would not have been the true vote of that 
State. The majority of the commission decided to set aside and reject 
the certificate and return, precisely the same in character that they had 
holden to be conclusive against all evidence in the Florida and Louisiana 
cases. They adopted and acted on a certificate insufficient, if they 
regarded their former rulings, under any law, state or national. 

The undersigned denounce the Oregon decision as utterly at war with 
and reversing the rule established in the two former cases, and because it 
changes the law to meet the wants of the case, establishing different rules 
applicable to the same facts to bring about a desired result. 

In the Florida case, where the evidence failed to establish the fact, the 
majority of the commission voted to receive evidence to prove one elector 
held an office of profit and trust under the United States when appointed. 

In the Louisiana case, where there was no doubt that two electors 
held such offices when appointed, it was voted not to receive evidence 
of the fact, because it was not offered to be proved that they continued to 
hold such offices where they voted. Apparently the rules change as the 
requirements of the case change. 

In South Carolina the undersigned voted against the Tilden electors 
being declared elected, because they had not received a majority of the 
votes of the people. In that case it was offered to be proved, in sub- 
stance, that United States troops in large numbers were sent to the state 
before the election, for the purpose of influencing and controlling the 
votes to be given thereat, by interfering with and overawing the people, 
and that the militia of the state was used for the same purpose; that the 
polls were surrounded by armed bands, who by violence and force pre- 



THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 91 

vented any exercise of the right of suffrage except on one side ; in fact, 
that the election was controlled by the armed forces of the state and 
nation, and a resort to all manner of brutality, violence, and cruelty, and 
was not free. 

The majority of the commission refused to admit the evidence, on 
grounds that would fairly warrant a President of the United States in 
using the whole army to take possession of all the ballot-boxes in any 
state, and allow no voting except for himself if he was a candidate for 
re-election, or for his party, and which would require both houses of 
congress to re-count the vote so obtained, and to give him the fruits of 
such a willful and wicked violation of all constitutional law and right. 

If any decision better calculated to destroy the liberty of a free peo- 
ple, to destroy all faith in a republican form of government, a govern- 
ment of the people by the people, could be devised and contrived, the 
undersigned have not been able to discover it. They denounce the decis- 
ion as an outrage upon the rights of all the people, and, if sustained and 
acted on, as the utter ruin of our institutions and government. 

The foregoing is a brief statement of the action of the commission. 
To defeat that action the undersigned have done all in their power. 
They protested against it before it was accomplished, and they protest 
against it now. They know the commission was established to receive 
evidence, not to shut it out. They know the conscience of this great 
people was troubled by fear that any one should obtain the high office of 
President by fraud, cheating, and conspiracy, and that it demanded that 
the charges and counter-charges of corrupt practices in reference to the 
election in three states should be honestly investigated and inquired into, 
not established and sanctified by refusing all inquiry and examination. 

They know the conscience of the whole people approved the law 
establishing the commission, nay, hailed it with joy, because it estab- 
lished, as all believed, a fair tribunal, to examine, to inquire into, and 
determine the charges of fraud and corruption in the election of three 
states ; and they believe that this conscience has been terribly disap- 
pointed and shocked by the action of the commission, which establishes 
fraud and legalizes its perpetration, instead of inquiring into and con- 
demning it. The undersigned believe the action of the majority of the 
commission to be wrong, dangerous, nay, ruinous in its consequences and 
effects. 

It tends to destroy the rights and liberties of the states and of the 
United States and the people thereof, because by it states may be 
robbed of their votes for President with impunity, and the people of the 



92 THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 

United States have foisted upon them a chief magistrate, not by their 
own free choice honestly expressed, but by practices too foul to be toler- 
ated in a gambling-hell. By the action of the commission the American 
people are commanded to submit to one as their chief magistrate who 
was never elected by their votes, whose only title depends on fraud, cor- 
ruption, and conspiracy. 

A person so holding that great office is an usurper, and should be and 
will be so held by the people — as much an usurper as if he had seized 
and held it by military force ; in either case, he equally holds against the 
consent of the people. 

Let the people rebuke and overrule the action of the commission. 
The only hope of the country rests on this being done, and done speedily 
and effectually, so that it may never become a precedent to sustain wrong 
and fraud in the future. It is the first and highest duty of all good citi- 
zens who love their country to right this foul wrong as soon as it may be 
done under the Constitution and laws. Let it be done so thoroughly, so 
signally, so effectually, that no encouragement shall be given to put a 
second time so foul a blot on our national escutcheon." 

The letter of Senator Hoar, who sat with Judge Abbott on that com- 
mission, and the letter of General Butler, sufficiently indicate the import- 
ance of the part borne by Judge Abbott on that commission. He sat next 
to Garfield, who had known his brother Fletcher Abbott in Toledo. It 
was the conscientious conviction of Judge Abbott that the decision of the 
majority was wrong. Nevertheless he turned a deaf ear to all solicitations 
of some of his fellow-democrats to aid in preventing the counting of the 
electoral votes according to that decision. He insisted on maintaining 
the forms of the Constitution. Senator Hoar writes : 

" Worcester, Massachusetts, September 17, 1891. 
My dear Sir : 

All my recollections of Judge Abbott are of an exceedingly pleasant 
character. I do not think I should speak of him as my contemporary 
at the bar, unless that word were used with a pretty comprehensive 
meaning. When I was a law student from 1846 to 1849 I used to attend 
court in Concord a good deal, and was present at the trial of a good 
many causes where Judge Abbott was counsel. He was then one of the 
leaders of the very able bar of Middlesex county, having been out of 
college sixteen or seventeen years, and having come forward into leader- 
ship very rapidly. After I myself was well established in Worcester, I 



THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 93 

was opposed to Judge Abbott in several important cases. He impressed 
me with his great fairness and justice as well as with his great ability. I 
remember that he interposed his authority to compel a just settlement in 
several cases. In one of them, his client, a strong corporation, seemed 
disposed to do great injustice to a poor man, which I think would have 
been accomplished but for Judge Abbott's insisting on a reasonable settle- 
ment. 

He was in the house of representatives for a single session only, if I 
remember right. The high reputation which he brought with him to the 
house was shown by the fact that he was made one of the democratic 
members of the electoral commission. In that commission he stated the 
view of his party with great vigor and ability and with entire courtesy. 
It is unnecessary to say that that was a transaction which excited very 
deeply the feeling of the whole people of the country and especially of 
those who were called upon to take a conspicuous and responsible part in 
it. I do not think the kindly feeling toward Judge Abbott of his republi- 
can associates in Washington was interrupted by anything which occurred 
at that time. I am, faithfully yours, GEO. F. HOAR 

Hon. Charles Cowley." 

General Butler writes : 

"At Home, November 22, 1891. 
My dear Mr. Cowley : 

I had the pleasure to receive your kind invitation to be present at the 
' Old Residents' ' meeting of our city, which would have permitted me to 
pay my tribute of respect to the memory of the late Judge Josiah G. 
Abbott; but the condition of my health was such that its literal accept- 
ance was impossible, but I take advantage of the occasion to say, very 
imperfectly, a few words on that subject. 

Judge Abbott and myself were, from 1839 to tne er, d of his life, warm 
personal friends. He was my senior, but soon we came in contact with 
each other in the trial of causes as well before juries as in arguments 
before the supreme court, and I witnessed with care many of his efforts 
in other litigations. From actual personal knowledge I can bear testi- 
mony to his high talents as a lawyer, to his fidelity to his clients, his 
untiring and ardent advocacy of their cause, his uniform courtesy as a 
gentleman to his opponents in the court, to his honorable faithfulness to 
all engagements and understandings between counsel and to his great 
success in his profession. In 1855 he was appointed justice of the superior 
court of the county of Suffolk, Boston, and acquitted himself in that 



94 THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 

position so as to bring to himself merit and distinction. He resigned that 
position because its salary was utterly inadequate to the labor and bore 
no comparison to the emolument of his profession which he resumed in 
that city. He was an ardent democrat and received the honor of a seat 
in the house of representatives from that party so early that it was almost 
doubtful whether he was not too young to serve. Soon after he was 
elected to the senate and served there with enviable distinction.. He was 
appointed senior aid-de-camp to Governor Morton. He was a candidate 
for congress, but being in a district with a large majority against his party 
his election was impossible. 

When our unhappy war broke out in 1861 he remained truly and 
stanchly loyal to the country. I remember an incident on the 17th of 
April as I was going from Lowell to Boston to take command of the 
Massachusetts troops which were being sent to Washington. Judge Abbott 
met me in the same train of cars in the morning and said: ' Well, general 
I hear that you are going to take command of our soldiers who go to 
Washington.' I said: 'Yes, judge; for want of a better.' 'Well,' said 
he, ' you will have with you poor soldiers in distress and suffering at some 
turn of affairs; let me contribute my mite to relieve that suffering.' Put- 
ting his hand in his pocket he took out some bills and handed me one 
hundred dollars. I said: 'Judge, you are very generous, but let me give 
you a memorandum of this.' ' No, no, Butler,' he said, ' we have lived too 
long together to need a memorandum in a matter of this sort between 
each other.' I said: 'Thanks, judge; I will see to it that your money 
shall reach its full destination.' Soon after, he gave two of his sons to the 
war. I use this phrase, for they were literally given to the country, as he 
lost them both on the battle-field serving with high honor. Thus he did 
his duty to his country, at the same time retaining his political beliefs. 

In 1874 he was elected to congress from one of the Boston districts. 
A new member of congress usually has to serve a term or two as an 
apprentice before he can attain any considerable prominence in the house, 
but Judge Abbott's high standing and abilities gave him instantly high 
position with his party, and when in 1876 the best talent and the highest 
legal ability of the house on the democratic side was to be selected to 
serve on that most important body, the electoral commission, having to 
deal with new and unprecedented questions, Abbott was selected with 
singular unanimity. He took the leading part in that commission. He 
was strongly impressed, to say the least, with the irregularities under 
which the local elections were held, and especially in the states of Louisi- 
ana and Florida, which resulted in the claimed election of Hayes. The 






THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 95 

minority decided that a formal protest should be made to the country 
against the decision of the majority, and Abbott was selected to prepare 
that protest, the work and performance of which required much legal 
learning and the greatest talent in presentation of the arguments which 
must accompany it. He prepared the paper with his accustomed skill and 
ability. It was read before his associates and approved, but upon discus- 
sion the decision to make any protest was reconsidered, all agreeing, how- 
ever, that if such protest was to be made the one just read was the very 
best presentation of the case. Political reasons bearing on the future of 
the party were the grounds of non-presentation upon which the decision 
was based. I have had the pleasure of examining Judge Abbott's paper 
with great interest. To analyze it so as to do it justice would be far 
beyond the limits of such a letter as I am now writing. It must suffice to 
say that it was worthy of Judge Abbott, and equal to any efforts of his 
life; that is to say, it was done as well as it could be done, and with 
singular and quite judicial impartiality. 

I take leave to close by saying that a more honorable gentleman, a 
better or more loyal citizen, or a more impartial judge has never lived than 
Judge Abbott, and a truer friend to myself I have not the misfortune to 
mourn. I am, very truly yours, BENJ. F. BUTLER. 

Hon. Charles Cowley." 

Josiah Gardner Abbott was born in Chelmsford, Massachusetts, Novem- 
ber 1, 1814, and was a descendant in the seventh generation of George 
Abbott, a Yorkshire Puritan who migrated from England in 1640 and 
settled in Andover, Massachusetts. His father, Caleb Abbott, removed 
from Andover to Chelmsford, and married Mercy Fletcher, whose ances- 
tors had lived in that part of Chelmsford now Lowell upon its first settle- 
ment in 1653. Both of Judge Abbott's grandfathers fought at Bunker 
Hill, and held commissions in the continental army. He was reared 
under the best domestic influences and taught by the best teachers. One 
of these was Ralph Waldo Emerson, another was the Rev. Abiel Abbot, 
D.D. He entered Harvard in 1828, and graduated with distinction in 
1832. In 1836 he commenced the practice of law in Lowell, and served as 
one of the representatives of that city in the legislature of 1837. In 1840 
he edited the Lowell Advertiser, which he conducted alike with ability and 
good taste. In 1842 and 1843 ne served with marked distinction in the 
state senate, being a member of the committee on the judiciary and chair- 
man of the committee on railroads. 

In 1853 he served as a delegate from Lowell to the constitutional con- 



96 THE MINORITY REPORT OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 

vention, in which he advocated an elective judiciary and making juries 
judges of law as well as of fact in criminal cases. In 1855 he was appointed 
a judge of the superior court, and became exceptionally popular with the 
bar and the public. In January, 1858, he left the bench on account of the 
larger emoluments eminent counsel can secure in practice. His salary as 
judge was only three thousand dollars a year, but in the first year after 
quitting the bench his professional earnings were more than twenty-nine 
thousand dollars, and in a later year they rose to thirty-six thousand dollars. 
In 1 861 he removed his residence from Lowell to Boston, and afterward 
added a surqmer home at Wellesley Hills. 

With Judge Abbott, as with Andrew Jackson, it was an inflexible rule 
of faith and practice that " the Union must and shall be preserved " ; and 
from the first gun at Fort Sumter to the last at Appomattox, he gave the 
powerful support of his voice, his purse, and his pen to the cause of the 
Union. Three of his sons with his encouragement accepted commissions 
in the Union army, and two of them were killed in battle. 

Judge Abbott participated in many enterprises outside of his own 
vocation, and was president or director of various manufacturing, railroad, 
and water-power companies at Lowell and Lawrence, Massachusetts, and 
at Lewiston, Maine. In 1874 he was elected to congress, and served on 
the special committee which was sent to South Carolina to investigate the 
facts connected with the presidential election of 1876 in that state, and 
prepared the report of that committee. He was absent from Washington 
when the bill creating the electoral commission was introduced, and was 
personally opposed to that measure ; but after the bill had been proposed 
by the .democrats, accepted by the republicans, and enacted as a law, he 
felt it to be his duty to see that its provisions were carried out. The 
intention originally was to give a place on the electoral commission to 
one of the representatives from New York — Fernando Wood or Samuel 
S. Cox. But neither of them seemed quite the man for such a place. 
Friends of Judge Abbott, in his absence and without his knowledge, 
resolved to present his name for that place to the democratic congressional 
caucus. They did so, and it was unanimously adopted. Speaker Randall 
warmly approved the choice. It was not known outside of a few that 
Judge Abbott wrote the address to the country on behalf of the demo- 
cratic minority of that commission, which is here given to the world as a 
matter of historic interest. 



^-yZ0z^£zsi-~^z«/ 




Lowell, Massachusetts. 






THE PICTURE OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION 

Our frontispiece this month is of manifold interest. Aside from its 
faithful representation of a remarkable event in our national history, it 
contains the portraits of a great number of the most eminent men and 
women of America, many of whom have since passed away. Mrs. 
Fassett, the author of the great historic painting, was present at all the 
open sessions of the electoral commission, and by permission of its presi- 
dent, Justice Clifford, made artistic studies from day to day. The 
commissioners were Allen G. Thurman, Thomas F. Bayard, Frederick T. 
Frelinghuysen, Oliver P. Morton, George F. Edmunds, Justice Miller, Jus- 
tice Clifford, Justice Stephen J. Field, Justice Joseph P. Bradley, Justice 
Strong, H. B. Payne, Judge Abbott, James A. Garfield, George F. Hoar, 
and Francis Kernan who acted as substitute for Allen G. Thurman during 
his illness. All of these portraits are quickly recognized in the picture. 
The artist's first sketches of William M. Evarts and Charles O'Conor were 
made on the opening day, while presenting their arguments in the 
Florida case. During the memorable month of February, 1877, sketches 
were made of the members of the commission, of the lawyers, statesmen, 
politicians, jurists, members of the press, and leaders of society, who were 
present, and the composition of the picture completed ; the work in oils 
was begun March 5, 1877. Mrs. Hamilton Fish was the first to give the 
artist a sitting ; her husband, the distinguished ex-secretary of state, follow- 
ing the next day. 

All the portraits were painted from life-sittings, with the exception 
of one or two foreign ministers, or like Senator Morton, deceased, in 
which cases photographs were used. For three summers and two Febru- 
ary vacations of the supreme court, the supreme court room and Marshal 
Nicolay and all the attendants were placed at Mrs. Fassett's service, and 
every possible facility afforded by Chief Justice Waite and the associate 
justices for her work. The sittings were chiefly in the supreme court room 
or in the studio, although occasionally, as in the case of Charles O'Conor, 
the artist went to other cities to complete her studies. 

This picture was recommended for purchase by the joint library com- 
mittee of the forty-fifth congress; then again by the joint library commit- 
tee of the forty-seventh congress. It was purchased by the government 
in March, 1886, and now hangs in the corridor leading to the reserved gal- 
lery of the senate in the capitol at Washington, D. C. 

Vol. XXVII.-No. 2.-7 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

A CRITICAL AND COMMON SENSE VIEW 

Part II 

Ferdinand and Isabella now applied to the pope to have the lands 
discovered and to be discovered confirmed to them, and quickly received 
the sovereign empire and principality of the Indies, with royal jurisdiction 
over all that hemisphere — the Spanish and Portuguese Indian sovereignties 
being divided by a line drawn from pole to pole, a hundred leagues west 
of the Azores. With equal haste another expedition was fitted out, con- 
sisting of seventeen vessels and fifteen hundred men, and it sailed on the 
23d of September, 1493. 

This armada was charged to deal lovingly with the Indians and to 
honor them much. Sir Arthur Helps, whose book on the Spanish con- 
quests in America is classic, is misled by this into representing Isabella as 
a sort of saint, full of gentle consideration for her new subjects. He also 
extols the mildness of Columbus. I do not suppose the queen and her 
ministers were worse than other people of their times, but I cannot think 
they were so much ahead of them as to possess the fine feelings of our- 
selves, the saints of a later day, who readily fire up with indignation at 
any harsh treatment of negro or Indian. The instructions, moreover, had 
to meet the eye of all Europe, and might possibly be debated in the 
courts of great Asiatic potentates. In short, they were nice enough in 
theory but were drawn up under erroneous impressions and amounted in 
practice to waste paper. 

When Columbus returned with his armada to Hispaniola, he found La 
Navidad destroyed ; the Spaniards who had been left there had taken to 
evil courses, straggled about the country, and had been utterly cut off by 
a neighboring chief called Caonabo. So he built a new fort in a different 
part, and having received presents of gold from Cibao, he resolved to 
found a colony there, and wrote thus to Los Reyes. In this memorial 
(1494) he drops the mask and boldly, I may say shamelessly, proposes to 
capture and make slaves of the cannibals. Considering the quantities 
of cattle, etc., wanted, he proposes that cargoes of necessaries be sent 
out every year, to be paid for in slaves, captured among these people. 

He urges, of course, that it will be good for the cannibals to be con- 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 



99 




CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. 
FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE ROYAL GALLERY AT NAPLES, BY PaRMIGIANO. 

[Facsimile of a large mezzotint engraving by W. O. Burgess., in the collection of Mr. IV. C. Crane.] 



vertecl to the Christian faith, also that their majesties can collect customs 
duties on them— as we do upon Chinamen, $50 a head. He is careful, too, 
to hint that every such vessel should have a trustworthy royal officer on 



100 THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

board, who should make sure that the merchandise went nowhere else — in 
ninguna otra parte ni isla salvo aqui, dondc Jia de estar la carga y dcscarga 
dc tode la mercaturia. Now if Helps' view were correct, the answer would 
have been a decided negative, indignantly flaming out in passionate words ; 
but the royalties actually wrote, " Let this matter lie over for the present, 
until there come some other way of doing it there, and let the admiral write 
what he thinks of this." Helps claims that " this proposition for the 
establishment of slavery was wisely and magnanimously laid aside." 

The answer only means, on fair examination, that the court wished 
the slaves to be sold and the regular market established in the Indies, 
not in Spain. Thus, as each slave would bring a less price, the mother 
country would receive a greater value for the commodities furnished, 
which was clearly the best policy for Spain, but was not so advantageous 
for the admiral's private interests, under his agreements. Nor did 
Columbus omit in his memorial an account of his hunt for gold. It has 
been found, he says, in two rivers, but it is evidently produced on the 
land, not in the rivers, which, coming in contact with the mineral, wash it 
away with the sand. Some of the rivers are large, but some are only six 
inches deep, and quite short ; men are therefore wanted, some to wash 
the gold from the sand, others to dig it out of the earth, and a few should 
come who have experience in the mines at Almaden. The memorial 
goes on to say he would not be able to make discoveries that year until 
his gold washing arrangements were perfected. Quoth their majesties, 
" Trabajc como lo mas preciso que scr pueda se sepa lo adito de cse oro." 

It is of the utmost immediate importance that he should find the way 
to this gold. However, he did go a sailing, discovered fresh islands, 
among them Jamaica, and then went to San Juan to capture cannibals. 
On returning he found the colonies in uproar — his people had been mark- 
ing their footsteps with rapine, injury and insult, many had been killed, 
the rest were in great danger. He collected his forces, took the initia- 
tive, engaged the Indians, utterly routed them, taking so many prisoners 
that he sent, back four ships laden with Indian slaves. Proceeding to 
attack some other tribe under Caonabo, he is said to have found one hun- 
dred thousand arrayed against his two hundred. A "horrible carnage" 
ensued, the Indians being attacked by the admiral and by his brother 
Bartholomew from different sides, and many, taken alive, were con- 
demned to slavery. Other skirmishes followed ; Caonabo was taken alive 
and sent to Spain. Numbers were slaughtered, multitudes fled to the 
forests and mountains. Bad as the cannibal Caribs had been, these 
Christian Spaniards were infinitely worse. Finally there came abject sub- 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 



IOI 




CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS AND HIS SONS DIEGO AND FERDINAND. 
FROM AN ANCIENT SPANISH PICTURE IN POSSESSION OF EDWARD HORNE, ESQ., OF BEVISMOUNT NEAR SOUTHAMPTON. 

[From the collection of Mr. W. C. Crane.'] 

mission, and many offered themselves to the service of their conquerors if 
only they might be allowed to live in their own ways. 

Columbus then put them all to tribute — every Indian above fourteen 
years of age in the mining provinces was to give every three months a 
little bell full of gold ; in the other provinces an arroba of cotton ; a tag 



102 THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

hung round their necks being the mark of payment. The Indians knew 
little about washing gold, the tribute was harsh, and as it could not be lived 
up to, service was in certain cases substituted for tribute; the villagers were 
ordered to make and cultivate farms in the Spanish settlements. So des- 
perately were they driven that they actually tried to starve the Spaniards 
out by a general abstention from sowing or planting anything'. They 
thought they might themselves subsist in the mountains on a scanty 
nourishment of roots and berries, while the Europeans would have to 
leave. The Spaniards suffered, but stayed and revenged themselves 
by further atrocities, the Indians dying in droves, of famine, sickness, 
misery. 

A commissioner of inquiry was next sent out from Spain ; one might 
hope he was to inquire into the grievances of the poor natives. Not at 
all. There were complaints against Columbus by the whites, his selfish 
and domineering character having made him many enemies, and he had 
to go home in 1496 to defend himself, which he did successfully; but he 
left Don Bartholomew Columbus behind, who wrote that the caciques 
were killing the Castilians, and being told to send the guilty ones to Spain, 
instantly shipped three hundred slaves. Another rising, more fighting or 
man catching, and in 1498 when Columbus went out again he forthwith 
sent back five vessels with six hundred slaves, and wrote as follows: " In 
the name of the Holy Trinity there can be sent as many slaves as sale can 
be found for in Spain ; and they tell me that four thousand can be sold, 
also some log-wood, realizing together about $60,000." 

He was getting into years, we may observe, and wanted to make his 
money quickly. Next he proposed to exchange slaves for goods — his old 
idea — and asked that the colonists should be allowed to make use of the 
Indians for a year or two until things were a little further settled. He 
was imprudent in not awaiting the answer before allotting to various 
parties, probably partisans of his, both lands to till and Indians to till 
them. This having been laid before the queen, doubtless by those whom 
he had neglected, she affected to be incensed that he should without 
authority give her vassals to any one, and as some people had brought 
their Indians to Spain, they were ordered to send them back. Other 
causes of complaint appearing, Columbus was superseded, and the new 
governor, Francis de Bobadilla, promptly put the admiral and his 
brothers in chains and sent them home to Spain. This was the last of 
Columbus as an administrator, in which, it is evident, he was a signal 
failure — as might have been foreseen. No Genoese sailor-man, born among 
sheep-skins — whose only sister, by the way, married a sausage dealer — 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 



IO3 










CHRISTOPHER COLOMB. 
SEUL PORTRAIT VERITABLE, ATTRIBUE^ A ANTONIA DEL RICON. 

\From the collection of Mr, W. C. Crane. ~\ 

brought up to piracy and slave-trading, could be expected to succeed in 
such a task, notwithstanding his having the rudiments of a polite education. 
The Spaniards, morepver, were always jealous of this foreigner, whose 
exclusive mercantile rights were making him rich, while they were not 
acquiring dignity or wealth. 



104 THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

In all matters not affecting the common feelings of humanity I wish to 
judge leniently, and perhaps I may here quote Columbus himself on this 
very point. " They judge of me," he cries, " as if I were a governor sent 
into Sicily or some province or city under regular government. ... I 
ought to be judged as a captain sent from Spain to conquer the Indies 
from a numerous and warlike nation with customs and beliefs quite con- 
trary to ours, who dwell in rough mountains, without regular habitations, 
where by divine will I have placed another world under the dominion of 
the king and queen our rulers, through which Spain, which used to be 
called poor, is now rich. I should be judged as a captain who for all this 
time has worn armor, never putting it off for a single hour; and not by 
carpet knights alone, but by gentlemen of experience and accustomed to 
arms." 

In due course of events Columbus was released and restored to partial 
favor, again setting sail in 1498, discovering Trinidad, and afterwards the 
mainland, the coast of Paria, where the natives came to the ships in their 
canoes, in countless numbers, many of them wearing pieces of gold upon 
their breasts, and some having bracelets of pearls upon their arms. He 
says the people were very graceful in form, tall arid lithe, and the chiefs 
conducted his men to a very large house with facades, in which were many 
seats, where they gave them bread and wine, both white and red — the 
bread thought to be made from maize and the wine from various kinds of 
fruit, not grapes. The people bound their heads with handsomely worked 
kerchiefs, and used the same material to envelop their bodies. They were 
lighter in color than the islanders, and it was the fashion among all classes 
to wear something on the breast and arms. Many wore pieces of gold, 
hanging low on the bosom. The numerous stone and shell gorgets found 
in Canada and the United States were probably used in conformity with 
the same fashion. Their canoes were longer, lighter, and of better shape 
than had been seen before, and in the middle of each they had a cabin or 
room in which the chiefs and their wives were wont to travel. 

Next come some curious observations, in reading which we should 
remember that fifty more years had to elapse before Copernicus could 
announce in his De Revolutionibus the true theory of the solar system, and 
more than a hundred before Galileo with his telescopes founded the new 
astronomy. As he had previously observed in similar latitudes, he noticed 
that the north star moved in a circle, which by repeated measurements 
with his quadrant he thought was five degrees in diameter or more. He 
says, "When night came on, the polar star was five degrees in altitude; 
then the guardians were overhead. At midnight the star was elevated ten 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 105 

degrees, and when morning drew nigh the guardians were fifteen feet 
below." At first I thought Columbus' observations were absurdly astray, 
for the distance of the north star from the true pole is less than one and 
one-half degrees, so that the circle it describes around the pole is scarcely 
three degrees in diameter. But it occurred to me that as Columbus' obser- 
vations were made four hundred years ago, there might be an appreciable 
change in the position of the pole. By actual calculation, however (aided 
by Mr. Thomas Lindsay, secretary of our Astronomical and Physical 
Society), I find the distance of the star from the pole there to have been 
three degrees and over, the diameter of the circle, therefore, to have been a 
little over six, so Columbus was not so far astray as at first sight appeared. 
The curious thing is, how came he to think it was only in southern 
latitudes this phenomenon was apparent ? It must be because it is more 
noticeable when the polar star is near the horizon, and he did not think 
of varying the observation in various latitudes. 

He had always thought, from Ptolemy and others, that the world was 
spherical, but now he believed it to be pear shaped ; roundish as a whole, 
but with a protuberance where the stalk grows. From the west of the 
Azores, the land must rise gently towards the sky. He imagines the 
earthly paradise is a little farther on in the direction he had been travel- 
ing. Of course he thinks it inaccessible, but he believes the great streams 
he has found upon the ocean's surface may proceed from it. His science, 
we see, is rambling throughout, but I think we may absolve him from 
the charge of charlatanism. Still, would it not have been enough to add 
to glory slaves, to slaves gold, to gold pearls, without leading the queen 
to expect the discovery of paradise? He winds up by stating that while 
forwarding his dispatch and a chart of the region, he has sent the 
adclantado (lieutenant governor) with three ships to make all possible 
discoveries in these parts, where he believes in his soul that paradise is 
situate ! 

It would not be strange if at this period Columbus' mind was consider- 
ably unhinged. He had set out to seek fame, power, wealth. Fame he 
found empty ; power unsatisfactory, because it was prostituted to the 
mere pursuit of riches; wealth remained his only object, and we all know 
how the pursuit of gain maddens a restless intellect. We will hasten to a 
brief consideration of this period, in which we shall see the last of Colum- 
bus as a navigator; and, if we were Greeks, we should plainly see the 
avenging Furies hurrying behind his vessels in the tempestuous air, and 
hear the stern decree of just but merciless Fate, requiring expiation for 
the race destroyed in the new world it was given him to discover. 



106 THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

In 1502 he sailed from Cadiz to the Canaries in four days, thence to 
the Indies in sixteen. Though a tempest set in upon his arrival, he was 
forbidden to land in Espafiola, and " who that was ever born," quoth he, 
" not excepting Job, would not have died of despair. Though the safety 
of my son, my brother, and my friends depended on it, I was even at such 
a time ordered not to set foot upon the soil or seek the harbors which I 
through the will of God and through shedding of blood had gained for 
Spain ! " The tempest lasted for eighty-eight days, during which he could 
see neither sun nor stars. " My ships," he says, " were in the open sea, their 
sails blown to ribbons ; anchors, rigging, cables, boats, and many provisions 
lost ; the crews very weak, and all repentant, many vowing to live a 
religious life, all making some vows of pilgrimage, while they were often 
seen to make confession to each other." However, in due course he 
reached the land of Cariay, and while refitting there, two Indians con- 
ducted him to Carambaru, "where the people go naked, with a golden 
mirror on their necks." These mirrors he does not forget to say were 
twelve or fifteen ducats in weight, and the folks would trade them for 
three hawks' bells. He was also told of Veragua and Ciguare. At the 
former place he sent seventy men ashore, whom the Indians conducted to 
a lofty mountain, and, showing them the land as far as the eye could reach, 
told them there was gold in every part. Why, in ten days they said, a man 
could collect as much as a child could carry, and, in fact, the people he 
sent to see for themselves, in four hours time all brought back some gold. 
The Indians however were hostile and massacred some boats' crews. 

One of his tempest-tossed vessels was still locked in by a bar which 
had formed outside the anchorage and from which he had with much 
difficulty released the others, though leaking like sieves through the 
ravages of the Teredo. Columbus was suffering from fever and from 
excessive anxiety and fatigue. All hope of escape indeed seemed gone. 
What, in such a case, is all the gold in the world to any man? 

Just then, his letter says, an extraordinary event occurred. In a 
species of delirium he painfully climbed the poop. With tremulous and 
imploring voice and tearful eyes he called for aid on the war captains of 
the sovereigns from all the four winds of heaven, but none made answer. 
Groaning from exhaustion he fell asleep, and, in a trance, he heard a 
pitying voice : " Fool, and slow to believe and serve thy God. What has 
he done more for Moses or for his servant David ? From thy birth he 
has watched over thee. When he saw thee reach a fitting age he made 
thy name wondrously celebrated throughout the world. The Indies, 
that rich portion of the earth, he gave thee for thine own ; thou hast 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 107 

divided them at thy pleasure, he giving thee power thereto. He gave 
thee the keys of the barriers of ocean, which had been closed with such 
mighty chains. Thou wast obeyed in extensive territories, and honorably 
renowned in Christendom. What did the Most High do for the people 
of Israel when he brought them out of Egypt, or for David, whom from a 
shepherd he made king in Jewry? Turn to him and acknowledge thy 
transgressions. His mercy is infinite, thy old age shall not hinder thy 
great undertaking. He holds many very great possessions. Had not 
Abraham passed his hundredth year when he begat Isaac ? and Sarah, 
was she not stricken in years? Thou criest for uncertain help, but 
answer, who has afflicted thee so much and often, God or the world? 
The privileges and promises God has given ; those he does not revoke, 
nor does he when he has received service ever say, this was not his 
meaning, he understood it otherwise. He does not inflict punishment to 
show his power; he fulfils things to the letter; his promises he per- 
forms with increase. Is this the usual way or not? Thus have I spoken 
of what the Creator has done for thee, as for all. At this very hour he is 
showing thee in part the reward for those toils and dangers thou hast gone 
through in the service of others." "I heard this," adds Columbus, "in a 
lethargy, but I could not reply in definite words." So whoever was speak- 
ing concluded thus: " Fear not, have confidence; all these sufferings are 
written on marble, and not without a cause." 

This passage has, I believe, confused most previous readers — perhaps 
all in our day. I have revised the translation of Mr. Major's (for the 
Hakluyt Society), and while adhering even more faithfully than he to 
the very words, I think I am enabled to show plainly that this was not in 
any way a relation of an actual trance or vision. Tennyson sees the 
romantic, the poetical, the fanciful side, and gilds Columbus' gold with 
magic touch. He makes him say: 

" And God 
Hath more than glimmered on me. Oh, my Lord ! 
I swear to you I heard His voice between 
The thunders in the black Veragua nights : 
' O son of little faith, slow to believe ! 
Have I not been about thee from thy birth ? 
Given thee the keys of the great ocean sea ? 
Set thee in light till time shall be no more ? ' " 

There is always a feeling of regret at destroying any beautiful eidolon, 
even the image of gold with the feet of clay on the Assyrian plain. But 
it is apparent that this is only an earnest personal appeal from Columbus 



108 THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

to Isabella for her to reconsider his position. The riddle is plain, the new 
light dawns fast, if for the words "God," "the Most High," etc., we read 
"Your Majesty." The clever letter is a piece of adroit flattery (the food 
of princes) so phrased that few people but the queen would understand it, 
but to her it must be crystal clear. He says in this fine composition into 
which he throws his whole soul, that he has been deprived of his author- 
ity, has called in vain for succor from her officers, so she herself must be 
appealed to, and he feigns to hear her answer. He accepts the hope that 
she is merely trying his patience and devotion. He acknowledges that her 
wisdom is supreme, and, like that of the Almighty, is chastening him for 
his faults. But he begs her to consider that she herself had promised and 
given him authority and a solemn covenant, his share of which he had 
performed and never neglected, not suffering it to lapse by non user or 
other default. He lastly expresses the conviction that on considering 
his state she will relent, and, again following the good example of the 
Lord Omnipotent, reinduct him into his honors and possessions, and con- 
tinue the same to his posterity for generation after generation. 

Going on with his account, his distracted mind begins to harp again on 
gold. " The fleet has been so tempest-tossed that none but he could know 
the way to Veragua again, and in Veragua he had seen more signs of gold 
in two days than he did in Espafiola in four years. . . . Gold, gold, it 
is the most excellent of things. The Genoese, Venetians, all nations who 
possess pearls, precious stones, or other valuables, take them to the end of 
the world to trade and convert them into gold. Gold is treasure, and he 
who has it has all he needs in this world, and that which will help souls on 
to paradise. In Veragua I hear that when one of the lords of the country 
dies, they bury with him all his gold." Is it not sad to find a great mind 
so diseased as to hint at buried treasures a very ghoul might respect? 
Then he goes on to plead : " For seven years I was at your royal court, 
where every one to whom the enterprise was mentioned treated it as ridic- 
ulous, whereas now there is not a man, down to the very tailors, who does 
not beg to be allowed to become a discoverer! The lands which here own 
your highnesses' sway are more extensive and richer than those of any 
other Christian power. When by the divine will I had placed them 
under your royal and exalted dominion and was on the point of raising a 
very large revenue, while, too, I was feeling secure and joyful and was 
waiting for vessels to take me to your illustrious presence with good 
fortune and grand news of gold, I, with my two brothers, was arrested, 
confined on ship-board, fettered, despoiled even of clothing, and was shock- 
ingly treated, without trial or conviction. Who could believe the tale that 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 109 

a poor stranger would in such a spot raise a causeless revolt against your 
highnesses, lacking support from any other prince, alone among your high- 
nesses' natural subjects and vassals, all my sons being at your royal court ? 
Thirty-eight years old was I when I entered your service, and now I have 
not a hair that is not gray, my body is infirm, and whatever I or my brothers 
had acquired was seized and sold, without hearing or examination, to my 
great dishonor — except one shirt ! I am bound to think this was not done 
by your royal orders. The restitution of my honor and of my losses, with 
the punishment of those who caused them, will make the nobility of your 
character famous, while it is due to those who despoiled me of my pearls 
and disparaged my position as admiral. ... I am, indeed, as badly 
ruined as I say. I have hitherto had pity upon others ; may heaven now 
have mercy and the earth pity me ! As for temporal matters, I have not 
a cent for the offertory ; and as for spiritual things, I have here in the 
Indies neglected the prescribed forms. Alone in my misery, weak, daily 
awaiting death, surrounded by myriads of cruel and hostile savages, sepa- 
rated by such a distance from the sacraments of holy Church, in what 
state will my soul be if here it has to leave the body ? Weep for me, who- 
ever loves charity, truth, and justice." 

Sad, indeed, is the picture of himself he so vividly paints, but, O just 
Heaven! Oh, righteous retribution! is surely what we must think of it 
all ! He escaped; he beached his leaky sinking ships in Jamaica, where 
he, nearly starved, was all but cut off by roving Indians, was only saved 
by Diego Mendez' heroism in daring the passage from Jamaica to Es- 
panola in a canoe, as related in Mendez' interesting will. So at length, 
late in 1504, he was enabled to reach Spain, but he found the queen dying, 
and she expired before the end of the year, while Columbus in 1506 fol- 
lowed her on his last voyage for the discovery of the unknown. He was 
buried where he died, at Valladolid, but in 15 13 his remains were trans- 
ferred to Seville, where they carved this inscription, short and mean in 
execution, but glorious in a way, too : 

" A CASTILLA Y A LEON 

NUEVO MONDO DIO COLON." 

In 1536 his body and that of his son Diego were transported to Hispaniola, 
(San Domingo). Thence, on the cession of the island to the French, they 
were ordered to be carried to Havana, but doubt has been lately cast on 
the actuality of the transfer, which is said to have been prevented by the 
pious fraud of a priest, who thought the remains should be left where they 
were at rest, and we cannot yet feel sure where the discoverer reposes. 



IIO THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

We have seen how Columbus dealt with the Indians. Alas ! this initia- 
tive was fated to be enduring. Ovando, who succeeded Bobadilla, who 
succeeded Columbus, early declared war against the Indians of Higuey, the 
eastern section of Espanola. They behaved with some bravery, but their 
naked bodies and simple weapons were not a match for the well-armed 
Spaniard, and they took to the forest. Many who were captured had their 
hands cut off. On one occasion six or seven hundred prisoners were slain 
at once. So, too, with the Indians of the western peninsula, Xaragua. 
Having treacherously obtained possession of the persons of their queen 
and her chiefs, or caciques, she was hanged, the chiefs burned, and the prov- 
ince desolated. We read in Las Casas that on one occasion the Spaniards 
hanged thirteen Indians " in honor and reverence of Christ our Lord and 
his twelve apostles." While hanging, the bodies were used like carcases 
of mutton for the Spaniards to try their swords upon. No wonder the 
Indians soon began to grow scarce in Espanola! However, the Bahamas 
were still full of them, and the king (1509) allowed the population to 
be transferred, being told it would be a good action to bring them to 
Hispaniola, where they might enjoy the preaching and political customs 
there in vogue ; besides, they might assist in getting gold and thereby 
serve his majesty. In five years they carried across over forty thousand, 
telling them they were conveying them to the heaven of their ancestors. 
This caused some of the clergy ultimately to take the subject up. Las 
Casas, late in life, was revolted by the sights he saw, and began a crusade 
for mercy. Father Antonio, a Dominican, also went to Spain, sought and 
obtained an interview with the king. To illustrate the cruelties which had 
become common in the new-found lands, he told the king that a group of 
people tossed a little Indian baby into a river, just for a joke, and as the 
little thing rose once or twice, " Ha! stupid ! " cried one, ''you boil up, do 
you ? " whereat they fell into convulsions of laughter. Well, laws were 
made to regulate these things. The Indians were to work at the mines 
five months, then to receive two months' holiday (sic) to till their own 
lands; then five months more at the mines. As they sometimes sought 
refuge in flight, the Spaniards trained dogs to follow them. Then they 
began a policy of suicide, whole families putting themselves to death, and 
villages inviting other villages to join in leaving an intolerable world. 
Some hanged themselves, others drank yucca juice. We read that one 
man, hearing that his allotted slaves were going to hang themselves, 
ordered them to bring a rope for him, too; whereupon, fearing they would 
not be rid of him in the future state, they agreed to remain as they were. 

I do not intend to follow the Spaniard to Cuba, where similar atrocities 






THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS III 

prevailed, or Vasco Nunez to the Isthmus and the Pacific ; nor shall I take 
you with the truculent Pizarro to Peru, or with Cortez to Mexico. Every- 
where we should meet the same brutal disregard for human life, the same 
insatiable lust for gold ; indeed, an Indian having hinted to Nunez that 
there was a river where they fished for gold with nets, he and all Spain 
became mad with greed. Nunez has been thought merciful in his dealings 
with the aborigines, but I come across a passage in which he mentions 
quite incidentally that he has hanged thirty chiefs and should have to hang 
as many more as he should take. He was in the pleasant habit of tortur- 
ing his prisoners to make them tell where the towns were which had 
most gold and provisions. He would then attack these places at night. 

It is not astonishing that the Indians should have vanished from the 
islands, all but a few hundred Caribs who keep a foothold at St. Vincent, 
and are adroit at basket making and similar small industries; for the 
primitive races dwindle and disappear before the highly specialized Cau- 
casian, wherever the latter can exist. The diseases from which we suffer 
but survive, to them are deadly. Small-pox, for instance, was horribly 
fatal to the islanders soon after the time to which I have brought down 
their melancholy story, while in Mexico it mowed a terrible swath from 
ocean to ocean, killing many hundred thousand in a few weeks. In the 
plan of being, an eternal contest is always being waged among plants, 
birds, beasts, and men. Needs be, said the greatest of teachers, that 
offences come, yet woe to him by whom they come ; and we cannot but 
loathe the offender against the altruistic law of love and mercy which we 
are taught to regard as the highest and best development of character. In 
the realm of Canadian history I long ago pilloried Champlain, who, great in 
many respects, cannot be pardoned for being the first to fire upon and slay 
the Indian of the north in battle. And shall Columbus escape the blood- 
guiltiness of destroying a million and a half of his fellow men in Espanola, 
a million in Cuba, half a million in Jamaica, a hundred thousand in the 
Bahamas? Why need I speak of the millions of Mexico, the millions of 
Colombia and Central America, the millions of Peru ? all these dreadful 
holocausts owe their origin to him and his thirst for wealth. Cruel and 
merciless, indeed, the Latin races have always been. The Romans drove 
their slaves to insurrection and servile war ; they were always sacking 
cities, or despoiling them as Mummius and Verres did, harassing their 
neighbors, ruining provinces by fiscal exactions, slaughtering the levies 
of nation after nation, proscribing party leaders and adherents, setting 
to fight in their arenas man against beast, prisoners of one nation against 
prisoners of another. The Spaniard seems to have preserved with his 



112 THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

almost Roman speech more than this Roman cruelty, with an added 
ferocity of his own. Their armies in the middle ages were the terror of 
Europe, and the worst of the race seemed to have sailed under Columbus. 

I firmly believe that, barring accidents, we all get in this world what we 
deserve. What seem to be misfortunes, hardships, injustices, will on close 
examination or introspection be found to be due to some weakness of 
character or judgment. To the great defects of Columbus' character it is 
probably due that there is but one inscription to his memory in Spain ; 
but one public statue in Italy, erected at Genoa about twenty years ago ; 
that the new world he discovered bears another's name ; that he died 
prematurely old, his hair whitened, and that his direct posterity soon 
vanished from the earth. Lovely Hispaniola is a black spot on the 
map of civilization, retrograding towards barbarism. Even Spain was not 
helped by the systems of colonization and government introduced. 

To the world at large the enterprise of Columbus was indeed momen- 
tous. Those who deride older navigators are ill-informed. For ages men 
had sailed the open seas — the Indian Ocean before the time of Christ ; 
while in the west, Carthaginian, Greek, and Norseman had gone far out of 
sight of land, but the ocean routes had run on well established courses. 
The ancients and the men of the middle ages sailed from the Pillars of 
Hercules almost due north to Britain ; sighting occasional head-lands 
perhaps not more anxiously than we do to-day. Thence the track ran 
almost due north too, by the west coasts of Ireland and Scotland to Ice- 
land, whence it turned west to Greenland and the fishing grounds. This 
was the way Cabot went, and the Spanish ambassador in Britain says he 
saw his course pricked on the map as sailed from day to-day. So from 
these same Pillars the sailors struck out along well-known paths, by the 
capes of Africa to the Canaries, feeling their way to India, as in my open- 
ing pages I have tried to show. On these Canaries, Carl Blind says 
Columbus found a statue, pointing west — I have not seen the passage, 
but I suggest it was imaginative, like the Veragua dream. That, however, 
was the course he took, and gave a new impulse to the world. 

It seemed even to me on first visiting the West Indies that new 
heavens and a new earth lay unfolded ; a new sea also. The sun rises and 
sets with a golden hue like amber or topaz, not with the red tints of the 
rose. The nights are not more brilliant than our own, but new constella- 
tions, Argo navis with Canopus and the Southern Cross, are added to 
Orion, Sirius, Arcturus and the Bear. Not a plant or tree resembles those 
of our northern forests; not a bird, beast, insect or reptile is the same. 
The color of the sea, its winds, currents, fish, shells, are different. When 



THE ENTERPRISE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 1 1 3 

discovered the people were all strange, their industries and mode of living 
were of unexpected character. True there is an unsatisfying sameness, 
and one returns to our more beautiful northern latitudes with fresh delight 
in the varying seasons and the more changeful aspects of nature, to find 
the masses of color on our northern hill-sides more enchanting, the per- 
fume of our fields more delicate, our breezes healthier, and our morning 
and evening dews not malarious. But the new ideas caused the arts of 
the painter and carver to take a new departure and blossom into a higher 
maturity. Science was invigorated in every branch, and, inventing new 
aids to every sense, began the revelation of the system on which the 
universe exists. Columbus might have more truly said than Canning that 
he brought a new world into existence to redress the balance of the old. 
In matters social, we, here, are inheritors of the enterprise of that age, and 
let us see to it that we do honor to our America, not only leaving it gar- 
landed with the fruits of just and noble lives, but holding aloft to the 
utmost of our ability the lamps of literature and science. In matters of 
higher politics, we owe to the Columbian era the seeds of our present 
state, and looking beyond the quarrels of party and of rival colonies and 
nations we can appreciate the language of Conan Doyle, which he puts 
into the mouth of a seer of long ago, and which (like the noble apostrophe 
of Euripides to Athens, and that other patriotic utterance of Shakespeare, 
spoken through John of Gaunt, in which he calls his country " this pre- 
cious stone, set in a silver sea") I cannot read without emotion. " What 
is this that is shown me? Whence come they, these peoples, these 
lordly nations, these mighty countries which rise up before me? I look 
beyond and others rise, and yet others, far and farther, to the shores of 
the uttermost waters. They crowd ! They swarm ! The world is given to 
them, and it resounds with the clang of their hammers and the ringing of 
their church bells. They call them many names, and they rule them this 
way or that, but they are all English, for I hear the voices of the people. 
On I go, and onwards over seas where man hath never yet sailed, and I 
see a great land under new stars and a stranger sky, and still the land is 
England. Where have her children not gone ? What' have they not 
done? Her banner is planted on ice. Her banner is scorched in the 
sun. She lies athwart the lands and her shadow is over the seas." 



Toronto, Canada. 

{Concluded.) 

Vol. XXVII. -No. 2.-8 




THE VIRGINIA OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD* 

INFLUENCES WHICH CONSPIRED TO PRODUCE A REMARKABLE PEOPLE 

It is with the highest appreciation of the honor conferred on me at 
your last meeting in electing me as your presiding officer.for the year 1891, 
that I now enter upon one of the duties imposed upon me, and bespeak 
your attention for a short time while I read the annual address. And first, 
I heartily congratulate you on the flourishing condition of our association. 
Its constantly increasing membership, and the appreciation of its work 
both by the government and the public, prove incontestably the wisdom 
of the noble men who organized it, and the practical ability with which its 
affairs have been conducted. A great work lies before us, and we each 
should feel honored in being permitted to take part in its accomplishment, 

But while wc have abundant cause for thankfulness for the past, we 
cannot look back over the year just closing without a painful feeling of 
loss, in the death of some of our most distinguished and useful members. 
Within three weeks after the adjournment of our last annual meeting 
intelligence came of the death of our distinguished ex-president, the Hon. 
George Bancroft. His valuable life had been prolonged till it was enter- 
ing on the last decade of a century in the first year of which he was 
born ; and although exhausted nature had for some time been giving 
plain evidences of the approaching end, yet such was the loving regard in 
which he was held by his countrymen, that they were not prepared for his 
death, and the feeling was universal, that America had met with a 
grievous loss in the death of one of her greatest citizens. 

He was the great American historian, whose work will live, however 
excellent the coming historians of our country may be. To him we are 
indebted for the lifting up of American history from the subordinate 
place it had theretofore held, and fixing it in one of the highest niches in 
the temple of Clio. No one could have been better equipped for his 
great work. Learned, industrious, striving for accuracy, with ample 
means and opportunities for gathering materials, he was filled with that 
which gave soul to his work, an ardent attachment to American institu- 
tions. He succeeded in touching the public heart, and in popularizing 
our history to a degree seldom attained by historians of any age or 

* Inaugural address of Hon. William Wirt Henry, LL.D., president of the American Histori- 
cal Association, at its opening session in Washington, D. C, December 30, 1891. 






THE VIRGINIA OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 1 1 5 

country. Now that he is removed from us, his loving connection with 
our association will ever be remembered and regarded as one of our 
highest honors. 

During the month of January the Hon. James Phelan also departed 
this life. He had not lived to old age, but he had made his mark by his 
most valuable history of Tennessee, which will entitle his name to an 
honorable place on the roll of American historians. We should bear in 
mind that it was his exertions on the floor of congress which obtained for 
us our charter. 

During the fall our losses have been more numerous. Among them 
several names occur to me. The Hon. John H. B. Latrobe of Baltimore, 
who died 'in the eighty-eighth year of his age, after having distinguished 
himself in various walks of life, in all of which he displayed remarkable 
versatility and strength. Dr. George B. Loring of Massachusetts, whose 
commanding figure and genial face we shall miss from our meetings. He 
too had walked in various paths of life, and always with distinction ; but 
perhaps his greatest work was in stimulating the agricultural interests of 
New England. Professor John Larkin Lincoln, for more than half a 
century a distinguished instructor in Brown University, whose memory 
will ever be green, not only in that institution, but in the breasts of all 
who were so fortunate as to be taught by him. Gordon L. Ford of 
Brooklyn, whose devotion to learning was not only shown in his own 
acquirements, but in the magnificent library he accumulated. Happily he 
trained and left to us two learned and accomplished sons, whose lives have 
been thus far devoted to historical work. Useful and distinguished lives 
have also been ended in the death of P. W. Sheaf er, Esq., of Pottsville, 
Pennsylvania, author of a historical map of Pennsylvania ; of Professor 
Charles W. Bennett of Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, Illinois, who 
obtained the Ranke library for Syracuse University ; of Hon. Rufus King 
of Cincinnati, and of Thomas Akins, D.C.L., commissioner of the public 
records of Nova Scotia. 

But I must hasten to the subject of this address. Every effect is the 
resultant of antecedent forces, and our study of any people will not be 
complete until we learn the various causes which have united to produce 
the condition of the people we study. Such a tracing of antecedents is 
history in its largest sense. 

Taking the American colonies during the revolutionary period, nothing 
could be more interesting or instructive to an American, or indeed to any 
student of history, than a full account of the influences which conspired 
to produce the remarkable people who were then found in their borders. 



Il6 THE VIRGINIA OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 

Each colony had an individuality of its own, resulting from its develop- 
ment in a state of almost perfect isolation from the rest of the world. 
Each contained a large number of men of great capacity, of pure morals, 
and of unsurpassed patriotism. The continental congress of 1774 was a 
representative body which distinctly reflected the purity of character, the 
great intelligence, and the high state of Christian civilization to which the 
colonists had attained. That celebrated body of men were the admiration 
of Europe. The splendid tribute of Lord Chatham is familiar to every 
one, in which he declares as the result of his study of history, " that for 
solidity of reasoning, force of sagacity, and wisdom of conclusion under 
such a complication of difficult circumstances, no nation or body of men 
can stand in preference to the general congress at Philadelphia." 

Not so familiar is the tribute of Lord Camden. Said he : "I would 
have given half my fortune to have been a member of that which I believe 
to be the most virtuous body of men which ever had, or ever will, meet 
together in this world." 

It is true these were picked men, but the communities from which they 
were selected, and which selected them, must have been high in the scale 
of intelligence and purity to have had such men in their midst. It is true 
that men of great genius and force of character are from time to time met 
with in history, who seem to direct, if not give shape to, the destinies of their 
countries. But we must remember that these great characters, so gifted 
by nature, were themselves shaped by their environments, and to these we- 
must look for an explanation of their work. 

Following the ideas I have suggested, I propose in this paper to touch 
hurriedly upon the causes which conspired to produce the Virginia of the 
revolutionary period. 

The English of the seventeenth century were the outcome of an evolu- 
tion during three centuries of a people who were an amalgamation of 
three branches of the great Teutonic family with each other and with the 
aboriginal Britons. They were a people superior to any existing in the 
world. Developing in their sea-girt island without the disturbing influ- 
ences of outside nations, they formed a distinctive people in their habits, 
customs, and civil institutions. In these last they had attained a degree 
of freedom not known to the rest of the world. The great rights of person 
and of property were enjoyed under a protection that was fundamental to 
their system of jurisprudence, and in the arts and sciences, in philosophy 
and literature they were in the front rank of Christendom. In religion 
they were Protestants, and had all the advantages of that great unshack- 
ling of the human mind which was accomplished by the reformation- 



THE VIRGINIA OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 117 

These were the people that colonized Virginia in the early part of the 
seventeenth century. They came to a fertile land, lying in a temperate 
climate between thirty-six and forty degrees northern latitude, and one 
which was peculiarly fitted for agricultural pursuits from the sea on the 
east to the mountains, the western border of their settlements. Every 
variety of vegetable production which is found in the temperate zones was 
raised in this area in profusion. And such as bore transportation' to the 
mother country were easily shipped from convenient landings on the banks 
of the Chesapeake, or on the noble rivers which emptied into the great 
bay. Thus agriculture became the favorite pursuit. Speaking of the 
favored region of Virginia and the Carolinas, and the mountains which 
constitute its western border, Professor Shaler, in his late valuable work 
styled Nature and Man in America, says: 

"This region of southern uplands has in its soil, its forests, and its 
mineral resources a combination of advantages perhaps greater than those 
of any other equal area in the world. In addition to these favorable 
conditions, the region possesses an admirable climate. In winter the tem- 
perature falls low enough to insure the preservation of bodily vigor; in 
summer the heat is less ardent than in the lower-lying regions of the New 
England and New York group of states. In the Virginia section we find 
a climate resembling in range of temperatures those which characterize 
the most favored regions of the old world ; and it is there, perhaps, we may 
look for the preservation of our race's best characteristics." 

After the English had planted Virginia, there was a small immigration 
of Germans and a larger one of French Huguenots, but they did not sen- 
sibly affect the characteristics of the colony, and soon became intermixed 
with the English. A much larger addition to the colony was the stream of 
Scotch-Irish from the North of Ireland, that poured into the valley between 
the Blue Ridge and Allegheny mountains during the first half of the eigh- 
teenth century, overflowing sometimes the mountain barriers. In the 
valley they retained their national characteristics in a remarkable degree. 
They were strict Presbyterians, and the church and schoolhouse were 
always found among the first structures they built. Tenacious of their 
rights in church and state, they were foremost in opposing tyranny in every 
form. Their constant warfare with the Indians made them a race of war- 
riors, and they have added to the glory of Virginia in every war in which 
she has ever engaged. It has been said that the Virginians were an 
agricultural people; they were pre-eminently so; and the geography of 
the colony as well as the climate gave direction to their employment. 
Between the mountains and the sea many streams water the land afford- 



Il8 THE VIRGINIA OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 

ing fertile bottoms. The accessibility of deep water to nearly every part 
of the colony prevented the growth of large cities. In fact as late as the 
revolution Norfolk was the largest town in the colony, and it only con- 
tained six thousand inhabitants. The very wealth of Virginia in harbors 
contributed to her poverty in cities. 

The profusion of productions afforded by the soil and climate stimu- 
lated the hospitality of the inhabitants, of whom generous living became a 
characteristic. But while soil and climate thus united to give ease to Vir- 
ginia life, they rendered the colonists too well satisfied with what they 
enjoyed to engage in arduous or speculative enterprises in pursuit of 
wealth. They were content, with few exceptions, to work their lands and 
leave to others merchandise, mining and manufacturing. 

Undoubtedly the production of the soil which had most influence on 
the development of Virginia character was tobacco. It is said that John 
Rolfe, the husband of Pocahontas, first cultivated it in a systematic and 
intelligent manner. Certain it is that from an early period of Virginia's 
history it was considered its most valuable product. It was easily trans- 
ported across the Atlantic, and found a ready market in Europe. It 
became the money crop of the planters, and from it was derived the wealth 
which characterized them as a class. Its value was a strong preventive of 
the growth of towns, as the planters lived in great comfort, and often in 
elegance, on their plantations, and felt no desire to exchange plantation 
for city life. It was by the cultivation of this plant, too, requiring much 
labor, that slavery became fixed on the colony, an institution which was 
most potent in shaping the history of Virginia. The slaves were cheap 
labor in the cultivation of the soil, and were brought to the colony in such 
numbers that, with their natural increase, they became nearly half of the 
population in the eighteenth century. Their use in different kinds of 
manual labor induced the whites to hold themselves aloof from it; and as 
it came to pass that nearly every white man owned one or more slaves, 
the whites devoted themselves to superintending their own slaves, or 
those of the larger planters. 

The custom of entailing estates kept up the large plantations, and their 
owners soon developed into representatives of the ancient barons of Eng- 
land. To a large degree they lived independent of the world around them, 
producing on their plantations whatever they needed. The following pic- 
ture of William Cabell, of Union Hill, in Nelson county, from the accom- 
plished pen of the late Hugh Blair Grigsby, is a fair representation of the 
class to which he belonged : " He was a planter in the large acceptation 
of the word, as it was understood rather in the interior than on the sea- 






THE VIRGINIA OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 1 19 

board, which included not only the cultivation of a staple, in its ordinary- 
agricultural aspects, but the construction of the instruments, and the prep- 
aration and manufacture of articles, which the eastern planters of that 
day, like many of their successors, were content to find ready made to 
their hands. He fashioned his iron on his own stithy; he built his houses 
with his own workmen ; he' wove into cloth the wool from his own sheep, 
and cotton from his own patch ; he made his shoes out of his own leather. 
He managed his various estates with that masterly skill with which a gen- 
eral superintends his army, or a statesman the interests of a community 
intrusted to his charge." 

The institution of slavery had its evils, which may be traced in the his- 
tory of the whites, and which have been much discussed and often exag- 
gerated, into which, however, I do not propose here to enter. But as 
regards the African race there is little to lament, in comparison with the. 
great benefits slavery conferred on it. From a state of barbarism it raised 
the race into a state of civilization, to which no other barbarous people 
have ever attained in so short a time. The late African slave is now rated 
by our government as superior to the American Indian, and to the natives 
of the Celestial empire of China, and is intrusted with the highest privi- 
leges of an American citizen. The effect upon the whites was in some 
respects ennobling, as it greatly stimulated the independence of character 
and love of freedom which characterize rulers, whether in kingdoms or on 
plantations. That profoundly philosophical statesman, Edmund Burke, 
in his speech on " Conciliation with America," delivered the 22d of March, 
1775, remarked upon the spirit of liberty developed in the masters of slaves 
in these words : 

" In Virginia and the Carolinas they have a vast multitude of slaves. 
When this is the case in any part of the world, those who are free are by far 
the most proud and jealous of their freedom. Freedom is to them not only 
an enjoyment, but a kind of rank and privilege. Not seeing there that 
freedom, as in countries where it is a common blessing and as broad and 
general as the air, may be united with much abject toil, with great misery, 
with all the exterior of servitude, liberty looks amongst them like some- 
thing that is more noble and liberal. I do not mean to commend the 
superior morality of this sentiment, which has at least as much pride 
as virtue in it, but I cannot alter the nature of man. The fact is so, and 
those people of the southern colonies are much more strongly, and with a 
higher and more stubborn spirit, attached to liberty than those north- 
ward. Such were all the ancient commonwealths; such our Gothic ances- 
tors ; such in our days were the Poles ; and such will be all masters of slaves 



120 THE VIRGINIA OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 

who are not slaves themselv.es. In such a people the haughtiness of dom- 
ination combines with the spirit of freedom, fortifies it, and renders it 
invincible." 

The institution of slavery had a marked effect on the women of Vir- 
ginia. By it they were exempt from the menial duties of life, and in 
their country homes they devoted themselves f.o the management of their 
households and the cultivation of their minds and manners. By reason of 
this the name "Virginia matron" became a synonym of all that was 
refined in manners, and pure and lovely in character. It is a great mistake 
to suppose that the Virginia matron led an idle or useless life. While her 
duties were not menial, they were nevertheless ample to occupy her whole 
time. As a mistress on a plantation she had the care of much that only 
a woman can attend to. To feed, to clothe, to teach, to guide, to com- 
fort, to nurse, to provide for and to watch over a great household, and 
keep its complex machinery in noiseless order — these were the duties 
which devolved on her and which she performed to the admiration of all 
who came in contact with Virginia life. The mild climate in which they 
lived developed in the Virginia women a beauty of person commensurate 
with their loveliness of character, and these two conspired to stimulate 
the chivalrous regard in which they were held by the men. This regard 
was indicated in the courteous bearing of the men toward them. The 
Virginian indeed was courteous to all, and his bearing in life came to be 
described in the two words " Virginia gentleman." 

The English people who came to Virginia, with few exceptions, did 
not leave England because of oppression in church or state ; they brought 
with them the literature, the manners and customs, and the civil and 
religious institutions of the mother country, to all of which they were pro- 
foundly attached. It was simply the planting of an English acorn in the 
rich Virginia soil of America, from which sprang an American-British oak, 
which under the genial sky of the new world was destined to outstrip its 
English original. 

The form of government allowed by the early charters was potent in 
the development of Virginia character, and this form, with admirable flexi- 
bility, adapted itself to the individuality assumed by the colon)- in its 
progress. The executive was a governor appointed by the crown, or was 
his authorized deputy. He was advised by a council selected from the 
colony, and similarly appointed. They were considered as representa- 
tives of royal authority, and constituted a mimic court. Their style 
of living was in accordance with their high rank, and was more or less 
imitated by the rich men of the colony according to their proximity to 



THE VIRGINIA OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 121 

the capital. Their influence was great, as they dispensed the patronage 
of the colony. In addition to their executive functions, the governor 
and council sat as a court, and for years was the only court in the colony. 
After the institution of county courts, which was at an early date, the 
governor and council retained much original jurisdiction, and became also 
a court of appeals. This important body also acted as a branch of the 
assembly and thus took the place of the house of lords in the colonial 
system. Its members were the representatives of the aristocracy of the 
colony. 

As a legislative body it was merged into an assembly in 1619, when 
a house of burgesses was summoned composed of members chosen by 
the people. This, the first representative body which ever sat in 
America, had a controlling influence in the development of Virginia 
character. The elective franchise, which was for years exercised by all 
adult males, gave, as nothing else could, a dignity to citizenship. Each 
man felt himself a part of the state in the fullest sense, and became inter- 
ested in knowing and directing its affairs. The house of burgesses was 
the Cerberus that guarded with ever-watchfui eye the political rights of 
the colonists. Thus as early as 1624 we find it declaring that " the gov- 
ernor shall not lay any taxes or ympositions upon the colony, their lands or 
commodities, otherway than by authority of the general assembly, to be 
levyed and ymployed as the said assembly shall appoynt." 

This claim of the representatives of the people to the sole right to lay 
taxes, the great principle which is the corner-stone of British freedom, 
was never abandoned by the Virginians. The acts of assembly were sub- 
ject to the royal supervision, and were sometimes disallowed. But enough 
were approved to allow the development of the colony, according to the 
law of evolution to which it was subjected. This separate assembly for the 
colony of necessity led to the straining, and final snapping, of the cords 
which bound it to England and impeded its progress toward a great state. 
Men who became accustomed to a distinct legislative body, their own 
immediate representatives, ceased to regard a parliament sitting beyond 
the ocean, in which they were not represented, as authorized to legislate 
for them ; and with this right claimed by parliament the question of 
separation became a mere question of time. 

The county organization of the colony was based upon, and followed 
closely, the shire system of England. It was a microcosm of the state. 
The county lieutenant, its chief officer, was vested with executive power, 
and had command of the militia. He was selected from the upper class, 
known as " gentlemen." The county court exercised judicial functions, 



122 THE VIRGINIA OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 

and was composed of justices of the peace, who were selected from the 
men of highest character and intelligence in the county, and held office 
for life. It was a self-perpetuating body, vacancies being filled by appoint- 
ment of the governor upon the recommendation of the court. No pay 
was attached to the office of justice, except the possibility that the 
incumbent might become the sheriff of the county for a limited time, 
which last office was filled from the bench of justices in the order of their 
commissions. The office of justice thus being a highly honorable one, 
and filled by the best men in the county, the influence of the incumbents 
was very great. These resided in different parts of the county, and thus 
each' neighborhood was supplied with an officer. They were the advisers 
of the people, the composers of their difficulties, as well as the judges in 
their petty litigations in the single justice's court. Naturally they came 
to be regarded with the greatest respect, and to be looked up to as 
examples of purity and intelligence, to be imitated by their fellow- 
citizens. Thus their influence was most elevating in its tendency. To 
this class Virginia was chiefly indebted for the high character of her 
people. Indeed most of the Virginians who were distinguished in the 
revolutionary period were, or had been, justices of the peace. 

While the shrievalty was in their hands defaults in the amounts of the 
revenue collected were almost unknown. The courts in which they sat had 
their jurisdiction enlarged from time to time, till it became very exten- 
sive; they also laid the county levy, and passed on the claims to be paid 
out of it. These courts, unlike their English originals, were held at the 
several county seats, and during most of their history were monthly. The 
monthly county courts were important factors in Virginia life. At them 
there was always a large gathering from different parts of the county, and 
much business was transacted, while county-men, living at a distance from 
each other, met and formed acquaintances and entered into business rela- 
tions. Candidates for offices, elective by the people, attended, and they 
were required to set forth their claims in public speeches, and to debate 
with their opponents. This contributed to the cultivation of public 
speaking, and by these public debates the ordinary citizen was instructed 
in the questions of the day. In these tribunals the lawyers of Virginia 
were trained, and this training equipped for the higher walks of profes- 
sional life the great lawyers and judges that Virginia furnished before, 
during, and after the revolution — such men as Edmund Pendleton, Peter 
Lyons, St. George Tucker, Spencer Roane and John Marshall. 

When in the convention of 1829 it was sought to change the system, 
there was a united protest from a number of the ablest men in the body. 



THE VIRGINIA OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 123 

The accomplished P. P. Barbour, who afterward sat on the supreme court 
of the United States, said : " After a twenty-five years acquaintance with 
the county courts of Virginia, it is my conscientious opinion that there is 
not, and never has been, a tribunal under the sun where more substantial 
practical justice is administered. . . . The idea was suggested to me 
fifteen years ago by one of the most distinguished men we had among us ; 
who declared it to me as his belief, that the county courts of Virginia 
exerted an important political influence on her population ; the monthly 
meeting of neighbors and of professional men caused the people to 
mingle and associate more than they otherwise would do, and produced a 
discussion of topics of public interest in regard to the administration of 
government, and the politics of the community. These meetings, per- 
petually recurring in all the counties of the state, constitute so many 
points from which political information was thus diffused among the 
people, and their interest increased in public affairs." 

The distinguished lawyer and statesman Benjamin Watkins Leigh 
followed Mr. Barbour, and said : " The eulogium pronounced by the 
learned gentleman from Orange is perfectly just, in declaring that these 
tribunals are not merely good but the best on earth." He further 
declared that only two charges of corruption had been brought against 
Virginia's justices during the existence of the office for two hundred 
years. Chief Justice John Marshall joined in the praises of this venerable 
body of public servants, and added : " I am not in the habit of bestowing 
extravagant eulogies upon my countrymen. I would rather hear them 
pronounced by others ; but it is a truth, that no state in the Union has 
hitherto enjoyed more complete internal quiet than this commonwealth, 
and I believe most firmly that this state of things is mainly to be ascribed 
to the practical operation of our county courts. The magistrates who 
compose those courts consist in general of the best men in their respect- 
ive counties; they act in the spirit of peace-makers, and allay rather than 
excite the small disputes and differences which will sometimes arise 
among neighbors. It is certainly much owing to this that so much 
harmony prevails amongst us. These courts must be preserved." 

It was not till 1852 that the system was changed, and justices were 
made elective by the people and were paid for their services. Since then 
the Virginia justice has depreciated, and the office has ceased to be held 
in honor, and now the justices no longer hold the county court. 

In front of the court, when in session, sat the clerk, always an accom- 
plished officer. He held his office by appointment by the court and during 
good behavior. The interests of the community at large were closely con- 



124 THE VIRGINIA OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 

nected with the responsibilities of his office. He was the keeper of the 
records of the court and of the muniments of title to the lands in the 
county. His fellow county-men sought him for information on many sub- 
jects, and he became the legal adviser of the ordinary citizen. The office 
was often retained in families for generations, and the incumbents were, as 
a class, as admirable as any country ever possessed. Besides these officers 
there were sheriffs, coroners, constables and surveyors, of whom I need 
but make mention. 

The colony was laid off into parishes, in order to accommodate the 
affairs of the Established church. These were managed through vestries, 
which laid levies for the purchase of glebes, the building and repairing of 
churches, and the support of the ministers and of the poor. The mem- 
bers of the vestries were also men selected from the best class in the com- 
munity by the parishes, and were generally prominent members of the 
church. This county organization was a practical training of the people 
in local self-government, and this principle, so important in our form of 
government, was one to which the Virginians have been ever ardently 
attached. 

In a new country with a sparse population the advantages of educa- 
tion were of necessity very limited. The children were taught by their 
parents, or not at all. But as the country filled up and the people 
became prosperous they became more anxious to educate their children, 
and schools were multiplied. The historian Beverley, in describing the 
state of the colony in 1720, says: "There arc large tracts of land, houses, 
and other things granted to form schools, for the education of children in 
many parts of the country ; and some of these are so large that of them- 
selves they are a handsome maintenance to a master, but the additional 
allowance which gentlemen give with their sons, renders them a comfort- 
able subsistence. These schools have been founded by legacies of well 
inclined gentlemen, and the management of them hath commonly been 
left to the discretion of the county court, or to the vestry of the respective 
parishes. In all other places, when such endowments have not been 
already made, the people join and build schools for their children, where 
they learn upon easy terms." 

These last, being often situated in worn-out fields, acquired the name 
of " old field schools." They furnished the education of the average Vir- 
ginian male and female in colonial days. That education which has been 
facetiously styled learning the three R's, reading, writing, and arithmetic, 
was very general. This is proved by the ancient records preserved in 
some of the counties. These show that of those who came for marriage 



THE VIRGINIA OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 125 

licenses the number who could not write their names was small. As early 
as 1660 the assembly moved for a college in which the higher branches of 
education were to be taught. But the scheme only took practical shape 
when in 1692 the English sovereigns William and Mary endowed the 
college, which has ever since borne their names. The influence of this 
institution for good upon the colony and state of Virginia has been incal- 
culable. When its halls were opened the necessity of sending Virginia 
youths to England to acquire the higher education no longer existed, and 
most of the leaders of thought in the colony thereafter had the advantage 
of early training in the capital of the colony. This intensified the peculiar 
characteristics of Virginia society. The college trained and gave to the 
world during the revolutionary period a host of statesmen whose names 
are indelibly impressed on the page of American history. Had it num- 
bered among its alumni only Thomas Jefferson and John Marshall, it 
would have laid America under lasting obligations. But besides these 
towering figures we recognize on her roll Benjamin Harrison, Carter 
Braxton, Thomas Nelson, and George Wythe, all signers of the declaration 
of independence, Peyton Randolph, president of the first continental 
congress, James Monroe, president of the United States, and a host of 
others, whose names are interwoven in the history of their country. 

Nor must it be forgotten that by charging the college with the exami- 
nation and commission of land surveyors, it was made a part of govern- 
mental machinery ; and that in giving his first commission to George 
Washington, it was instrumental in training the father of his country for 
the great part he bore in the affairs of America. 

I have thus hurriedly indicated some of the elements which united in 
the making of Virginia. Upon the nobility of her people at the revolu- 
tionary period, and their great services in the memorable struggle which 
secured free institutions to America and to the world, I need not dwell, 
as these are known to all. There is one thing however that may be 
mentioned, for which the continent cannot be too grateful to her. It is 
her efficient service in forming and securing the federal Union. Indeed 
the Virginia leaders of the revolutionary period were most conspicuous for 
their broad and national views. These extended not only to a national 
union but to the cultivation of a distinctive American character. Of these 
leaders none showed more interest in this subject. than Washington. In 
concluding this paper I would call the attention of the association and of 
the country to one of his earnest recommendations having this end in 
view. It is the establishment of a grand national university at the 
federal capital. His views upon this important subject will be best shown 



126 THE VIRGINIA OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 

by the following extract from his will, by which he dedicated to this object 
fifty shares in the Potomac Company, put at his disposal by the state of 
Virginia. Said he : 

" It has always been a source of serious regret with me to see the youth 
of these United States sent to foreign countries for the purposes of edu- 
cation, often before their minds were formed or they had imbibed any 
adequate ideas of the happiness of their own, contracting too frequently 
not only habits of dissipation and extravagance, but principles unfriendly 
to republican government and to the true and genuine liberties of man- 
kind, which thereafter are rarely overcome. For these reasons it has been 
my ardent wish to see a plan devised on a liberal scale which would have a 
tendency to spread systematic ideas through all parts of this rising empire, 
thereby to do away local attachments and state prejudices as far as the 
nature of things would, or indeed ought to admit, from our national coun- 
cils. Looking anxiously forward to the accomplishment of so desirable an 
object as this is, in my estimation, my mind has not been able to contem- 
plate any plan more likely to effect the measure than the establishment of 
a university in a central part of the United States, to which youths of 
fortune and talents from all parts thereof might be sent for the comple- 
tion of their education in all branches of polite literature, in the arts and 
sciences, in acquiring knowledge in the principles of politics and good 
government ; and as a matter of infinite importance in my judgment, by 
associating with each other and forming friendships in juvenile years, be 
enabled to free themselves in a proper degree from those local prejudices 
and habitual jealousies which have just been mentioned, and. which carried 
to excess, are never failing sources of disquietude to the public mind, and 
pregnant with mischievous consequences to this country." 

The establishment of such an university he urged in his speech to 
Congress on December 7th, 1796, at the same time that he advised the 
establishment of a national military school. Had his well-matured views 
been then acted upon in establishing such a liberal national school, the 
result might have been a check to that passionate sectionalism which made 
inevitable the great civil strife of 1861-65. But it is not now too late to 
act upon the dying request of the father of his country. Indeed the lapse 
of a century seems to bring with it the fullness of time for the realization 
of Washington's great conception. The subject has been ably discussed 
by our accomplished secretary, Dr. Herbert B. Adams, in his most valuable 
monograph upon William and Mary College, issued in 1887 by the Bureau 
of Education, who traces Washington's proposal to his connection with 
that college. Among other most important results which might be accom- 



THE VIRGINIA OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 12/ 

plished by such an institution, he points out the education of youth from 
all parts of the Union in the special branches required to be learned for 
the proper conduct of our civil service, and he most justly remarks that, 
" there is in these times as great need of special knowledge in civil service 
as in military or naval science. A civil academy for the training of repre- 
sentative American youth, would be as great boon to the American people 
as the military and naval academies have already proved." 

Such a national university need not excite the jealousy of our many 
admirable institutions of higher learning, but should be made the capstone 
of the American educational system. It is a hopeful sign of the interest 
which is awakening on this subject to find that among the committees of 
the United States Senate one is appointed to consider the subject of a 
national university. Let us hope that the day is not far distant when an 
additional memorial will be erected to Washington, the most suitable of 
all, in the establishment of a grand national school of universal learning, 
into which not only American youth may proudly enter, but to which will 
be attracted the youth of other lands eagerly seeking to imbibe American 
ideas with which to infuse new life into the older governments of the 
world. 



& IXZJl^ AjvU Jl^T^y 



Richmond, Virginia. 



TRIBUTE TO THE MEMORY OF THEODORE PARKER 

UNVEILING THE MONUMENT AT FLORENCE, ITALY 

It will be remembered that Theodore Parker, the great American philan- 
thropist, orator and divine, who died in Florence, Italy, in i860, was bur- 
ied in the old historical Protestant cemetery of that city. Owing to the 
ravages of time, the stone erected over his grave became defaced, and it 
has recently been replaced by a white marble monument embellished with 
a medallion portrait of Parker and an inscription in letters of red bronze, 
the voluntary work of the celebrated American sculptor, Wm. W. Story, 
of Rome. On the twenty-sixth of November, 1 891, this memorial stone 
was unveiled and dedicated in the presence of a large number of Americans. 
It was indeed fitting that Theodore Parker, a descendant of the Puritans, 
and a radical latter-day development of their Protestantism, should have 
had his praises thus sung on their Thanksgiving Day, and that his friends 
and admirers should have assembled for the purpose at the Tuscan capital 
where he died. The monument, hidden under the folds of a large Amer- 
ican flag, was unveiled by Miss Grace Ellery Channing — granddaughter of 
the famous Unitarian divine, Dr. Channing, a contemporary and friend of 
Theodore Parker. The medallion was much admired, as was the grave 
itself covered with flowers, and planted with Boston ivy taken from the 
walls of the late James Freeman Clarke's church. 

As the ceremony was entirely unsectarian in its character religious 
services were omitted. The assemblage embraced several clergymen of 
various denominations, Episcopal, Baptist, Methodist, and Presbyterian, 
and many of the American states from Massachusetts to Virginia were 
represented among the tourists and Florentine residents present. There 
were among these two or three travelers from Lexington, Massachusetts, 
the birthplace of Theodore Parker, whose grandfather, Captain Parker, 
commanded the farmers in that celebrated revolutionary battle — -the 
captain who said to his men, " Don't fire unless fired upon ; but if the 
English really mean war, let it begin here." 

The presiding officer at the ceremonies of the unveiling was the United 
States consul at Florence who read a sympathetic letter from the Italian 
statesman and scholar, Professor Pasquale Villari — now minister of pub- 
lic instruction in the king's cabinet at Rome, in which he expressed his sin- 






TRIBUTE TO THE MEMORY OF THEODORE PARKER 129 

cere regret that public business prevented his personal attendance at the 
meeting, and his highest admiration for the life-work of Theodore Parker. 

The orator of the day, Hon. Charles K. Tuckerman, formerly United 
States minister to Greece, was then introduced and said : 

" Fellow-countrymen and friends, Thirty years have elapsed since an 
assemblage of mourners stood on the spot where we now stand to witness 
the interment of a New England clergyman, who, driven to this milder 
climate by the ravages of disease, died under the sunny skies of Florence 
— the city of flowers. Although a stranger in a strange land, the elements 
of nature combined as it were to cast the influences of beauty and of 
peacefulness over his departing soul ; a reflection so pleasing in itself that 
it must have served as a balm to the wounded hearts of those in his own 
far-distant city who were deprived of the satisfaction of paying in person 
their last tribute to his memory. 

We, his fellow-countrymen, now in Florence, assemble to-day around 
the grave of Theodore Parker, not to eulogize his character, which needs 
no eulogium, but with the simple tribute of our presence to dedicate this 
new memorial stone that those who may wander into this sacred enclosure 
may look upon his features, sculptured in enduring marble — a work of love 
from the skillful artist — and happily recall the virtues and heroism of a 
man who did so much to elevate the tone of morality in the community in 
which he lived, and to enforce the principle of human freedom where it 
was trampled under foot. It is to be regretted that some one who knew 
Theodore Parker in his day and generation, some one who was personally 
intimate with his private life, and who is better qualified than I am to 
speak of him, is not standing in the place I occupy. An ordinary man 
may well shrink from the task, however brief and simple, when he recalls 
the fact that the address delivered in his native city on the occasion of 
Parker's death was pronounced by one of the most intellectual men that 
America has produced, Ralph Waldo Emerson. Let me quote a single 
sentence from that address as appropriate to this occasion, and which so 
beautifully and so completely describes the influence of Theodore Parker 
that it seems almost presumptuous in me to add another word. ' His 
genius,' said Emerson, ' is only transferred, and the nature of the world, 
the inspirations of youth, the stars in their courses, must affirm the truths 
he so valiantly spoke.' 

Theodore Parker rose by his own inherent strength to the commanding 
position he occupied as a fervent preacher, a social benefactor and a 
political reformer. Without titles or worldly honors, without the claims 
of wealth or of inherited distinction, a simple clergyman of a simple 

Vol. XXVII.— No. 2.-9 



I30 TRIBUTE TO THE MEMORY OF THEODORE PARKER 

faith, he achieved what rank or position cannot by itself achieve — the 
triumph of a generous heart, a noble mind and a sublime faith in the 
accomplishment of the task he had set himself to perform. There were 
thousands who sympathized with the cause he especially espoused — 
freedom for the slave — but it was left for him and a small band of 
enthusiastic workers in the field to perform what others only professed. 
Many disagreed with him in his method ; preferring moderation to energy, 
and persuasion to dogmatism — and I, for one, confess that I held to 
the latter opinion — but Parker felt that the only way to erase from the 
escutcheon of the republic a foul and degrading blot was to adopt that 
style of oratory which Daniel Webster described as ' something greater 
and higher than all eloquence — action; noble, sublime, god-like action.' 
He felt that he was not appealing to a congregation of worshipers, nor to 
a state, nor to a country, but to a universal public. His audience was the 
world, embracing every shade of condition and opinion, to reach which 
vehemence and assertion were the implements to be employed. Believing 
that the principle of freedom is universal in its application, he would 
stoop neither to conciliation nor to compromise; but with the courage of 
a soldier in the battle for humanity, he struck out with the full force of his 
nature, without fear and without favor. 

' Every great principle that he affirmed amid persecution,' says Moncure 
D. Conway, 'has prevailed. The slave for whom he pleaded is free; the 
oppressions of woman which he pointed out are removed ; and the free 
and tolerant religion which he proclaimed is now that of the leading 
preachers of nearly all the churches in America.' It is this daring spirit, 
this unbending resolution, this overconquering will that has surrounded 
the name of Theodore Parker with a halo, and ranked him among the 
illustrious men of his country." (Here Mr. Tuckerman read a sketch of 
Theodore Parker's life contributed by Moncure D. Conway.) In conclu- 
sion the orator said : " Friends, it is fitting that the body of such a man 
should repose in such a spot as this, and in the company of other 
illustrious foreigners of the same race as himself. Here Walter Savage 
Landor, one of the loftiest exponents of the English tongue, and Eliza- 
beth Barrett Browning, one of the noblest singers of freedom and the 
claims of humanity, sleep under the sunlight and the starlight of a land 
which, like his own, rejoices in the blessings of liberty and union acquired 
by the heroic efforts of its people. 

This visit of ours to his grave, this memorial stone, these brief and 
imperfect words, are but evidences that the lapse of years has not 
impaired the respect his countrymen owe to the memory of a truly good 



TRIBUTE TO THE MEMORY OF THEODORE PARKER 131 

and a truly great man. But above and beyond these simple tributes 
extend the moral influences of his life and teachings, which neither 
monument nor epitaph nor spoken words can exemplify or enhance. 

'He sleeps unconscious in his dust ; 
But unto those, the human throng 
To whom his faith and works belong, 
He leaves his life in perfect trust.' " 

The oration was followed by a poem to the memory of Theodore 
Parker, written for the occasion by William W. Story : 

His was a life inspired by noble thought 

And dauntless courage. Firm with purpose high 

For freedom, justice, truth, humanity, 
Throughout his life he strenuously fought. 
He practiced what with fervid power he taught, 

And "Love, believe, act, fear not," was his cry. 

God to the brave and just is ever nigh, 
And heaven must by the high, strait way be sought. 

Conquered by fell disease, life's battle done, 

With all its pains, strife, cares, death's victory won, 

All that was mortal here is laid to rest ; 
But his undying thoughts, words, acts, live on 

To lift the fallen, cheer and aid the oppressed — 
And to his memory here we raise this stone. 

We can, alas ! but throw a worthless wreath 

Upon his grave, and heave a useless sigh ! 

But still, though gone, his spirit hovers nigh 
To strengthen us in hope and thought and faith. 
All that he said, was, did, is ours, till death 

Unfold the hoped-for future and lift high 

The veil that shrouds man's life in mystery, 
And all this world is vanished like a breath. 

Let us have faith that, though no longer here, 
He still is going on beyond this life, 
Beyond its ignorant struggles, doubts and strife, 

In some far region, in some higher sphere, 
With loftier duties and with loftier life, 

Where all that here is dark at last is clear. 



SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES 

HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED * 

Part I. 

In every conflict of opposing and enduring forces in the sphere of poli- 
tics, we must distinguish between the forces themselves and the point of 
their impact. Yet it is only as we take the forces at the point where they 
impinge that we can ascertain either their nature or their momentum, 
either the modes of their composition or the resultant direction in which 
they are tending at any given moment. The discovery of the New World 
brought into the sphere of European politics a vast complex of inter- 
national forces which found their first collisions in the conquest, partition 
and settlement of the North and South American continents, that is, in 
the seizure and occupation of waste and derelict lands in the domain of 
savagery, to be exploited under a higher civilization as new sources of 
economical advantage, as new fields of religious propagandism, and as new 
seats of political aggrandizement. 

The independence of the United States, followed as it soon was by the 
independence of the Spanish-American states, put the free play of these 
European forces in circumscription and confine, so far as they had pre- 
viously moved in schemes of colonization or in projects of the Holy Alli- 
ance proposing to make these continents an appendix to the European 
equilibrium. " The Monroe doctrine," under the first of its heads, was a 
notice served on European states by the government of the United States 
that " the North and South American continents, by the free and inde- 
pendent condition which they had assumed and maintained [in the year 
1823] were henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future coloni- 
zation by any European power." From that day to this no European 
power has planted any new colony on any part of the American conti- 
nents. "The Monroe doctrine" under the second of its heads declared it 
" impossible that the allied powers should extend their political system 

* This paper is in part the fruit of studies which began more than thirty years ago, when, on 
thebrink of our civil war, the writer was called, as one of the editors of the National Intelligencer, 
to review in that journal the successive phases of "the Territorial Controversy." The point of 
view is of course entirely changed, for what was then discussed as a lesson in politics is here dis- 
cussed as a lesson in history, with the difference of perspective that is implied in the well-known 
saying of Freeman. 



SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 133 

to any portion of either continent without endangering our peace and 
happiness." From that day to this the independent states of North and 
South America have been free to work out their own destiny apart from 
the dynastic schemes of Europe. 

With the declaration of independence by the United States there arose, 
however, a new order of economical and political forces, and these new 
forces could but generate a new order of problems when they came to find 
new points of impact in the unoccupied territory comprised within the 
bounds of the federal Union. The most difficult of all these problems, 
and therefore the point at which the conflict of opposing forces has always 
been hottest, must still be sought by the historian in questions relating to 
the occupation and government of land considered as the seat and symbol 
of economical precedence or political supremacy. Everybody knows that 
the first great dissidence among the states of the American Union — a 
dissidence which parted states during the revolutionary period as the dis- 
tinction between Whig and Tory parted individuals — was that which arose 
concerning the ownership and political disposition of the so-called " back 
lands." How this question delayed the ratification of the articles of con- 
federation until the revolutionary war was approaching its end is matter 
of familiar history. 

But it is not so generally known, I think, that this same question inter- 
posed an almost insuperable barrier to the conclusion of peace with Eng- 
land in 1783, and well nigh lighted up the flames of a civil war between 
the " landed " and the " landless " states at the moment of their free and 
independent autonomy. This same unsettled problem so perplexed the 
deliberations of the federal convention of 1787 that it was the one 
question which the patriots and sages of that body could neither solve nor 
abate. Hence it was that, as I have shown in a paper previously read 
before the American Historical Association, they agreed to confess and 
avoid the then existing antithesis between the " landed " and the " land- 
less " states by leaving it behind them in the limbo of indefinite abeyance. 
It was because of an irreconcilable feud between these two classes of 
states that the adherents of each in the convention could agree on no form 
of words that should ascertain the relative rights of each class and of the 
United States in the matter of the new states that were to be erected on 
what was then the unoccupied • territory formerly known as " the crown 
lands." 

On the 18th of August, 1787, and on motion of Mr. Madison, the com- 
mittee of detail 011 the digest of the constitution was instructed to con- 
sider the expediency of adding to the prerogatives of the federal legisla- 



134 SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 

ture an express grant of power to institute temporary governments for 
new states arising on the lands not yet occupied. A discussion of the 
clause providing for the admission of new states into the Union brought 
the pending discord between the two classes of states to a violent rupture. 
Those members who believed that the United States had established a 
rightful claim to the " back lands " previously vested in the crown, but now 
wrested from the crown by the joint efforts of all the states, were vehe- 
ment in demanding an express recognition of this claim in the terms of the 
constitution, and when they could not extort such a concession from mem- 
bers representing states which had not yet ceded their unoccupied land, 
they were compelled to satisfy themselves with a simple plea that the 
constitution should at least be silent on the subject. 

Even Daniel Carroll, of Maryland, representing a state strenuous above 
all others in asserting the claims of the Union to a proprietary and political 
interest in the "back lands," was brought to such a state of despondency 
by the conflict of opinion on this whole subject that, instead of pressing 
his motion that " nothing in the constitution should be construed to affect 
the claims of the United States to vacant lands ceded to them by the 
treaty of peace," he was fain to withdraw that motion, and to propose 
that nothing in the constitution should be so construed as to alter under 
this head " the claims of the United States or of the individual states, but 
that all such claims should be examined into, and decided upon by the 
supreme court of the United States." 

It was immediately on the heel of this " irrepressible conflict of 
opposing and enduring forces " in the matter of new states to be carved 
out of public lands, that Gouverneur Morris moved to transfer the whole 
conflict from the question of admitting new states to the question of 
governing the territory considered as property of the United States. He 
proposed that the convention should agree to disagree as to the appli- 
cation of the territorial clause to so much of the public lands as was still 
in dispute between two classes of states and the United States. Hence 
the origin of the territorial clause as it stands to-day in the constitution : 
" The congress shall have power to dispose of, and make all needful rules 
and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the 
United States, and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as to 
prejudice any claims of the United States or of any particular state." 
That is, this grant of power was made absolute for the purposes of con- 
gressional legislation respecting the territory, and was left as colorless, 
indefinite and nugatory as possible in respect of its application to any 
conflicting claims which should be put forward by either the United States 






SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 135 

or any of the particular states at variance on this subject. And this was 
avowedly done in order to blink and leave in statu quo a feud which could 
not be adjusted, and in order to remit to the federal judiciary the settle- 
ment of a question which the framers of the constitution felt themselves 
unable to solve. We thus see that the same territorial quarrels which had 
dragged their slow length along through the revolutionary period were the 
hissing serpents which came to the cradle of our infant Hercules before he 
was yet wrapped in the swaddling bands of the constitution, and he had 
not strength to throttle them. We see, too, that before our present gov- 
ernment had been framed, the expedient of referring to the supreme 
court any Gordian knot which the politicians found themselves unable to 
untie, was accepted by our fathers as the salutary makeshift of an 
incompetent statesmanship. 

It is because the " territorial clause," in respect of its application to 
disputed territory covered by it, represented a drawn battle between two 
classes of states that it paved the way for any number of drawn battles 
between any other two classes of states which should subsequently find 
themselves at variance as regards the public territory. Hoc fonte dcrivata 
cladcs. The congress of the United States, after passing through an Odys- 
sey of wanderings and an Iliad of woes in this same matter of the public 
territory and its government, was compelled in the year 1854 to ^ ace the 
same deadlock with which the framers of the constitution had been con- 
fronted in 1787, and for the same reason — -the presence of two opposing 
and equipollent forces pulling in opposite directions. We shall see, too, 
that the politicians of the later period were equally doomed to seek a 
rescue from the Caudine Forks of an insolvable political dilemma by 
invoking the succor of the supreme court to determine for them the 
meaning of their own statute when, in the case of the Kansas and 
Nebraska bill, a disputed question had arisen under it, not only between 
two classes of states in the bosom of the republic, but between two 
factions in the bosom of the same political party. 

In the discussion before us it is proposed to deal with the government 
of the public territory only so far as' that government has been affected by 
the presence of divergent views concerning slavery in our federal councils. 
The subject of slavery appears for the first time in this relation under 
cover of a bill submitted by Mr. Jefferson in the continental congress on 
the 1st of March, 1784, for the temporary government of the western ter- 
ritory, "ceded or to be ceded by individual states to the United States." 
This bill provided for the prohibition of slavery, after the year 1800, in the 
ten states proposed to be carved out of the territory in question. This 



136 SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 

first attempt to secure the restriction of slavery fell through because New 
Jersey had only one delegate present in congress at that date, and there- 
fore her vote could not be counted to make the requisite majority of all 
the states in favor of the measure. The states which voted in the 
negative were Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. 
Georgia was unrepresented. The bill was passed without the anti-slavery 
restriction on the 23d of April, 1784. 

On the 16th of March, 1785, Rufus King of Massachusetts moved for 
the immediate prohibition of slavery in all the states " described in the 
resolve of congress of April 23, 1784," and the motion was committed for 
discussion by the vote of eight states — Virginia, North Carolina and 
South Carolina voting in the negative, the vote of Georgia not being 
counted, because she had but one delegate present, and Delaware not 
being represented at all at that moment. The territorial question was 
thus brought before congress for renewed debate, and this debate 
resulted at length in the passage of the famous " ordinance of 1787 " on 
the 13th of July in that year. That ordinance provided for the pro- 
hibition of slavery in the states to be formed in the northwestern 
territory, but provided at the same time for the rendition of fugitive slaves 
escaping from their owners to any part of said territory. 

We do not know at the present day all the procuring causes of the bar- 
gain that was made between the delegates of the trading and of the planting 
states who (with the exception of Peter W. Yates of New York) gave their 
unanimous assent to this great measure — the matrix and norm of all our 
earlier legislation concerning the territories. But we do know, on the 
testimony of William Grayson of Virginia, that the southern delegates 
had " political reasons " as well as economical reasons in voting as they 
did at that juncture. It is obvious enough that the eastern states voted 
for the ordinance from economical motives combined with their moral and 
political repugnance to the spread of slavery. Their gain was immediate 
and patent. The southern states, on their part, gained new guards for the 
stability of slavery in the states where it already existed, by the stipula- 
tion for the recovery of their runaway slaves ; they gained a reduction, 
from ten to five, in the number of " free states " that were to be carved 
out of the territory in the northwest ; and they established a precedent 
which could be pleaded, and which three years later was pleaded, for the 
parallel and lateral extension of slave-holding states toward the west on 
the territory afterward ceded. 

The ordinance of 1787, two days after its passage, was communicated 
by Richard Henry Lee to General Washington, then presiding over the 



SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 137 

federal convention. It was published at length in a Philadelphia news- 
paper, and was formally cited in the debates of the convention. It doubt* 
less furnished the germ from which the fugitive slave clause was planted 
in the constitution. The ordinance of 1787 had converted the slave into a 
villein rcgardciJit as respects the Northwest territory. The constitution now 
proposed to make him a villein regardant as respects the territory com- 
prised in the union of the states. In virtue of these two provisions Gen- 
eral Charles Cotesvvorth Pinckney could say in the South Carolina conven- 
tion of 1788 that the slave-holding states had thereby " obtained a right to 
recover their slaves in whatever part of America they may take refuge, 
which was a right they had not before." (Elliot's Debates, vol. iv. p. 
286.) 

It was held alike by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton that the 
ordinance of 1787 had been passed without the least color of authority 
under the articles of confederation. But the sixth article of the constitu- 
tion provided that " all engagements entered into before the adoption of 
the constitution should be as valid against the United States under this 
constitution as under the confederation." This clause was held to have 
brought the engagements of the ordinance of 1787 under the sanctions of 
the new charter. The first congress which met under the constitution 
passed an act to adapt certain provisions of the ordinance to the constitu- 
tion ; and the state of Virginia on the 30th of December, 1788, and there- 
fore after the ratification of the constitution, assented to the fifth article 
of the ordinance — being the only one of the articles which required the 
assent of that particular state. 

In the debates had on the constitution while it was pending before the 
conventions of the several states, I do not find that "the territorial 
clause " was expressly cited by more than a single individual, James Wilson 
of Pennsylvania, and his reference to it, in its relation to slavery, was per- 
haps more optimistic than critical. He expressed the opinion that the 
new states which were to be formed out of the territory ceded or to be 
ceded "would be under the control of congress in this particular, and 
slaves will never be introduced amongst them." (Elliot's Debates, vol. iv. 

P- 452-) 

Less than a month after the passage of the ordinance of 1787 the 
legislature of South Carolina ceded to the United States all her " right, 
title, and claim, as well of soil as jurisdiction," to the territory lying be- 
tween her western boundary and the Mississippi river. This cession was 
made on the 9th of August, 1787, in full view of the legislation of the 
continental congress prohibiting slavery in the northwest. Yet no reser- 



138 SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 

vation was made by South Carolina in favor of the right of her citizens to 
migrate to the ceded territory with their slave property. 

But when North Carolina came in the year 1790 to make the cession of 
her " back lands," which bordered more or less closely on the Northwest 
territory, she was careful to premise that the territory so ceded should be 
laid out and formed into a state or states, and that the inhabitants of such 
state or states " should enjoy all the privileges, benefits, and advantages 
set forth in the ordinance of the late [continental] congress for 'the gov- 
ernment of the western territory of the United States, provided always 
that no regulations made or to be made by congress should tend to eman- 
cipate slaves." Congress accepted the deed of cession with the condition 
annexed, and organized the " territory south of the Ohio " in the same 
year. This territory was admitted into the Union as the state of Tennes- 
see on the 1st of June, 1796. In the interim no " regulation" was made 
by congress respecting slavery. 

It is plain that the stipulation made by North Carolina that no " regu- 
lations " should be made by congress " tending to emancipate slaves " in 
her ceded territory, had been inspired by the terms of the constitution em- 
powering congress to "dispose of and make all needful rules and regula- 
tions respecting the territory belonging to the United States." As show- 
ing the continuity of public thought in this matter, it may be interesting 
to state that the language of the constitution under this head was doubt- 
less inspired by the terms of the resolution under which the continental 
congress, on the 10th of October, 1780, had requested the states to cede 
their vacant lands to the United States. In that resolution it had been 
promised that the said lands should be settled " at such times and under 
such regulations as shall hereafter be agreed on by the United States in 
congress assembled." The power of congress to prescribe " regulations " 
for the territory was therefore rooted not only in the text of the constitu- 
tion but in the past territorial policy of the government under the confed- 
eration. And for this reason it was that North Carolina insisted in her 
deed of cession that congress should make no " regulations tending to 
emancipate slaves." Congress in accepting the cession with the condition 
annexed by this particular state had trammeled its plenary power over 
the territory in question. To this extent the idea of a partition of the 
public territory between the planting and the trading states had begun to 
imbed itself in our polity and politics. 

This idea was soon reinforced by the formal and deliberate initiative of 
congress itself. In the year 1798 congress solicited from Georgia "any 
proposals for the relinquishment or cession of the whole or any part " of 






SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 1 39 

her unsettled territory, with a proviso that any such ceded district should 
be erected into a temporary government under the name of the " Missis- 
sippi Territory," and with a further proviso that this temporary govern- 
ment should be " in all respects similar to that existing in the territory 
northwest of the river Ohio, excepting and excluding the last article made 
for the government thereof by the late [continental] congress on the 13th 
day of July, 1787," that is, excepting and excluding the article which pro- 
hibited slavery. This is the first case in the history of the country under 
the present constitution in which congress was left perfectly free to regu- 
late slavery in a territory according to its own will and pleasure. It had 
inherited the " regulations " of the Northwest territory under this head 
from the continental congress. Its hands had been tied as to this subject 
by North Carolina's deed of cession. But as regards the territory craved 
from Georgia congress volunteered of its own mere motion to make an 
exception in favor of slavery. The issue was distinctly brought to public 
notice while the Georgia cession bill was under consideration in the house 
of representatives. 

Mr. George Thacher of Massachusetts moved to strike out the clause 
which saved and excepted slavery from the inhibition prescribed by the 
ordinance of 1787. An animated debate ensued. On the part of "the 
South " it was argued, to cite the exact words of Robert Goodloe Harper 
of South Carolina, that " in the northwestern territory the regulation 
forbidding slavery was a very proper one, as the people inhabiting that 
part of the country were from parts where slavery did not prevail, and 
they had of course no slaves amongst them ; but in the Mississippi 
territory it would be very improper to make such a regulation, as that 
species of property already exists, and persons emigrating there would 
carry with them property of this kind. To agree to such a proposition 
would, therefore, be a decree of banishment to all the persons settled 
there, and of exclusion to all those intending to go there. He believed it 
could not therefore be carried into effect, as it struck at the habits and 
customs of the people." On the part of " the North " it was held by 
Albert Gallatin of Pennsylvania that the prohibition of slavery in the 
Mississippi territory could not produce " a worse effect than the same 
regulation in the northwestern territory;" that the jurisdiction of the 
United States was as complete in the one case as in the other ; that to 
legalize slavery under the temporary government of a territory would be 
to fasten it on the same country " for all the time it is a state ;" and that, 
it having been " determined that slavery was bad policy for the north- 
western territory, he saw no reason for a contrary determination with 



140 SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 

respect to this territory." The sectional antithesis on this subject being 
thus distinctly presented, the house of representatives rejected the 
amendment of Mr. Thacher by an almost unanimous vote — only twelve 
members voting in its favor. The legislature of Georgia formally closed 
with the bargain offered by congress, and on the 24th of April, 1802, 
passed an act of cession which expressly stipulated that the sixth article 
of the ordinance of 1787, so far as it prohibited slavery, " should not 
extend to the territory contained in the present act of cession." The idea 
of a partition of public territory between the slave-holding and the non- 
slaveholding states had now obtained a formal recognition. 

Yet the congress of that day, in the very act of making this concession 
to the spread of slavery in the southwest, was careful to accentuate its 
discretionary power to regulate slavery in the territories. It was ordained 
in the very bill which organized the territorial government of Mississippi 
that " no slave should be imported or brought into it from any port or 
place outside of tlic United States." To understand the purport of this 
"regulation" we must remember that while congress at that date, and 
until the year 1808, could not, in legislating for the states, prohibit the 
slave trade, it did not rest under any such disability in legislating for the 
territories. That is, the national legislature, in the plenitude of its power 
over slavery in the Mississippi territory, conceded to the citizen of any 
slave-holding state a right to migrate into that territory with his slave 
property, but not the right to import slaves from abroad, and this, too, 
although that right enured to him so long as he retained his domicile in a 
state which still tolerated the slave trade. The slave-holding citizens, 
therefore, of states which still tolerated the slave trade were shorn of a 
measure of their " state rights " by the mere act of migrating into the 
Mississippi territory, where they came under the exclusive jurisdiction 
of congress. The plenary and discretionary power of congress over slavery 
in the territories was emphasized alike by what it permitted and what 
it prohibited in the premises. 

So prevalent at this date, and for many years later, was the popular 
impression as to the power of congress to regulate slavery in the territories, 
that we find individual citizens and organized communities in the North- 
west territory petitioning congress to rescind or at least to suspend in 
their favor so much of the ordinance of 1787 as placed an interdict on 
slavery. Not to cite all these instances, it may suffice to say that on the 
25th of April, 1796, four settlers of the " Illinois country," speaking in 
behalf of the inhabitants of St. Clair and Randolph counties in the 
Northwest territory, presented a memorial to congress representing that 



SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 141 

they were possessed of a number of slaves, " the right of property in 
which the sixth article of the ordinance of 1787 seemed to deny without 
reason, and without their [the owners'] consent. Accordingly, they 
prayed for the repeal of that restriction, and for the passage of an act 
affirming their right to hold slaves " under such regulations as may be 
thought necessary." Contemplating nothing more than a provisional toler- 
ation of slavery, they further asked congress to declare " how far or for 
what period of time masters of servants [slaves] are to be entitled [in the 
Northwest territory] to the services of the children of parents born during 
such servitude, as an indemnity for the expense of bringing them up in 
their infancy." The committee of the house of representatives to whom 
the memorial was referred made a report adverse to the petition on the 
12th of May, 1796, and the matter was dropped. 

At a subsequent day a similar petition, proceeding from a convention 
of the inhabitants of Indiana territory, held at Vincennes, William Henry 
Harrison, the governor of the territory, presiding, was submitted to 
congress. The committee of the house of representatives to whom the 
memorial was referred reported adversely to the petition on the 2d of 
March, 1803, John Randolph of Roanoke being the author of the 
report. The committee deemed it " highly dangerous and inexpedient to 
impair a provision wisely calculated to promote the happiness and pros- 
perity of the northwestern country, and to give strength and security to 
that extensive frontier." The committee based their decision entirely on 
considerations of prudence and expediency, not at all on any question as 
to the power of congress over the subject. The whole matter was again 
dropped. {House Journal, vol. iv. p. 381, second session seventh congress.) 



I^JM^&^C^yf^. 



Columbian University, Washington, D. C. 

( To be continued) 



PEN PORTRAITS OF STONEWALL JACKSON. 

Mrs. Jackson, in the Life and Letters of her distinguished husband, 
quotes a description of her subject by a southern lady at the time he was 
professor in the Virginia Military Institute at Lexington, 1851-1861. 
"There was a peculiarity about him which at once attracted your atten- 
tion. Dignified and rather stiff, as military men are apt to be, he was 
frank and unassuming as possible, and was perfectly natural and unaffected. 
He always sat bolt upright in his chair, never lounged, never crossed his 
legs, or made an unnecessary movement. The expression of his soft gray 
eyes was gentle yet commanding, giving you a delightful feeling of the 
sweetness, purity, and strength of his character. His dress (in times of 
peace at least) was always in good taste and faultlessly neat. Everything 
he wore was of the best material. ' A thorough gentleman ' was not exactly 
the expression to describe the impression first made upon you: it was 
something more — a title of greater distinction than this must describe 
him — 'a modern knight of King Arthur's Round Table ' would have more 
properly conveyed the indelible picture he fixed upon your mind. Noth- 
ing unworthy, nothing ignoble, nothing of modern frivolity and little- 
ness — any thoughtful observer could have seen, even before the war, 
that 'Stonewall' Jackson was as true a hero as Bayard, or Raleigh, or 
Sidney." 

Mrs. Jackson also quotes from the Rev. Dr. Dabney, who was on 
General Jackson's staff and a member of his military family: " His person 
was tall, erect and muscular, with the large hands and feet characteristic 
of all his race. His bearing was peculiarly English, and therefore in the 
somewhat free society of America was regarded as constrained. Every 
movement was quick and decisive ; his articulation was rapid, but distinct 
and emphatic, and accompanied by that laconic and perspicuous phrase to 
which it was so well adapted, it often made the impression of curtness. 
He practiced a military exactness in all the courtesies of good society. 
Different opinions existed as to his comeliness, because it varied so much 
with the condition of his health and animal spirits. His brow was fair and 
expansive ; his eyes were blue-gray, large, and expressive, reposing usually 
in placid calm, but able none the less to flash the lightning. His nose 
was Roman, and well chiseled, his cheeks ruddy and sunburnt ; his mouth 
firm and full of meaning, and his chin covered with a beard of comely 



A PEN PORTRAIT OF STONEWALL JACKSON H3 

brown, The remarkable characteristic of his face was the contrast be- 
tween its sterner and its gentler moods. As he accosted a friend, or dis- 
pensed the hospitalities of his own house, his serious constrained look gave 
place to a smile so sweet, so sunny in its graciousness that he was 
another man. And if anything caused him to burst into a hearty laugh, 
the effect was a complete metamorphosis. Then his eyes danced and his 
countenance rippled with a glee and abandon literally infantile. This 
smile was indescribable to one who never saw it. Had there been a 
painter with genius subtile enough to fix upon his canvas, side by side, 
the spirit of a countenance with which he caught the sudden jest of a 
child romping on his knees, and with which, in the crisis of battle, he gave 
the sharp command, ' sweep the field with the bayonet ! ' he would have 
accomplished a miracle of art, which the spectator could scarcely credit as 
true to nature. 

In walking his step was long and rapid, and at once suggested the idea 
of the dismounted horseman. It has been said that he was an awkward 
rider, but incorrectly. A sufficient evidence of this is that he was never 
thrown. It is true that on the march, when involved in thought, he was 
heedless of the grace of his posture ; but in action, as he rode with bare 
head along his column, acknowledging the shouts which rent the skies, no 
figure could be nobler than his. His judgment of horses was excellent, 
and it was very rarely that he was not well mounted." 

A lady who was a relative describes him upon his first entrance into 
Lexington society as "of a tall, very erect figure, with a military precision 
about him which made him appear stiff, but he was one of the most polite 
and courteous of men. He had a handsome animated face, flashing blue- 
gray eyes, and the most mobile of mouths. He was voted eccentric in 
our little professional circle, because he did not walk in the same conven- 
tional grooves as other men : it was only when we came to know him with 
the intimacy of hourly converse that we found that much that passed 
under the name of eccentricity was the result of the deepest underlying 
principle, and compelled a respect which we dared not withhold. After 
he became an inmate of our household, we were not long in discovering 
that the more rigidly and narrowly his springs of action were scrutinized, 
the higher rose our respect and reverence. What may have provoked a 
smile when the motive or principle that lay behind the act was entirely 
misapprehended came to be regarded with a certain admiring wonder 
when the motive of the act was made clear. We sometimes used to 
charge him with losing sight of the perspective of things. Not drawing 
the distinction that men generally do between small and great, he laid as 



144 



A PEN PORTRAIT OF STONEWALL JACKSON 



much stress upon truth in the most insignificant words or actions of 
his daily life as in the most solemn and important. He weighed his 
lightest utterances in ' the balances of the sanctuary.' When it would 
be playfully represented to him that this needless precision interfered with 
the graces of conversation, and tended to give angularity and stiffness to 
his style, his reply would be that he was perfectly aware of the inelegance 
it involved, but he chose to sacrifice all minor charms to the paramount 
one of absolute truth." 

"A friend once asked him," writes Mrs. Jackson, " what was his under- 
standing of the Bible command to be 'instant in prayer' and to ' pray 
without ceasing.' ' I can give you,' he said, ' my idea of it by illustra- 
tion, if you will allow it, and will not think I am setting myself up as 
a model for others. I have so fixed the habit in my own mind that I 
never raise a glass of water to my lips without lifting my heart to God in 
thanks and prayer for the water of life. Then, when we take our meals, 
there is the grace. Whenever I drop a letter in the post-office, I send a 
petition along with it for God's blessing upon its mission and the person 
to whom it is sent. When I break the seal of a letter just received, I stop 
to ask God to prepare me for its contents, and make it a messenger of 
good. When I go to my class-room and await the arrangement of the 
cadets in their places, that is my time to intercede with God for them. 
And so in every act of the day I have made the practice habitual.' 

In the autumn of 1855 he organized his Sabbath-school for the 
instruction of the colored people of Lexington. His interest in the race 
was simply because they had souls to save ;' and he continued to instruct 
them with great faithfulness and success up to the breaking out of the 
war. He never traveled on Sunday, never took his mail from the post- 
office, nor permitted a letter of his ozvn to travel on that day, always before 
posting it calculating the time it required to reach its destination ; and 
even business letters of the utmost importance were never sent off the 
very last of the week, but were kept over until Monday morning, unless it 
was a case where distance required a longer time than a week." 

— Life and Letters of General Stonczvall Jackson. 



GENERAL FRANCIS MARION'S GRAVE 

In a brief paper in the Magazine of American History in December, 
1888, the present writer called attention to the neglected condition of the 
grave of General Francis Marion of the Revolutionary army. This grave 
is at " Belle Isle," St. Stephen's parish, Berkeley county, S. C. , and was 
then, as it is now, in a most shameful state of decay, the slab which for- 
merly marked it having been shattered in 1885 by a falling tree. At the 
time of that publication a wealthy lady of New York city, who claimed 
collateral descent from the famous " Swamp Fox," declared her intention 
of having the tomb repaired ; but after considerable newspaper talk about 
it the matter was dropped, and nothing has been heard of it since. In 
view of this state of affairs it will be a welcome piece of intelligence to 
many to know that at the session of the South Carolina legislature, lately 
adjourned, a bill was passed providing for the restoration of the tomb at a 
cost of $300. It is presumed that no time will be lost in placing a suit- 
able memorial over the grave of so distinguished a patriot and soldier. It 
might also be of interest to some to know that the tomb of Mrs. Marion, 
whose ashes rest beside those of her husband, was overthrown by the same 
accident that destroyed that of General Marion. No provision has been 
made for its restoration, although it is probable that some steps tending to 
this end will be taken in a short time by some South Carolinian who val- 
ues the memory of the great soldier's wife. 

It is hoped that the next move will be to find the grave of General 
William Moultrie, which has been utterly lost through procrastination in 
marking it. General Moultrie died in 1805, and was buried at " Windsor," 
St. James, Goosecreek, Berkeley county. No steps were taken to place 
even a stone over the grave until 1852, when a party of gentlemen from 
Charleston visited " Windsor" for that purpose ; but after so great a lapse 
of time it could not be identified, and to this day no one knows where the 
dust of the hero of Fort Sullivan reposes. 

The same legislature that determined to care for the tomb of Marion, 
also put itself on honorable record by passing a bill for the publication of 
all the records of the province and colony, which are now preserved in dust- 
covered tomes in the state office in London. The early history of South 
Carolina can never be fully or satisfactorily prepared until those precious 
documents are made available, and this is what the appropriation made by 

Vol. XXVII.-No. a.-zo 



146 



GENERAL FRANCIS MARION S GRAVE 



the legislature will do. It is estimated that there are sufficient numbers 
of these papers in London to fill about twenty large octavo volumes, and 
the entire work can be done in a manner creditable to the state for less 
than $10,000. South Carolina began this work thirty years ago, when the 
State Historical Society published a volume giving the full titles of all 
these papers in the state office, and four or five years ago the city of 
Charleston presented the society with $1,000 for the purpose of having 
the " Shaftesbury Papers " transcribed and published. This collection 
has been in the hands of the editors for some time, but will now be turned 
over to the board, which has been appointed to edit the entire set of the 
records. At the session of the legislature referred to a bill was intro- 
duced by Mr. John F. Ficken of Charleston providing for an appropria- 
tion, and it became a law, giving $4,000 for this most commendable work. 
It is proposed to make annual appropriations until the work is fully 
completed, and if the " Economists " do not have the upper hand in the 
next legislature, South Carolina will be able to present to her sister states 
and to the historical societies of America one of the handsomest and most 
valuable historical publications ever made in the United States. The ser- 
vices of a gentleman in London who has long been connected with the 
state office have been engaged, and many of the most valuable documents 
will be in this country in a few months. Many of these papers relate 
more or less directly to the other colonies, and will furnish much hitherto 
unknown material for the preparation of the early history of our country. 

Charleston, S. C, January, 1892. 






MINOR TOPICS 
WHY STUDY GENEALOGY? 

Because this study furnishes one way of honoring " thy father and thy mother ; " 
it broadens one's horizon ; it links us to our kinsmen of the present and of the 
past ; it awakens and deepens an interest in history. It brings out family charac- 
teristics that may reappear, points out special talents that may well be cultivated, 
and family failings that must be guarded against. It sometimes settles questions of 
inheritance. It ministers to that honorable pride that all ought to feel in the grand 
accomplishments of one's ancestors. It is an incentive and an encouragement to 
the performance of similar deeds. The great historic events of the ages are per- 
sonal matters to us, if some one of the same name took part in them. How 
delightful to find that one has kinsmen over all the land ! How charming the cor- 
respondences that sometimes the ties of family bring about ! When one comes of 
a long line of honorable ancestors, with what superb and " beautiful disdain " can 
he answer the implied challenge of " upstart wealth's averted eye " ! 

As one's interest in genealogy increases ; as one goes from one's immediate 
family to other families connected by marriage, the interest grows so real and so 
great that the brotherhood of man and the fatherhood of God, the two cardinal 
doctrines of Christianity, become instinct with life and beauty. 

Frederic Allison Tupper 
Shelburne Falls, Massachusetts. 



THE HISTORICAL AMERICAN EXHIBITION AT MADRID. 

[Editor Magazine of American History : I send you herewith a clipping from the Nation of 
December 24, a notice I prepared of the forthcoming Historical American Exhibition at Madrid. 
It has occurred to me that you might be disposed to use a part or the whole of it in your maga- 
zine, and I place it at your service. B. F.] 

One of the most interesting and instructive celebrations proposed for the year 
1892 is the Spanish celebration, the chief feature of which will be an exhibition at 
Madrid, termed the Historical American Exhibition, the special object of which is 
to illustrate primitive American life and the history of the period of discovery and 
conquest. In selecting the prehistoric and early historic eras for illustration, the 
Spaniards will make their own exhibition complete in itself, without in the least 
competing with the Chicago Exhibition. 



J 48 MINOR TOPICS 

The plan of the exhibition is, within its limits, a very broad one, comprising five 
general divisions, viz. : Prehistoric America, the Historic Period, Indian Industrial 
Arts, Cartography, Nautical Instruments, etc., and the Fine Arts and kindred sub- 
jects. Under the head of prehistoric America plans, models, reproductions, draw- 
ings, etc., are solicited of ancient caves and caverns, and anything that may help to . 
show the use of these primitive places as human dwellings. Similar models, draw- 
ings, or photographs are desired of American menhirs, dolmens, and mounds, as well 
as lacustrine dwellings. All sorts of implements and objects relating to this period 
are desired, such as stone weapons, articles of bone and horn, pottery, ornaments, 
utensils of bone, wood, stone, and other materials, with fossil or animal bones 
throwing light on the archaeology of this time. Examples of all the ages and 
periods of primitive life as they can be traced on the American continent are 
wanted. 

In the historic period the objects desired include models of ancient American 
buildings, architectural remains, plans, models, and drawings of restored monu- 
ments. Examples of sculpture, bas-reliefs, architectural paintings, and other forms 
of painted decoration form another class. Under industrial art is included cloth- 
ing and adornment of the aborigines and uncivilized Indians, with implements of 
war, offensive and defensive. Jewels of gold, silver, bone and ivory, pottery, 
household utensils, and articles used in transportation by water and land, consti- 
tute another division of this branch, while written documents in native tongues, 
pictures and photographs of Indians and effigies showing native costumes, models 
of Indian dwellings and Indian crania, form a third division. 

The department of cartography includes maps, plans, charts, and drawings, and 
all that concerns ancient cartography, with models of vessels anterior to the voy- 
age of Columbus, as well as those he himself used. A section is devoted to 
nautical instruments, with the idea of illustrating the instruments, charts and maps 
in use at the period of discovery, while objects in personal use by Columbus and 
pictures of the same are also desired. The fine-arts department includes ancient 
architectural monuments, sculpture, paintings, industrial and artistic work following 
the discovery, American coins, literary and scientific publications, manuscripts, 
charts, and plans of all kinds from the discovery to the middle of the eighteenth 
century. 

Most liberal inducements are offered to intending exhibitors from America. 
The exhibition will be held in the new Library and National Museum building in 
the park at Madrid, which will be used for the first time for this purpose, the exhi- 
bition serving as a sort of inauguration of the structure, which has been a number 
of years in building. It will be opened on September 12, 1892, and will close on 
December 31st of the same year, thus preceding the Chicago exhibition, which it 
is designed, in a measure, to supplement. All objects, if securely and properly 
packed, will be forwarded gratis to Madrid, and returned to the exhibitor free of 
all expense, the exhibition not only bearing the cost of transportation, but also, 



MINOR TOPICS 149 

when desired, attending to the arrangement and display of the objects without any 
charge. Those who desire special cases of their own may provide them, and 
special buildings may also be erected in the park if the design is approved by the 
General Committee. All objects for the exhibition will be admitted duty free into 
Spain if they are withdrawn at the close of the exhibition, but two months will be 
allowed after the end of the exhibition before articles need be returned. 

An international jury, proportionate to the number of the exhibitors from 
different countries and the importance of their exhibits, will examine the articles 
displayed and award the prizes. These will consist of a first prize of honor, a gold 
medal, a silver medal, a bronze medal, and honorable mention, each medal being 
accompanied with a diploma. 

The exhibition covers, of course, the entire American continent, but to insure its 
complete success the active co-operation and assistance of citizens of the United 
States is especially desired. There is every reason why Americans should both 
be interested in this exhibition and take part in it. The conditions are liberal, 
the prizes ample, and the time is especially convenient to intending exhibitors 
at the Chicago exhibition, as objects may be exhibited both at Madrid and at 
Chicago. Nor is the novelty of the exhibition its least merit. Early American 
history has always been a favorite topic of study among European scholars, but it is 
safe to say that if this exhibition is carried out as it is planned, it will offer Euro- 
peans the first opportunity they have had to study primitive American life in its 
completeness. American collections are very rich in the materials most desired at 
Madrid, and it is most sincerely to be hoped that the gracious invitation of the 
Spanish people to participate in their Columbian celebration will meet with a gen- 
erous and hearty support from American scholars and collectors. 

Barr Ferree 
New York, January 1, 1892. 



i5o 



NOTES 

NOTES 



The story of a coney island 
whale — We hear that on Tuesday last, 
Mr. Abner Hatfield, of Elizabeth-Town, 
and another Man, being out a fishing 
discovered a Whale swimming about near 
Coney Island, on which soon after it ran 
ashore, and before it could get off, they 
came up, and killed it with a rusty sword, 
which happened to be on bord the ves- 
sel. We are told that Mr. Corner, at the 
ferry opposite to this city, on Long 
Island, has bought it for ^30, and that 
it is now brought up to that place. It 
is said to be 45 feet in length, and that 
if cut up, it would produce about 70 
barrels of Oyl. — New York Gazette, 
Thursday, Sept. 4, 1766. 

To the Printer. Sir, If you please 
you may in your next rectify a few mis- 
takes in the Account about the Whale, 
published in your paper of Thursday 
last, viz . : I. It was Mr. Holman of 
Elizabeth-Town, five other Men and 
two Boys, that discovered and killed the 
Whale, Mr. Hatfield was not one of the 
number. II. It happend, not on Tuesday 
but Monday last. III. The length was 
not 45 but 49 feet. IV. It could not rea- 
sonably be supposed that it would pro- 
duce 70 Barrels of Oyl, nor more than 
twenty. V. It was not sold for ^30, 
nor more than ^20 or ^25. VI. It was 
not bought by Capt. Koffier, but by Mr. 
Waldron at the Ferry.- — Supp. to N. Y. 
Gazette, Sept. 6, 1766. 

The above items are interesting as 
proof of the honesty and simplicity of 
the colonial editor. There was a whale 
and the editor printed a correction. 

Petersfield 



The historical outlook — " His- 
torical interest and study are on the in- 
crease throughout the country and there 
is a great awakening among all societies," 
says Secretary D. W. Manchester, of the 
Western Reserve Historical Society, 
Cleveland, Ohio, in his recent annual 
report. " We must keep in step and 
touch with this awakening spirit and 
movement. Almost daily, letters are 
received from localities near or remote 
for historic information on various top- 
ics. Professional men, lawyers, physi- 
cians, divines, newspaper men, come here 
and partake of our garnered stores. 
Educators high in position in this and 
other states seek our rooms and consult 
our library. It is only recently that a 
letter came to us from far-away New 
Zealand making important inquiries." 
President C. C. Baldwin in his annual 
address before the same society says : 
" America is a fertile field for history in 
its many commonwealths, its recent life, 
and the short time from savagery to a 
high civilization. From past experience 
comes all science. Its aggregate is all 
civilization — learning its lessons is prog- 
ress. It is the office of the Historical 
Society to carry from age to age, and to 
keep for each age such material as may 
be wanted, and such societies should be, 
and will be if rightly supported and 
appreciated, a practical and most valu- 
able school of education. The hard 
problems of municipal government must 
be worked out with the careful use of 
history by each municipality ; for if each 
is to be governed only by its present 
experience it is but too plain there will 



NOTES 



i;i 



be an expensive series of ignominious 
mistakes. Never has there been such 
promise of interesting narratives, of en- 
tertaining knowledge of past times, and 
of practical wisdom for the present and 
the future as now." 



The late hon. roswell b. mason of 
Chicago — In an appreciative sketch of 
one of Chicago's representative citizens 
who has recently passed away, one who 
achieved distinction in everything to 
which he turned his hand, and was noted 
for his intellectual strength, integrity, 
dignity and personal charms, we quote 
the following item of exceptional inter- 
est : 

" Hon. Roswell B. Mason was elected 
mayor of Chicago in November, 1869. 
He entered upon his duties in December 
and showed the same traits of character, 
determination, integrity, and dignity that 
always characterized him. Two months 
before his term expired the disastrous 
conflagration of October 8, 9, and 10, 
1 87 1, overswept the city. The night 
following the fire, which had been 
stopped in its ravages southward by the 
mayor assuming the responsibility for 
blowing up the private buildings in its 
path, dispatches from all over Christen- 
dom announced the beginning of that 
world-wide charity that proved the 
brotherhood of man. 

Immediately upon the announcement 
of the forwarding of money and supplies 
for the relief of the afflicted populace a 
small and influential body of the city 
council set about to obtain control of 
the application of the funds and goods. 
The mayor believed that this clique 



meant to use the property for its own 
enrichment. The night following he 
was waited upon in his residence on 
Michigan avenue by a small committee 
of men prominent in business and affairs, 
headed by Messrs. George M. Pullman 
and Wirt Dexter. But a few moments 
were needed to determine the proper 
course to adopt for the relief of the 
needy and the frustration of the greedy. 
In spite of the clamors of the baffled 
and mercenary politicians, the mayor 
remained steadfast, and saved the city 
from lasting disgrace by using the 
machinery of the Relief and Aid Society 
for preventing distress." 



Pioneer poetry — Song-writing was 
an art much striven after by the Ameri- 
can verse-makers of fifty or sixty years 
ago, particularly in the West. The 
song-book, patriotic, sentimental, and 
comic, is always in demand, even in the 
rudest society, and it was not slow to 
migrate with the pioneer. The wilder- 
ness swarmed with migratory poets ; 
they came in flocks like the birds. 
" Pioneer poetry," writes Dr. Venable, 
" often went on stilts, and borrowed stilts 
at that. The style was either painfully 
labored and pedantic or ludicrously 
exclamatory and rhapsodical. Bards of 
classical ambition frequently sent ' odes ' 
to the backwoods newspapers, and some- 
times furnished stanzas in Latin. They 
wrote under such pseudonyms as ' Juv- 
enis,' ' Favonius,' ' Momus,' and ' Um- 
bra.' Much of the verse measured out 
on the Ohio side of the Ohio was like 
the speech of Chaucer's clerk, ' sounding 
in moral virtue.' " 



*5« 



QUERIES — REPLIES 
QUERIES 



Surnames — Editor of Magazine of 
American History : Please ask some of 
your readers to inform me when the 
Irish people were compelled by England 
to adopt surnames, and for what reason ? 
R. B. Gladstone 



The last execution for witch- 
craft — At what date was the last exe- 
cution for witchcraft in the United 
States ? Please favor me with a reply. 
Herman A. Wise 

San Francisco, California. 



Proverbs of the Talmud — Kindly 
tell me what are the " Proverbs of the 
Talmud " ? Hartmann 



National tune of England — Kings- 
ley says in his Westward Ho that the 
national tune of England in the time of 
Elizabeth was the music of the ballad 
of Fortune my Foe. Can any of your 
readers help me to find the words of the 
ballad, the author, and the music to which 
it was sung ? Chicago 



REPLIES 



Gotham [xxvii, 70] — The name Go- 
tham was first used in connection with 
New York in 1807. In his quaint little 
work Salmagundi Irving says : " A most 
insiduous and pestilent dance called the 
waltz . . . was a potent auxiliary ; 
for by it were the heads of the simple 
Gothamites most seriously turned." 

E. W. Wright 

Vickseurg, Miss. 



Gotham [xxvii, 70] — As given in the 
dictionary, the word comes from Goth, 
one of an ancient tribe of barbarians, 
who overran the Roman empire, and 
means a rude, ignorant person. Go- 
tham-ist, a wiseacre ; a person deficient 
in wisdom — so called from Gotham in 
Nottinghamshire, noted for some pleas- 
ant blunders. — Bishop Morton. Go- 
thamite, an inhabitant of New York 
City. — Washington Irving. 

Lawrence Goode 

St. Louis, Mo. 



Oldest tombstone in new york 
[xxvi, 396, 447] — Your correspondent 
has recently revisited the old ceme- 
tery of Sylvester Manor on Shelter 
Island, and finds that he may be mis- 
taken in regard to the age of the tomb- 
stones standing over the graves of exiled 
Quakers, whose remains were buried 
there. The epitaphs are quite legible, 
having been carefully and conscien- 
tiously recut by order of Professor E. 
N. Horsford, the owner of the property. 
Only one, however (out of eight or ten), 
remains in doubt. This is a gray 
rounded headstone of coarse granite 
(much dilapidated), having the name 
"Knowling" and the figure "r" still 
legible. This is thought to be much the 
oldest, and antiquarians date it back as 
far as 1660 or thereabouts. 

These stones are rounded at the top, 
and (except the Knowling one) have 
carved cherubs' heads with outspread 
wings still visible on the upper part of 



REPLIES 



the headstones. The dates are 17 14, 
1727, 1729, and 1731, with the latest 
1732. The family names are but three : 
Hutson or Hudson, Brown and Knowl- 
ing. The age of the deceased is in one 
instance eighty-one years, and in an- 
other seventy-seven years. There is no 
doubt among the best authorities that 
these persons were originally refugees 
from New England, and Friends or 
Quakers in their religious belief. 

Chas. H. Gardiner 
St. Mary's Rectory, Shelter Island. 



Church of England ceremonies 
[xxvii, 70] — Blunt, in his Key to the 
Prayer Book, says : " During the great 
rebellion the Puritans gained the object 
which they had been pursuing for three 
generations." The Anglican church had 
been opposed for a number of years 
with unflagging zeal, and finally the use 
of the liturgy was made a crime. 

An " Ordinance " was passed January 
3, 1645, which forbade its use in any 
church; and on the eve of St. Bartholo- 
mew, another which forbade its use in pri- 
vate, and required all copies to be given 
up. There were nevertheless some loyal 
children and ministers of the church 
who continued to use it in spite of this 
Ordinance. Macaulay, in his History of 
Engla?id, says : " It was a crime in a 
child to read by the bedside of a sick 
parent one of those beautiful collects 
which had soothed the griefs of forty 
generations of Christians." 

This "ordinance" was passed by 
parliament, and the prayer-book was 
superseded by what was called The 
Directory for the Public Worship of God 
in the Three Kingdoms. As the Puritans 



in the Mayflower (see query) came over 
in 1620, no doubt they had ceased to 
use the " forms and ceremonies of the 
Church of England " before the passage 
of the "ordinance," but just when, 
during the long contest of three genera- 
tions, it would obviously be quite im- 
possible to state. 

George G. Hepburn 



Churchill's poems [xxvii, 70] — The 
popularity of Churchill induced James 
Rivington to issue proposals for an 
American edition of his works, soon 
after the death of the poet ; the publi- 
cation was delayed by the financial 
straits of the bookseller, who had been 
declared a bankrupt in 1767. The com- 
pletion of the edition was announced 
by Rivington in the New York Gazette, 
and the Weekly Mercury of November 
21, 1768, as follows: "He has this 
Day published, The celebrated Charles 
Churchill's Works, in two large Octavo 
Volumes. Containing The Roseiad. 
Night. The Prophecy of Famine. His 
Epistle to Hogarth, which broke the 
Heart of this Son of Apelles. The 
Ghost. Independence. The Apology. 
The Conference. The Duellist. The 
Candidate. Gotham. The Farewell. 
The Times. 

In the Course of these Writings the 
Author has given his Opinion most freely 
upon the Conduct and Characters of the 
principal Personages who have been em- 
ployed by Government, &c, during the 
latter End of the late, and the four first 
Years of the present Reign ; presenting a 
Genius more truly Original than all the 
Muses since the Days of John Dryden, 
and securing the Existence of his har- 



154 



REPLIES 



monious Numbers in the public Favour, 
until Poets can sing no more. 

The Publisher has not been so punct- 
ual in producing this, genuine, Son of 
Apollo, agreeable to the Proposals, for 
his Promise expired eighteen Months 
ago (June, 1767) ; yet, as the Cause of 
the Delay must be obvious to all his 
patrons, and the public Favour never is 
denied to a Person who eagerly seeks it, 
he hopes that none of his Two and 
Twenty Hundred Subscribers will be 
offended, tho' it may have proved to 
them a Disappointment." 

The list of subscribers is an extraor- 
dinary one ; it covers fifty-six pages at the 
end of the second volume and contains 
1,944 names who engaged 2,080 sets of 
the poems. The distribution of the 
volumes is also very remarkable : Mary- 
land received 1,058, of which Annapolis 
had 175 and Baltimore 89 ; New York, 
185, of which 156 were subscribed in the 
city, 20 at Albany, 5 on Long Island, 3 
at Johnstown and 1 at Niagara ; Vir- 
ginia had 210, George Washington, Esq., 
of Alexandria, was one of the subscrib- 
ers ; Pennsylvania had 1 at Lancaster 
and 66 at Philadelphia ; Connecticut had 
26 ; New Jersey, 13 ; Rhode Island, 16 ; 
Charleston, S. C, 54; North Carolina, 



1 ; Newcastle, Delaware, 14; Pensacola, 
Florida, t,6; Massachusetts had 50 — they 
were subscribed for by John Mein, book- 
seller at Boston, who announced in the 
Boston Chronicle of January 1 9, 1769, that 
they were ready for delivery to sub- 
scribers ; 1 copy went to Casco Bay and 
3 to Quebec ; of the West Indies, Barba- 
does had 66, Dominica, 36 ; Antigua, 22 ; 
St. Eustatia, 12 ; Montserrat, 9; St. Vin- 
cent's, 5; Jamaica, 4; the Gouverneur 
family of Curacoa, 3 ; Tortola, St. Croix, 
Grenada and Tobago, 1 each ; 1 8 copies 
were sold to the Bermudas. 

The large sale in Maryland is ex- 
plained by the fact that Rivington organ- 
ized a lottery in 1766 for the sale of 
three hundred and fifty acres of land in 
Kent county. The scheme provided for 
eight thousand tickets at fifteen shillings 
each ; the prizes included the land, plated 
ware, goods of various kinds, and a 
library of books. 

I have not met with a copy of the 
original proposals. A correspondent in 
Notes and Queries for October, 1875, 
asked substantially the same question as 
"Boston Collector," but received no 
response to his query. 

William Kelby 
New York Historical Society Library. 






SOCIETIES 



155 



SOCIETIES 



New YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY — The 
annual meeting was held on Tuesday 
evening, January 5. The reports of the 
treasurer, librarian and executive com- 
mittee were read. The society has no 
debts, no mortgage on its building or 
collections. A site for its new building 
has been purchased on Eighth avenue 
(Central park, west), between 76th and 
77 th streets, facing the Central park on 
the east and Manhattan square on the 
north, comprising ten city lots with a 
front of four hundred and four feet and 
depth on the side streets of one hun- 
dred and twenty-five feet. The plot of 
ground cost $286,500. The committee 
reported that the sum of $1,000,000 is 
required to erect and furnish a suitable 
detached fireproof building. During the 
year 4,144 volumes of books, 3,620 pam- 
phlets, 24 volumes and 1,579 numbers of 
rare newspapers, 3 volumes and 15 sepa- 
rate manuscripts, 36 maps, 46 engrav- 
ings and 127 rare broadsides have been 
added to the library. The invested 
funds aggregated $78,645. 

The following board of officers were 
elected for the ensuing year : president, 
John A. King ; first vice-president, John 
A. Weekes ; second vice-president, John 
S. Kennedy ; foreign corresponding 
secretary, John Bigelow ; domestic cor- 
responding secretary, Edward F. de 
Lancey ; recording secretary, Andrew 
Warner ; treasurer, Robert Schell ; 
librarian, Charles Isham. 



THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIA- 
TION held its eighth annual meeting in 
Washington, opening on the 29th and 



continuing until the 31st of December, 
1891. There were two morning sessions 
at the National Museum, and three even- 
ing sessions at the Columbian Univer- 
sity. Washington is the permanent home 
of this association, but the next meeting 
will be in Chicago at the time of the 
World's Fair, in 1893. This outing will, 
of course, be very exceptional. The 
capital of the United States, the con- 
gresses of all nations, and the centre of 
the universe itself, will in that year be 
temporarily shifted to the shore of Lake 
Michigan. 

In view of coming events, which cast 
their Columbian shadows before, the 
historical paper which eclipsed all oth- 
ers in popular interest at the Washing- 
ton meeting and in the Associated Press 
reports that flashed over the whole coun- 
try, was President Charles Kendall 
Adams's account of " Recent Discover- 
ies concerning Columbus." This wide- 
spread popular report not only ushered 
in the Columbian year, but it was liter- 
ally the first general announcement to 
the American people that Columbus 
landed from the west rather than from 
the east ; that is to say, he sailed around 
Watling's Island, and entered the New 
World on the Chicago rather than on the 
New York side.- Besides this true view 
of the land-fall of Columbus, President 
Adams gave his audience the latest and 
most authentic information regarding the 
recent discovery of the burial-place and 
remains of the discoverer himself, which 
will be given to the country at large in 
the March Magazine of American His- 
tory, with pertinent illustrations. 



i 5 6 



SOCIETIES 



Another paper of interest in connection 
with the Columbian year was read by 
Professor Edward G. Bourne, of Adel- 
bert college, Cleveland, upon the line of 
demarkation, established in 1493, by 
Pope Alexander VI., between the Span- 
ish and Portuguese fields of discovery 
and colonization. The very able inaug- 
ural address of the president of the 
association, Hon. William Wirt Henry, 
appears in another part of this maga- 
zine. An excellent paper was presented 
by Walter B. Schaife, Ph.D., upon the 
commerce and industry of Florence dur- 
ing the Renaissance. Brooks Adams of 
Quincy, Massachusetts, presented a paper 
which attracted much attention on the 
" Phenomena of Universal Suffrage." 
Dr. Jeffrey R. Brackett, a graduate of 
Harvard and Johns Hopkins Universi- 
ties, presented an objective review of 
the Virginia Secession Convention of 
1861. Hon. A. R. Spofford, librarian of 
congress, read a striking paper on " Lot- 
teries in American History." President 
James C. Welling, of the Columbian uni- 
versity, traced the history of slavery in 
the territories. 

An excellent comparative study of the 
personal force in congressional politics 
was the well- written and well-read paper 
by Miss Follett, of the Harvard "Annex," 
upon " Henry Clay, the First Political 
Speaker of the House." He seems to* 
have been much the same type of a 
presiding officer as was the Hon. T. B. 
Reed. Miss Follett showed that no 
other speaker so well combined the func- 
tions of a moderator, a voting member, 
and a party leader as did Mr. Clay. He 
established the tradition that a party, in 
putting a leader in the speaker's chair, 



does not deprive itself of his services on 
the floor. He exercised the right to 
speak in committees of the whole more 
freely than had any of his predecessors. 
The president of William and Mary 
College, Lyon G. Tyler, son of John 
Tyler, gave some entertaining extracts 
from the records of York County, Vir- 
ginia. " State Sovereignty in Wiscon- 
sin " was tersely presented by Professor 
C. H. Haskins ; and there were some 
fourteen other papers of value on kin- 
dred themes discussed during the ses- 
sions. 

The officers chosen for the ensuing 
year are as follows : Dr. James B. An- 
gell, president ; Henry Adams, of Wash- 
ington, and Edward G. Mason, of Chica- 
go, vice-presidents ; Herbert B. Adams 
and A. Howard Clark, secretaries ; Dr. 
C. W. Bowen, treasurer. The Hon. 
'William Wirt Henry retires into the ex- 
ecutive council with other ex-presidents 
— the Hon. A. D. White, Dr. Justin Win- 
sor, Dr. W. F. Poole, Dr. C. K. Adams, 
and the Hon. John Jay. To that hon- 
orable council, comprising also Dr. G. 
Brown Goode, of the Smithsonian insti- 
tution, and Dr. J. G. Bourinot, clerk of 
the Canadian House of Commons, were 
added Professor John Bach McMaster. 
of the university of Pennsylvania, and 
Professor George B. Adams, of Yale 
university. 



The association of veterans, which 
includes the Tenth Army Corps, the 
Eighteenth Army Corps, and the North 
and South Atlantic Blockading Squad- 
rons, and indeed all who served in the 
army or navy of the United States on 
the shores cr in the waters of South 



SOCIETIES 



157 



Carolina, Georgia, or Florida, whether 
as officers or as private soldiers or sail- 
ors, at any time during the confederate 
war, and who received an honorable 
discharge therefrom, held an interesting 
meeting in Boston on the thirtieth anni- 
versary of the naval battle of Port 
Royal. The president of the association, 
Judge Charles Cowley, was formerly on 
the staff of Rear Admiral Dahlgren, 
commanding the South Atlantic Block- 
ading Squadron. In his address before 
the association on this occasion he said : 
" Coming as this battle did, when the 
successive defeats of Big Bethel, Bull 
Run, Ball's Bluff, and Belmont had 
filled the hearts of men with grief and 
gloom, the victory of Admiral Dupont, 
won thirty years ago this morning, had 
a wonderful effect in cheering and stim- 
ulating the people throughout the north. 
The dark winter of general discontent 
was turned at once into glorious summer, 
and the clouds that had so long hovered 
over the Union were in the deep bosom 
of the ocean buried. That victory gave 
us firm foothold in South Carolina, which 
was held with unflinching tenacity for 
three years." 

A committee was appointed, consist- 
ing of Colonel T. W. Higginson of 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, General P. 
S. Michie of West Point, and Colonel 
T. B. Brookes of New Windsor, New 
York, to correspond with the families of 
Admirals Dupont and Dahlgren, Gener- 
als Anderson, Hunter, Mitchel, Foster, 
Gillmore, and the Shermans and others, 
to ascertain what unprinted papers re- 
lating to the operations of this depart- 
ment and squadron they now have, and 
where and how they are preserved ; also 



to consider and report what action is 
advisable to be taken by this association 
for the collection and preservation of 
such documents and for making them 
available for the uses of history. 

The association will hold four meet- 
ings during the coming year, one in 
Boston on the twenty-seventh anniver- 
sary of the capture of Fort Fisher, 
January 15 ; one in New York city or 
Brooklyn, on the twenty-seventh anni- 
versary of the formal restoration of the 
federal flag over Fort Sumter, April 14 ; 
another in Washington, September 21, 
during the week of the National En- 
campment of the Grand Army of the 
Republic ; and the next annual meeting 
in New York city or Brooklyn, on Mon- 
day, November 8, 1892. 



THE VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

held a general meeting on the 21st of 
December, in the house of delegates, 
Richmond, Va., its president, Hon. 
William Wirt Henry, in the chair. 
Papers of great historic interest were 
read both morning and evening. Pro- 
fessor Garnett of the University of 
Virginia read an able paper on the 
revolutionary history of the state, ex- 
plaining its five geographical sections, 
and how Virginia was originally settled 
by four race elements — the English, the 
Scotch-Irish, the Germans, and the 
French Huguenots. Professor Trent of 
Sewanee university in Tennessee, read 
some " Notes on Present Work in South- 
ern History." Professor Hall of "Wil- 
liam and Mary college read a paper 
entitled " Catalogue of Epitaphs on 
Ancient Tombstones in York." The 
subjects of the evening papers were : 



158 



SOCIETIES 



" The First Election of Washington 
to the House of Burgesses," by Hon. 
R. T. Barton ; " The Old Brick Church, 
Smithfield, Virginia, built in 1632," by 
Hon. R. S. Thomas ; " Richmond's First 
Academy, projected by M. Quesnay de 
Beaurepaire, in 1786," by Mr. Richard 
Heyward Gaines ; " Agriculture in Vir- 
ginia during the First Twenty Years 
of the Colony," by Philip A. Bruce, 
M.A. ; " Some Unpublished Facts Relat- 
ing to Bacon's Rebellion in Accomac 
County, Virginia," by Mr. F. P. Brent; 
" Thomas Hansford, the First American 
Martyr to Liberty," by Mrs. Annie 
Tucker Tyler. 



THE ROCHESTER HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

held its December meeting at the house 
of Hon. E. M. Moore, M.D. Paper by 
George H. Humphrey, " Old East Ave- 
nue." The reminiscences of Mrs. Eliza 
W. Reid aged ninety-three years were pre- 
sented by Mrs. Parker. Dr. Moore spoke 
at some length upon the sewerage of the 
city. The Tablet and Memorial Com- 
mittee were requested to consider placing 
a tablet upon the Home of the Friend- 
less, East avenue, in memory of the late 
Josiah W. Bissell, who gave to the insti- 
tution the ground upon which it is built. 



The western reserve historical 
society, Cleveland, Ohio, held its annual 
meeting in June, 1891, which was of 
more than ordinary interest from the fact 
that ex-President R. B. Hayes journeyed 
from his home in Fremont for the ex- 
press purpose of attending this meeting, 



and by unanimous request presided over 
the assemblage. The officers of this 
society are C. C. Baldwin, president ; 
W. J. Gordon, W. P. Fogg, J. H. Sargent, 
Sam Briggs, vice-presidents ; D. W. 
Manchester, secretary ; John B. French, 
treasurer. The annual report of the 
secretary contained an amount of infor- 
mation quite exceptional, showing that 
the society is doing good work and pro- 
gressing rapidly in public favor. The 
address of President Baldwin was on 
" New Methods of History," and was 
received with enthusiasm by an appre- 
ciative audience. 



THE RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SO- 
CIETY held its usual meetings on the 15th 
and 29th of December. Mr. Henry C. 
Dorr occupied both evenings with a 
paper entitled "Williams and Harris in 
the Controversy between the Proprietors 
and the Freeholders of Providence." In 
opening the subject Mr. Dorr spoke of 
the settlement of Mooshasuck by Roger 
Williams, and outlined the various trea- 
ties the settlers had with the Indians. 
Williams neglected to consult legal ad-- 
vice concerning a grant of the land, and 
the result was that in after times serious 
troubles arose between the proprietors 
under the original charter and the free- 
holders concerning the rights of each 
class of citizens. Williams, together 
with the freeholders, maintained that the 
proprietors had only a corporate right 
to the lands, while William Harris and 
the proprietors asserted that they had 
an individual right in the property. 



BOOK NOTICES 



159 



BOOK NOTICES 



THE BATTLES OF SARATOGA, 1777. 
THE SARATOGA MONUMENT ASSO- 
CIATION, 1S56-1891. Illustrated. By 
Ellen Hardin Walworth. 8vo, pp. 191. 
Albany, New York : Joel Munsell's Sons, 
Publishers. l3g2. 

The author very pertinently remarks in the 
preface to this handsome volume, that if we 
may believe " the signs of the times," a period 
has arrived in the intellectual development of 
our country when historical subjects can scarcely 
be claimed as belonging exclusively to a small 
class of people. "It is indeed a suitable mo- 
ment in which to direct the public mind to 
local history. The faithful chronicle of a 
town or village or neighborhood becomes 
eventually the gem of a great collection. 
Monuments and historical tablets are the nat- 
ural, the most simple method of education. 
Money lavished on them is money saved for 
future generations." This work opens with an 
able, clear, succinct account of the " Battle of 
Saratoga, Burgoyne and the Northern Cam- 
paign, 1777," and then proceeds to chronicle 
the " History of the Saratoga Monument As- 
sociation." The battle of Saratoga and its 
attendant circumstances form an intensely dra- 
matic narrative. In unity of purpose and cul- 
minating interest, few important events in 
American history have occupied so vast a 
theatre. Mrs. Walworth has made herself 
perfectly familiar with the picturesque region 
where the great armies manoeuvred, and finally 
rendered the closing scene of the spectacle 
a .triumph that astonished the world. Her 
graphic descriptions bring the stirring scenes 
of that dramatic period into full view. Up 
to that hour the Americans were esteemed 
"rebels" by the powers of the earth. Hence- 
forward they were patriots attempting to rescue 
the country from wrong and outrage. The 
agents of congress were no longer obliged to 
hold intercourse with the monarchs of Europe 
in stealthy ways. They met with open con- 
gratulations. A new power was recognized. 
A new element had entered into the diplomacy 
of nations. Of the fifteen battles decisive of 
lasting results, during more than twenty cen- 
turies of human progress, that of Saratoga is 
one. No martial event has ever exerted a 
greater influence upon human affairs than the 
conquest of Burgoyne. Every generation of 
readers will need to learn this suggestive lesson, 
and Mrs. Walworth has done good service in 
placing it before them in such readable form. 
The history of the Saratoga monument should 



be preserved, and we congratulate its founders 
and promoters on this appreciative and impor- 
tant contribution to historic literature. 

The illustrations, of which there are a dozen 
or more excellent portraits, add greatly to the 
value of the volume. The frontispiece is the 
fine steel engraving of Hon. Horatio Sey- 
mour, who was president of the association 
from 1873-1881. There are also fine portraits 
of William L. Stone, the efficient secretary of 
the association through the greater part of its 
history ; of Chancellor J. V. L. Pruyn ; of John 
H. Starin, its president in 1891 ; of James M. 
Marvin, of Gen. J. Watts de Peyster, of J. C. 
Markham, the architect, and of Mrs. Walworth, 
the chairman of the committee on tablets, and 
the author of this work. There are also many 
views and maps of great interest, and a visitor's 
guide to Saratoga Springs which will be greatly 
prized. 



LITTLE JARVIS and MIDSHIPMAN 
PAULDING. By Molly Elliot Sea- 
wall. Pp. 64 and 133. New York : D. 
Appleton & Co. 1891. 

The history of all navies is full of thrilling 
incidents. Too often they appear only in the 
stilted official language of orders or in the terse, 
seaman-like record of the log-book. The navy 
of the United States is no exception. Begin- 
ning its career when the British navy sailed the 
seas without a rival, and the British seaman be- 
lieved himself invincible, it captured his best 
ships right and left, wherever the conditions 
were nearly equal, and compelled respect where 
at first was only contempt. It was a happy idea 
on the part of the author of these two little 
books to take known facts in the lives of the 
young officers of those early days, and throw 
them into picturesque narrative. By the way, 
in those of good artistic work it is a thousand 
pities to launch this attractive series on its 
literary voyage with such an unship-shape craft 
on its cover. The books are both intended for 
young readers, are printed in large type, with 
illustrations. 

Little Jarvis was captain of the foretop when 
the Constellation fought the Vengeance, and 
died at his post like an officer and a gentleman. 
Paulding was the gallant young fellow whose 
presence of mind at a critical moment went far 
toward gaining the day at the battle of Lake 
Champlain. It is hoped that the author will 
continue her work to include the gallant young 
fellows who Lave kept up the fighting tradi- 
tions of the navy in later years. 



1 66 



BOOK NOTICES 



THE DIVORCE OF CATHERINE OF 
ARAGON. The story as told by the Impe- 
rial Ambassadors resident at the Court of 
Henry VIII. In usum laicorum. By J. A. 
Froude. Being a supplementary volume to 
the author's History of England. Svo, pp. 
476. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1891. 

This brilliant and important contribution to 
history is one of intense interest as well. It is 
a supplementary volume to the author's History 
of England, and is filled with new facts and ar- 
guments marshaled with great skill before the 
reader. It is thirty-five years since Mr. Froude's 
early volumes appeared, which provoked a deluge 
of hostile criticism. He went on with his re- 
searches all the same, and now gives us addi- 
tional evidence to strengthen his former positions 
which have been so fiercely assailed. This new 
evidence goes far to justify the views taken in 
his History of England, with regard to the 
divorce of Catherine of Aragon and the execu- 
tion of Anne Boleyn, as it is almost wholly 
derived from the dispatches of the Imperial 
Ambassadors at the court of Henry VIII. 
These men were of course Catholics, and they 
were the active enemies of the king. Repre- 
senting Charles V., who was the kinsman and 
champion of Catherine of Aragon, it was their 
business to ally themselves with the queen's 
friends, and to help forward every movement 
having for its object the defeat of Henry's pur- 
poses. It would seem that Henry was a far less 
choleric and impulsive man than he has been 
represented ; but he was resolved to be mon- 
arch in his own realm, and when his authority 
was disputed by a foreign priest, backed by the 
English clergy, he did not hesitate to take vig- 
orous and effective measures for the vindication 
of his rights. The execution of Fisher, bishop 
of Rochester, has always been referred to as an 
example of tyranny and cruelty. Mr. Froude 
in this volume has been able to prove that 
Fisher "invited and pressed the introduction of 
a foreign Catholic army into England in the 
pope's interest," which puts a very different face 
on the affair. 

Mr. Froude also shows the results of the great 
contest to determine whether pope or king 
ruled in England. A bishop undertook to burn 
a heretic without waiting for the king's writ. 
He was promptly arrested, thrown into the 
Tower, and his property confiscated. It was 
no time for half measures ; Henry saw that he 
must put down treason with a high hand, or it 
would put him down. Catherine of Aragon be- 
came in the last years of his life an active con- 
spirator against him, and Mary, her daughter, 
was not less disloyal. When, after vainly wait- 
ing for papal action on the divorce, Henry got 
himself divorced by an English court and mar- 
ried Anne Boleyn, he made a grievous mistake, 



for Ann* was a bad woman, vicious, malignant, 
insufferably insolent, and hated by the people 
and the peers alike. There seems good reason 
to believe that she tried to murder both Cathe- 
rine and Mary. It is said that Henry was afraid 
to leave the country to meet Francis, because in 
his absence she would be regent, and he dreaded 
and distrusted her too much to give her such an 
opportunity. Anne contributed greatly to the 
difficulties of the situation. All the disaffected 
elements were drawn close together through her 
sinister influence. When at last her day of 
doom came, and Cromwell let loose upon her 
head the damning evidence he had gathered, 
there was no sympathy or pity for her. Mr. 
Froude's description of the proofs on which she 
was condemned seems to leave no room for 
doubt as to her guilt. Of the five men who 
were condemned with her, it is most signifi- 
cant that not one asserted his innocence. Neither 
did Anne herself. Her friends and allies and 
the Imperial Ambassador had no doubt of her 
guilt. Her crime was atrocious ; it was treason 
in the most aggravated form, and there was no 
penalty for it but death. 



JAMES HENRY MORLEY, 1824-1889. A 
Memorial. Svo, pp. 61. Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. 1891. 

The subject of this little memorial volume 
was the son of Sylvanus Gnswold Morley, and 
was born in Westfield, Massachusetts, in 1824. 
He was descended from Colonel David Mor- 
ley, who married the daughter of Rev. Sylvanus 
Griswold, of Feeding Hills, in that state, who 
was the son of Rev. George Griswold. James 
Henry Morley was appointed chief engineer of 
the Iron Mountain Railroad in 1853, which he 
located and built from St. Louis to Pilot Knob, 
a distance of eighty-six miles, during the fol- 
lowing four years. He was a man of much ex- 
cellence of character, and his life was full of 
generous impulses and actions. 



EPOCH MAPS ILLUSTRATING AMERI- 
CAN HISTORY. By Albert Bushnell 
Hart, Ph.D. New York : Longmans, Green 
& Co. 1891. 

These maps are of the utmost value to stu- 
dents and teachers, and indeed to every citizen 
who wishes to understand the growth and mag- 
nitude of our country. There are fourteen, repre- 
senting an immense amount of skilled research 
among the texts of grants, charters, and gover- 
nors' instructions, as well as British and colonial 
and state and national statute books. Dr. Hart 
seems to have documentary authority for all 
boundary lines. This enterprise is commendable 
from every point of view. 



9k 



ninnmr 





[From the painting by 



BENJAMIN WEST, P. R. A. 

Sir Thomas Lawrence, P. R- A .] 



MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 

Vol. XXVII MARCH, 1892 No. 3 



SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES CONCERNING COLUMBUS* 

THE question as to where in the Bahama islands Columbus first landed 
has been the subject of even more controversy than the question 
where the Northmen first landed in New England. The investigations of 
Humboldt, Washington Irving, Becher, Varnhagen, Major, Navarrete, 
Mufioz, Harrisse, Fox, and Markham still left the question in much 
doubt. Few readers of any or all of these books could feel that the 
question was really settled. All that Mr. Winsor has felt justified in say- 
ing in his recent book on Columbus is, that the opinion of scholars has 
been drifting towards a belief that the landfall was on Watling's island. 

Since Mr. Winsor completed the writing of his work, the Bahamas 
have been visited and very carefully explored by an enterprising German 
traveler, Rudolf Cronau ; and the results of his studies have been 
embodied in the seventh Liefertcngoi his Amerika : die GescJiicJite seiner 
Ent deckling von der Altesten bis atif die nencste Zeit. It is my purpose, in 
the briefest possible space, and without much comment, to indicate Mr. 
Cronau's conclusions and the reasoning by which he reached them. In 
relation to the matter of the landfall, his positions may be said to be 
two in number : First, that Columbus landed on Watling's island ; and, 
secondly, that the landing took place on the west side, instead of, as has 
generally been supposed, on the east side. 

His reasons for reaching the first conclusion may be briefly stated as 
follows : 

(1) Watling's island is the only one which answers to all the distinctive 
characteristics that were described by the original authorities. These 
were : (a) An easy landing place ; {b) a large body of water in the interior ; 
(c) a large roadstead, lying north-northeast of the harbor; id) the size of 
the island ; (e) the form of the island. Las Casas, whose father was with 
Columbus at the landfall, and who himself knew Columbus well and 
passed many years on the islands, says that the island was oblong or bean- 
shaped. Columbus himself describes the geographical peculiarities lying 
in the vicinity of the place of landing which answer to one of the points 

* Paper read before the American Historical Association at Washington, December 31, 1891. 
Vol. XXVII. -No. 3.-11 



162 SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES CONCERNING COLUMBUS 



KaTteT 



KarlederFahrtdes Columbus durch die Lucayos oder Bahama- Gruppe 

Xitt-worfen -von Rudolf Cronaiv. 

Erlauterioigen: 
, ScfiHTsrouXe der Flotte des Columbus 

Pic dappclt unterstrichenen JTameri sind die 
-rail Colicmbus verliehenen, die einfach icnter- 
2- stridhenen die ursjriingUAen der mngcbarerum.. 

Vie cuu/eMammerten .Vomer, sinj d„ MM oebraMehliehrn 

Die Zahlen bezeicJutert die TieferLsf 
nock Tadsn , * * * JUTfc 




(...oil ..taut .v.lfi^m «. De-bes .lelyi.ig. 



Vei-laf ton Abel 4. Miller in Leipzig. 

on this island ; and at a point north by northeast of the landing place 
he describes a harbor, which, he says, is Marge enough to accommodate 



SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES CONCERNING COLUMBUS 1 63 

all the fleets of Christendom." This description will apply with con- 
siderable exactness to Watling's island and to no other. Watling's is 
not only the only one of the Bahamas that has a large interior lake, but, 
with the exception of New Providence, which is out of the question, is 
the only one that answers to Las Casas's description of having the shape 
of a bean. 

(2) In going from Watling's island, and following the course marked 
out in the journal of Columbus, there is no difficulty in identifying all the 
islands at which the fleet of Columbus stopped between Watling's and 
Cuba. 

(3) It is impossible to establish with any confidence such an identifi- 
cation, if we suppose that the landfall was on another island. 

This process of reasoning, though not essentially different from those 
of Becher and others, is carried on in a more perfectly independent spirit, 
and is the result of personal explorations. It does not appear that Becher 
ever made a study of the question on the spot. 

But interesting as this part of Cronau's discussion is, it is in regard to 
the second question, namely, that relating to the exact point at which the 
landfall took place, that his observations and reasoning are most original 
and most important. The basis of his conclusion is twofold : First, a 
very careful study of the text of Columbus's journal, as abridged or 
abstracted, and preserved for us by Las Casas, for the most part in the 
very language of Columbus himself; and, secondly, his own personal 
explorations and observations on the island. 

His reasoning may be summarized as follows : 

(1) The best landing place on the island is at or near Graham's 
Harbor, a little north of the middle of the west side. 

(2) The state of the weather was such as to make a landing on the 
west side the most natural one. • 

(3) A landing on the east side, at any time extremely difficult, would 
have been, on account of the prevailing winds and waves, at the time of 
the discovery quite impossible. 

(4) The details given by Columbus show that the approach to the 
island from the west was both easy and natural. 

(5) The direction taken by Columbus, in going from the first landing 
place, indicates that he landed on the west side, and could not have landed 
on the east. 

(6) And, finally : Having landed on the west side, the difficulties in the 
narrative, which, on any other theory, seem insuperable, almost or entirely 
disappear. 



l64 SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES CONCERNING COLUMBUS 




Now let us, in the briefest possible manner, see how this theory com. 
-^^tllr^inhir;^; that on Thnrs^October-.th, they 



SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES CONCERNING COLUMBUS 165 

" encountered a heavier sea than they had met with before on the whole 
voyage." In the same connection, he adds that, " after sunset, they sailed 
twelve miles an hour until two hours after midnight, going ninety miles." 
It is probable that the mile of Columbus was about two-thirds of the 
present English mile. 

(2) Cronau reasons that the very heavy sea and the rate of sailing at 
twelve miles an hour could not be reconciled, except in case of a very 
strong wind from an easterly direction. This turbulence of the sea, rolling 
in as it must, from the east, would make a landing on the east side of the 
island impossible. Even in fair weather, this would have been extremely 
hazardous, because the whole of the eastern coast is fortified and pro- 
tected by a continuous and dangerous line of precipitous rocks. 

(3) Columbus reports that at ten o'clock, that is, when they were 
sailing at the rate of twelve miles an hour, he believed he saw a light. 
Four hours later, that is to say, after they had passed over forty-eight 
miles, and at two o'clock in the morning, land was first seen by Rodrigo 
de Triana from the Pinta. We are not told the direction of this land from 
the ship ; but it was regarded as about two leagues distant. They then, 
Columbus says, "took in sail, and remained under square sail, lying to, till 
day." Cronau is of the opinion that the fleet, which urtder full sail was 
going at the rate of twelve miles an hour, when reduced to a single 
square sail, would necessarily have gone several miles, probably as many 
as fifteen or twenty, during the four hours between two o'clock and day- 
light. 

(4) This rate of nearly or quite half speed would have carried them 
some miles beyond the island, which is only six miles broad ; and, in the 
morning, whether they passed the island on the north, or on the south, 
the only natural course was to turn about and approach the island from 
the west. 

(5) The abridgment of Columbus by Las Casas says that, " arrived 
on shore, they saw trees very green, many streams of water, and divers 
sorts of fruits." Columbus himself, in an unabridged passage, says: 
"This is a pretty large and level island, with trees extremely flourishing, 
and streams of water. There is a large lake in the middle of the island ; 
but no mountains. The whole is completely covered with verdure 
delightful to behold." This description, especially that of Las Casas, as an 
abridgment of the statement given by Columbus, answers at the present 
time to the appearance of the island as seen from off Graham'-s Harbor. 

(6) Under date of Sunday, the 14th of October, Columbus says : "At 
daybreak, I ordered the boat of my vessel, as well as the boats of the 



l66 SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES CONCERNING COLUMBUS 

other caravels, to be put in readiness, and I skirted along the coast toward 
the north-northeast, in order to explore the other part of the island, 
namely, that which lies to the east."* 

This passage points clearly to the landing on the west side. Columbus 
then states that in their north-northeast movement in the boats they dis- 
covered two or three villages, the people of which beckoned them to come 
ashore. Columbus says, however: " I was apprehensive on account of the 
reef of rocks which surrounds the island, although there is a depth of 
water and room for all the ships of Christendom, with a very narrow 
entrance. There are some shoals within ; but the water is as smooth as a 
pond." He then proceeds to describe what he calls " a tongue of land, 
which appeared like an island, though it was not ; but might be cut through, 
and made so in two days," and also a place that would be peculiarly 
advantageous for the erection of a fortress. 

Watling's island is about twelve English miles in length, and between 
four and six miles in breadth. Graham's Harbor, as already stated, lies 
a little north of the middle, on the west side. On the 2ist of November, 
1890, Cronau started from this harbor, to coast along to the northeast, 
following as nearly as possible the course indicated by the journal of 
Columbus. He says he had no difficulty in identifying the spot in every 
eessential particular. The rocky shoals, which prevented Columbus from 
landing, impose the same barrier to navigation at the present day that 
they did at the end of the fifteenth century. Cronau found the entrance 
to the harbor, and described it with considerable minuteness, as well 
as with pardonable enthusiasm. He landed at the point which Colum- 
bus designated as " a tongue of land, which appeared to be an island," 
and describes by means of original drawings the site which, in his opinion, 
Columbus had in mind when he recommended it as an admirable place for 
a fortification. Going into somewhat minute details, he says that there is 
even evidence that during the last century the site was used for purposes of 
defence ; for among other indications of occupancy he found an old rusty 
cannon that had been abandoned at some time apparently during the 
period of the French Revolution. 

* This is the real meaning of the Spanish passage, although Kettell in his English translation 
has very blunderingly given it the very opposite meaning. Kettell's rendering is the following : 

" In the morning, I ordered the boats to be got ready, and coasted along the island toward 
the NNE. to examine that part of it, we having landed first at the eastern part." 

The Spanish, as given by Navarrete, I., p. 24, is as follows : 

'• En amaneciendo mande aderezar el batel de la nao y las barcas de las carabelas, y fue al 
luengo de la isla, en el camino del Nornordeste, para ver la olra parte, que era de la otra parte del 
I.este." 




LANDING-PLACE OF COLVMBUS ON WATLING'S ISLAND. 

\_From the sketch by RudolJ ' Cronau.] 



This same explorer not only made personal investigations into the 
question of the landfall, but, what is of perhaps even greater interest, 
spent a full month in San Domingo for the purpose, if possible, of settling 
the vexed question as to the present location of the remains of Columbus. 

In order to understand the full significance of what follows, it is neces- 
sary to bear in mind the history of the various removals. Columbus, just 
before his death, expressed the wish that his remains might be interred on 
the Island of Hispaniola. It was not practicable that this wish should be 
complied with at once, and, accordingly, it is probable that the body of 
the admiral remained at Valladolid from 1506 to 15 13 or 15 14, when it 
was transferred to Seville. About 1 541, though the date is not precisely 
known, the remains were taken to San Domingo and deposited in the 
cathedral that had recently been completed. Although there is no record 
of that early date, indicating where the remains were placed, there was a 
tradition that they rested at the right of the altar; and one hundred and 
thirty-five years later, namely, in 1676, this tradition took the form of an 
entry in the records of the cathedral. 



168 SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES CONCERNING COLUMBUS 

At - a period somewhat later than that of the transfer of the admiral's 
remains, though the exact date cannot now be fixed, the remains of Diego 
Columbus, together with those of his son Luis, were carried from Spain to 
San Domingo, and buried in the same cathedral. It is probable that their 
reinterment took place at about the beginning of the seventeenth century ; 
for there are records in Spain which apparently refer to the matter at that 
date. There was no inscription to indicate the locality of either vault. 

When, by the treaty of Basle of the 20th of December, 1795, this por- 
tion of San Domingo was ceded to France, the Spaniards had a laudable 
desire that the remains of the discoverer should be transferred to one of 
the several islands still in Spanish possession. Accordingly, the floor at 
the right of the altar was explored, and a vault supposed to be that of the 
admiral was found. Its contents, believed to be the remains of the admiral, 
were transferred to Cuba with great ceremony, and were deposited in the 
cathedral at Havana, where they have since remained. No doubt seems 
to have been raised in regard to the genuineness of the remains thus 
removed, until on the 10th of September, 1877, some laborers, in repairing 
a part of the floor of the cathedral, discovered another vault on the right 
of the altar, lying between that from which the supposed remains of 
Columbus had been taken and the outer wall of the chancel. These two 
vaults were separated by a thin wall. One of them, the smaller of the 
two, was empty, while the other, the one that had apparently first been 
constructed, was found to contain a small leaden box, forty-four centi- 
meters long, twenty-three centimeters high, and twenty-one and a half 
centimeters in breadth. A nearer inspection of the box and of its inscrip- 
tions satisfied the authorities of the cathedral that the remains transferred 
in 1795 were those of Diego, and that the remains of the admiral were still 
in the possession of the cathedral. 

A long controversy on the subject, however, at once took place. The 
archbishop of San Domingo maintained quietly but stoutly that the larger 
vault next the wall was the one first constructed, that the smaller one was 
subsequently added for the remains of the son, that the inscriptions were 
genuine, and that, beyond all question, the remains transferred to Havana 
were those of the son Diego, while the remains contained in the newly 
opened vault were unmistakably those of the discoverer. 

The Spanish authorities would not admit that a mistake had been 
made. A war of pamphlets ensued. Cronau has given the titles of as 
many as thirteen elaborate papers devoted to the subject between 1877 
and 1880. A copy of the inscriptions was roughly made, but the matter 
seems not to have been investigated with impartial and scrupulous care. 



SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES CONCERNING COLUMBUS 169 

Two agents of the Spanish government visited the island to look into the 
question ; but they made no study of the inscriptions themselves, the 
casket having been previously removed to a side chapel and put under 
the seals of the archbishop and of the government. 

They reported, however, that the remains removed to Havana were 
genuine, and that the claim of the authorities at San Domingo was 
fraudulent. As to who perpetrated the fraud, they never undertook to 
determine ; but notwithstanding the assertions of the archbishop, whose 
character was above all reproach, they maintained, or rather asserted, that 
all the inscriptions had been forged simply for the purpose of making it 
appear that the remains of Columbus were still at San Domingo. The 
motive for forgery was alleged to be the belief that Columbus was about 
to be canonized and that the cathedral which could be made to appear to 
be the resting place of his remains would become a shrine that would be 
visited by hordes of pilgrims from every part of the western world. 

It was to investigate this interesting question of fact that Herr Cronau, 
just about a year ago, spent a month in San Domingo. The account of 
what took place is of so much importance that I give a translation of the 
author's own words. He says: 

"When I started in the autumn of 1890 on my journey through the 
West Indies and Central America, in order to collect material for illustra- 
tions, I decided that the investigation of this question should be a part of 
my programme. Owing to letters of introduction from the German gov- 
ernment, I succeeded in getting access to the remains for the purpose of 
examining them most carefully. This investigation took place on Sunday, 
January 11, 1891, in the morning, in the cathedral of San Domingo. 
There were present the Church dignitaries, the secretary of the interior of 
the republic of San Domingo and his officials, and all the consuls of the 
governments which were represented in San Domingo ; furthermore, the 
author of several of the above-mentioned pamphlets, Emilio Tejera. 

The following are the results of my investigation : The two little sepul- 
chral chambers, the position of which can be seen from the plan and the 
illustrations referring to the sanctuary, occupy the entire space between 
the staircase C and the wall, and are separated from one another only by 
a thin wall sixteen centimeters thick. Both vaults are covered with a 
cement like mortar. Their interior can easily be seen from above, for 
they were purposely left in a way to be examined with ease. Both rather 
small rooms are empty : the contents of vault 2 are in Havana, and 
the leaden coffin found in vault I is kept under lock and key in a room 
behind the first side chapel on the left, in the cathedral. The door lead- 



170 SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES CONCERNING COLUMBUS 

ing to this room can be opened only by means of three keys, of which the 
first is in the hands of the Archbishop, and the other two in those of the 
government. The regulations require that the room should be opened 
only in presence of one official connected with the church and two of the 
officers of the government. Admission is granted very rarely, and a 
record kept of all visitors. 

In the centre of the room stands a rather large chest (which also can 
be opened only by the use of several keys) containing the disputed lead 
coffin. The coffin itself is inclosed in a glass case, held together by strong 
strips of wood, and ornamented with silver handles. This glass case can, 
in its turn, be opened by means of several keys. In order, however, to 
prevent its being opened, a broad white silk ribbon had, in 1877, been 
wound several times about the glass case, immediately after the body was 
placed here, and the seals of the government of San Domingo, the church, 
and the consulates of Spain, Italy, Germany, England, France, Holland, 
and the United States were put upon the case. 

No one had opened the case since, and consequently the coffin and the 
remains were in exactly the condition in which they had been left in 1877. 
After the door of the room and the chest had been opened on the above- 
mentioned date (the nth of January, 1891), in the presence of the witnesses 
enumerated above, the glass case and its contents were lifted out and were 
put on a table covered with brocade, in the side nave of the church, and 
we were allowed to examine them. It happened that the lead coffin was 
open ; its cover was turned back and fastened to the cover of the glass 
case, so that the bones lying inside were plainly visible. A considerable 
number of the vertebrae of the neck and back, and parts of the arm and 
leg bones, proved very well preserved. A vessel of glass contained the dust 
which had been found on the bottom of the coffin. Furthermore, one 
could see a little silver plate, covered with inscriptions, and a round leaden 
bullet. The latter lay outside of the lead coffin. 

On the suggestion of the secretary of the interior of the republic, the 
consuls of the foreign governments declared, unanimously, that not only 
the silk ribbon wound about the glass case, but also all the seals, which 
had been put on in 1877, were absolutely intact. After this, the seals were 
broken, the ribbon loosened, the glass case opened, by means of three keys, 
and the lead coffin lifted out and put upon a table, so that an examination 
could now be carried on in the most careful way. The coffin itself proved 
badly oxidized, and showed the effects of being dented in some places, but 
in other respects was rather well preserved. A few fragments of the lead 
which had fallen off were found carefully wrapped in a piece of paper. 



SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES CONCERNING COLUMBUS 



171 










DIE CITADELLE ZV SANTO DOMINGO. 

[From the sketch by Rudolf Cronau.\ 



172 SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES CONCERNING COLUMBUS 

The first thing to be done was, of course, to investigate the inscriptions 
on the lead coffin, and the little plate of silver. The result was- the dis- 
covery that the reproductions from these, which have so far been published, 
are in part very incorrect. This may be due to the fact that, in the absence 
of good instruments, an attempt was made, as Mr. Tejera assured us, to 
copy the inscriptions on wood by means of penknives. 

I made a special effort to make the correctest possible copies of all 
inscriptions. These I had photographed on zinc, and then etched, and 
they may be compared with older representations of the inscriptions. 

The appearance of these inscriptions, which were engraved on the lead 
and the silver, by means of a sharp instrument, shows them to be 
unmistakably old. On the outside of the left wall of the coffin was 
found the letter C ; on the front wall a letter C ; on the right side wall a 
letter A. These letters have been explained as the initials of the words: 
' Cristoval Colon, Almirante.' * 

The cover bears the inscription which has been interpreted as standing 
for " Descubridor de la America, primero Almirante " ; i.e., " The discov- 
erer of America, the first Admiral." 

The words standing on the inside, written in gothic script, and partly 
abbreviated, have been translated as follows : ' The famous and excellent 
man, Don Cristoval Colon.' f 

It has been believed by some people that the fourth letter of the word 
Cristoval ought to be regarded as an/. This would in no way impair the 
correctness of the inscription, as the spelling ' Criftoval ' is found. 

As to the silver plate (which in our illustration is reproduced in its 
real size), it must be mentioned that it was found with the leaden bullet 
under the ashes which covered the bottom of the coffin. Two small 
screws which were also found there, and which corresponded to two holes 
in the plate, and to two other holes in the back wall of the coffin, showed 
that the little plate was originally screwed fast on that part of the coffin, 
but that in course of time the oxidizing of the lead had caused the screws 
to become loose, and to fall down, together with the plate. 

Both sides of the plate are written upon, and both inscriptions are 
evidently meant to state the same thing. It would seem, however, as if 
their author had not been satisfied with the first inscription, perhaps 
because it did not seem intelligible enough on account of its too great 
brevity, and had then tried to express the same thing on the other side 
more in detail, for it would otherwise seem senseless to write on both 

* Compare with sketches in Magazine of American History, vol. ix., pages 11-13. 
\ Magazine of American History, vol. ix., page II. 



SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES CONCERNING COLUMBUS 



173 



sides of a plate, one side of which was always invisible, because turned 
towards the side of the coffin. The more complete inscription, which was 
doubtless turned towards the beholder, has been interpreted as follows : 
' Ultima parte de los restos del primero Almirante Cristoval Colon Des- 
cubridor ' ; i.e., ' The last part of the remains of the first admiral, Cristo- 
val Colon, the discoverer.' 

It is to be noticed that the first abbreviated word might also be 
resolved into 'una' or ' unica.' Then the first part of the sentence 
would be 'a part ' or 'the only part.' 

We now must mention the leaden bullet found in the dust on the 
bottom of the coffin. The theory has been advanced that it was lodged 




%tx 93(eifarg be§ Stjriftojjfj ©olumbuS. 
92acfj t>em Originate gejeidntet Bon SRuboIf Srouau. 

[See Magazine of American History, ix., page 12.] 

in the body of Columbus during the first years of his career as a seaman, 
and dropped from its place in the course of the decomposition. No 
special importance has been so far attributed to its presence. We, on 
the contrary, are inclined to consider it as a proof of the identity of these 
remains and those of Columbus, for the reason that he says, in a letter 
written to the Spanish monarchs during his fourth voyage, and mentioned 
above by us : ' My wound has opened again.' 

We do not know that Christopher Columbus received a wound during 
his stay in Portugal and Spain, or during any of his journeys in the service 
of the Spanish monarchs. Consequently, it may be correct to suppose 
that he got the bullet during his early life, which seems to have been very 



174 SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES CONCERNING COLUMBUS 

turbulent and adventurous. We suppose that when [in 1541] the remains 
were taken from the original large coffin (which had perhaps begun to 
decay), and were put into the small leaden coffin, the leaden bullet was 
found among the bones and left there. In case fraud was intended with 
the remains found in 1877 (as Prieto, Colmeiro, and others would have us 
believe), what could have induced those who committed the fraud to add 
such a leaden bullet ? This bullet has, to our knowledge, not yet been 
considered as a proof of the genuineness of these remains, and has never 
been brought into connection with the passage cited above. 

Further than that, we ask, what special interest could the people of San 
Domingo have had in perpetrating such a fraud, from which they have so 
far derived no profit whatever ? And where, in San Domingo, are the 
artisans and the engravers who could have carried out the fraud, even 
under the guidance of superior intelligence ? 

We would mention, as another proof of the genuineness of this coffin 
and its contents, that the leaden coffin which had formerly been carried 
away by the Spaniards apparently had no inscription ; at least, we nowhere 
find mention of one. Now, first of all, it is difficult to believe that the 
coffin of so distinguished a man as the rediscoverer of America should have 
been left without any outward sign ; and, secondly, the fact that the coffin 
found in 1877 occupied the place of honor on the right of the altar seems 
of importance for our argument, as does the other fact that the smaller 
vault next to it, which was emptied of its contents in 1795, gives one the 
impression of having been added later, as if they wanted to bury the less 
distinguished son next to the more distinguished father. 

The counter arguments of the other side cannot stand against these 
weighty considerations. The hypothesis that the coffin in question might 
possibly contain the remains of Christopher, the grandson of the discoverer, 
has no value ; for, if that were the case, the inscriptions would read ' fourth 
admiral ' instead of ' first admiral,' and the title ' Descubridor ' would 
be out of place, because the grandson of the discoverer never went on a 
discovering expedition. The other objection, that the name 'America,' for 
which the letter ' A ' on the cover of the coffin is generally believed to 
stand, was not used in Spain at that time, is equally weak, as the name 
America was proposed by the German Waltzemiiller as early as 1507, and, 
as is shown on many maps, had been generally adopted by 1541 (that is, 
the year in which the lead coffin was probably made). 

It has further been urged that the appearance of the letters on the 
coffin does not point to so remote a time, and is 'too modern.' The 
reproductions of these letters which have been published would, indeed, 



SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES CONCERNING COLUMBUS 



175 








lead one to such a belief, as, especially, the engraved work on the silver 
plate is too much modernized. The copy which we made with the most 
scrupulous care shows the great difference : our readers will have an oppor- 
tunity to convince themselves that the inscriptions of the silver plate might 
easily belong to the time about 1540, as far as their appearance is con- 
cerned, by comparing them with autographs from the third and fourth 
decades of the sixteenth century. 



176 



SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES CONCERNING COLUMBUS 



We should like to mention, furthermore, that Seiior Lopez Pietro, the 
author of the pamphlets doubting the genuineness of these remains, who 
had been sent over by the Spanish government to investigate these tombs, 
never took the trouble to examine the coffin and the remains, but had 
finished his pamphlets before landing in San Domingo. So several highly 
respected and trustworthy persons in San Domingo have assured us, on 
their word of honor. 

We were, unfortunately, unable to find out whether his colleague, 
Manuel Colmeiro, had adopted similar methods. 

During my stay of a month, I made it a business to question a consid- 
erable number of persons who had been present at the discovery of the 
coffin, singly and without each other's knowledge, and found complete 
agreement in the statements of all of them. 

After I had finished my investigation of the coffin and the remains 
(this took me about three hours), the ashes in the glass vessel were put into 
a silver casket, ornamented with gold, and this casket was also put into 
the coffin. After the leaden coffin had been put back into the glass case, 
the latter was again carefully closed, a ribbon with the three colors of the 
republic of San Domingo, red, white, and blue, was tied about it, and it 
was locked as it had been before — that is, by putting upon it the seals of 
the church, the government, and the several consulates. Notaries, who had 
been called, read the report they had made, the coffin was put back into 
its old place, and those present at this memorable act took their departure. 
The author, and certainly all those who were there with him, went away 
with the conviction that the venerable remains of the great discoverer 
were lying, and are still lying, in the cathedral of San Domingo." 



Cornell University. 




ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG 

Since the beginning of the present century Cape Breton, once known 
as Isle Royale, has been to the world at large very little more than a mere 
geographical expression, and the importance which it possessed when Eng- 
land and France were struggling for the supremacy in North America has 
been long since forgotten, except by the students of history to whom the 
name of once famous Louisbourg will recall glorious episodes in the history 
of Old and New England. The object of this paper is to direct attention 
to some existing features of the island, and to the memorials which still 
remain of that old regime the history of which ended in 1758 with the fall 
of the great fortress on the southeastern coast. 

From summer to summer for many years the writer has visited Cape 
Breton, endeared to him by the associations and memories of his boyhood, 
and always interesting for the beauties of its varied scenery, and for the 
opportunity it gives of drawing the visitor from the more prosaic present 
to the contemplation of former days, when men and heroes fought for the 
supremacy of two great nations on its storm-swept shores. All around its 
coast there are memorials of the historic past. Not only the name of the 
island itself, but its bold headlands, its spacious bays, its broad estuaries 
and harbors, connect us in the present with those adventurous voyagers 
who explored its waters centuries ago. It is believed by many authorities 
that it was " prima tierra vista," the first landfall made by John Cabot in 
his memorable voyage of 1497. Basques, Bretons, Normans, Portuguese, 
and Spaniards have in turn made an impress on its geography which 
English occupation for a hundred and thirty years has not removed. 

Standing on one of the bleak hills which overlook the strait between 
Nova Scotia and Cape Breton we recall the times when Nicholas Denys, 
Sieur de Fronsac, was struggling against the jealousies of rival traders and 
attempting to establish a seigneurie for himself on the island. His name, 
which for a while was given to this arm of the sea, has long since disap- 
peared, and the old word Canso, whatever its meaning, clings persistently 
to these picturesque shores. From time to time the graceful fishing vessels 
of New England glide over its waters, with their white canvas and trim 
hulls, the envy and admiration of all sailors — so amazingly in contrast with 
the clumsy hulks of the Basque vessels of St. Jean de Luz that, three cen- 
turies ago, frequented its coasts. The derivation of the name is still a 

Vol. XXVII. -No. 3.-12 



178 ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG 

matter of conjecture. In the old maps and charts it is spelled Campseau or 
Canseau, and the current method is an English corruption of the first name. 
One writer* will insist that it is derived from the Spanish Ganso, and has 
reference to the great flocks of wild geese which fly over the strait at cer- 
tain periods of the year, and naturally attracted the attention of early 
Spanish navigators ; but this appears to be a mere ingenious effort of the 
same fancy which has given a Spanish origin to Canada — Aqa nada — in- 
stead of the generally accepted Iroquois derivation, kannata or collection 
of cabins. It has also been urged that a French sailor by the name of 
Canse first gave his name to the strait, but this theory has been easily 
disposed of by the fact that the author who is mentioned as the authority 
for this supposition was actually writing of the West Indies, and referred 
to one Cause. \ As a matter of fact the name first appears at the port of 
Canseau, on the southeast coast of Nova Scotia — a great resort of Breton 
and Basque fishermen from early times — and was subsequently extended to 
the arm of the sea between the peninsula of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton. 
L'Escarbot is no doubt correct in stating that it is an Indian word ; and 
indeed, on reference to the best work on the Micmac tongue, we find that 
it still exists in the old form of Kamsok, which means " a steep bluff rises 
on the opposite side." The Indians, in accord with their custom of nam- 
ing places from certain natural characteristics, probably so called the strait 
from the steep bluffs on the Nova Scotia side, one of which, Cape Porcu- 
pine, is specially conspicuous from its curious resemblance to the back of 
the little animal from which it is named. The French, who frequented the 
port of Canseau, must have given it the Indian name of the strait. 

St. Peter's — the French Port Toulouse — is the first place, after leaving 
the railway on the Nova Scotia side of the strait, where we find our- 
selves on historic ground in Cape Breton. In these later times a ship 
canal has been constructed to connect the wide bay of the same name 
with the famous Bras d'Or Lake. The establishment, formed at St. Peter's 
in 1637 by Sieur Denys, was situated, as far as can be ascertained, on a 
rocky neck of land in a little cove to the right of the entrance of the 
canal ; and in this same neighborhood, from the days of the French, there 
has always been a small settlement of fishermen and traders. The new 
village, which has grown up since the construction of the canal, can be 
seen to the left of the canal, and is a collection of painted or whitewashed 
wooden houses, almost bare of trees. In old times, when Pichon \ wrote 

* Judge Haliburton ("' Sam Slick "), in the History of Nova Scotia, II., 223, n. 

\ Abbe Laverdiere, in a note to his edition of Champlain's Works, II., 279. 

\Lettres et Memoires pour servir a I'histoire du Cap Breton. A La Haye et Londres, 1759. 



ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG 179 

of this locality, it was a centre of communication for the whole island, and 
the most important post after Louisbourg. Here one "could observe the 
least motion of the English at Canso or in the passage of Fronsac, and 
advice could be sent to the commandant at Louisbourg in less than eighteen 
hours." In 1755 there were in this place two hundred and thirty inhab- 
itants, exclusive of officers and troops, and the people, who were very 
industrious, found constant employment in building boats and vessels, in 
the cutting of timber, and in the fisheries. The name of Port Toulouse, 
which was given in honor of an eminent count, an illegitimate son of Louis 
XIV., has passed away since 1758, and the older name of St. Peter's, which 
existed in the time of Denys, has been restored, if indeed it ever disap- 
peared from the vocabulary of the people or of the sailors who frequented 
this port. It is claimed that the name was originally Portuguese, and 
there is some authority for this claim in the fact that we find in the old 
maps a Cape St. Petro or St. Pietro in the vicinity of an arm of the sea, 
between the terra des Bretoncs and Cap de Breton. One learned archae- 
ologist * inclined to believe that it was at St. Peter's, and not at Inganiche, 
that the Portuguese made their first and only settlement in the gulf, and 
goes so far as to make them the builders of a fort, the ruins of which can 
still be traced about one hundred yards to the westward of the canal; but 
here we enter into the realm of mere speculation, and have really no facts 
before us except the general knowledge that this was certainly a favorite 
resort of the early French, and was probably visited by the Portuguese as 
early as, if not before, the Basques. We have to be content with the 
information given us by Champlain, who had the best means of knowing 
something of the subject, that Inganiche was the scene of the abortive 
attempt of the Portuguese to establish a settlement in Cape Breton, and 
we should probably be grateful to the learned antiquarian who favors the 
claim of St. Peter's, that, in his zeal for the Portuguese, he does not tax 
our ingenuity too far, but allows the Micmacs to retain the possession of 
the word Inganis or Inganiche — undoubtedly of Indian origin. 

But leaving these curious imaginings of the old mortalities of the 
countries on the gulf — and it is amazingly easy to build up theories of 
the past on the slight evidence that remains to us of the occupation of the 
island before the French — we come to the remarkable mediterranean sea 
known in these times as the Bras d'Or lakes. Here we can sail or steam 
for many hours on the bosom of an arm of the sea, ever widening, ever 
lessening, with the highlands of the north always visible, and the lowlands 

* Rev. Dr. Patterson, in the Transactions of Ike Royal Society of Canada, Vol. VIII., sec. 2, 
and the Magazine of American History, May, 1891, Vol. XXV., p. 389. 



180 ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG 

of the south receding as we find ourselves on one of its great expansions. 
Anon we pass through a narrow gorge or channel, cut by some convulsion 
of nature, or more probably worn by the action of the waves since primeval 
times, and pass from one lake to another. From northeast to southwest, 
in the course of untold centuries since the world was young, the sea has 
steadily forced its way through the rocky hills of the interior of the island 
and formed a series of lakes, bays, and channels, affording safe and un- 
interrupted navigation for ships of large size for at least fifty miles from 
Point Aconi, the most easterly head of Boularderie Island, to the narrow 
isthmus which long barred progress to the Gut of Canso. Here at last 
the enterprise of man has come to the aid of these inland waters and 
given them access to St. Peter's Bay, by means of the fine canal already 
mentioned. The lakes divide Cape Breton into two sections, each dis- 
tinguished by diverse natural features. The northern division is remark- 
able for its lofty mountains and cliffs. 

The southern division has none of the ruggedness and grandeur of the 
country on the other side of the lakes, but here we find the most spacious 
harbors, of which Sydney and Louisbourg are the best, and the richest 
coal areas of the island. From Port Hawkesbury, at the strait of Canso, 
as far as Cape Lawrence, there are no good harbors on the picturesque 
western coast compared with those on the southern and eastern coast of 
the other division. Between the eastern entrances of the Bras d'Or and 
the storm-swept promontory of Cape North there is the fine harbor of St. 
Anne's, which at one time was nearly chosen the capital of Cape Breton, 
then Isle Royale, and is in its natural aspect more interesting than Louis- 
bourg on account of its sublime vistas of forest-clad hills, and the great 
ocean far beyond. The Bras d'Or lakes are connected at the east with the 
gulf by means of two guts or straits known as the great and the little Bras 
d'Or entrances, one running to the north and the other to the south of the 
fine island of Boularderie, which is a long, narrow tract of land inhabited 
chiefly by Scotch settlers, and which was also called in French times the 
Isle de Verderonne, until it came to be better known by the name of its 
first proprietor, a French gentleman who served with distinction in the 
French navy, and at Port Royal in Acadia. At several points on thelakes, 
from St. Peter's to Sydney, there are many features of interest to attract 
the tourist. The picturesque narrows which connect the two lakes is now 
crossed by a graceful drawbridge of iron, over which the railway passes 
from the strait of Canso to the capital town of Cape Breton. At this 
point you catch many charming glimpses of the expansive lake and the 
dim hills which stretch far to the north and west. Baddeck, strictly speak- 



, 



ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG l8l 

ing, Bedek, an old Micmac name changed by the French to Bedeque, is a 
charming harbor, where a little summer retreat has been made on the slopes 
and plateaus of the hill that rises from the water's edge. 

Here Charles Dudley Warner dipped his pen to describe its charms in 
his humorous vein, and now science finds its representative in Professor 
Bell, the inventor of the telephone, who has raised his laboratory in this 
sylvan retreat, and finds the rest he needs by cruising in the devious chan- 
nels and bays of these beauteous inland waters. The sail from this pretty 
spot through the entrance of the great Bras d'Or offers many a charming 
vista of cliffs where the gypsum mingles its white with the dark green of 
the overhanging spruce, and where the land rises into lofty hills, with their 
slopes dotted here and there with cottages surrounded by little patches of 
meadow. Churches with tapering steeples, all of an unfailing type — square, 
commodious, and ugly — testify to the religious fervor of the inhabitants 
who live by the side of this interesting lake. At vespers we hear the peal 
of the bells coming over the water, and finding an echo in the dark reced- 
ing hills. Sometimes this sheet of water takes a fancy of running deviously 
into the recesses of the hills, and of forming bays and basins where the 
land rises precipitately from the water's edge, and only at intervals offers 
places sufficiently level for the farmer to make his little clearing. Many 
places on the lakes bear uncouth Micmac names — Why coco magh, for 
instance — but still, there are not a few memorials of the old French days. 
One romantic basin, where the entrance is barred by ragged islets, and 
the shores are indented by numerous little coves, receives the waters of a 
stream which forces its way from the northwestern country where we meet 
with a Sky Glen, a Mull, a Glen Dhu, Strath Lorn, Glencoe and Brigend, 
to remind us of the origin of the people who now live among the Cape 
Breton hills. But this basin and river still bear the name of Denys, in 
honor of the old seigneur of Cape Breton, who held large grants of land in 
the country watered by the river in question. 

No one who visits the Bras d'Or lakes but will readily confess that it 
is appropriately called the Golden Arm, not merely on account of its 
picturesque features, but equally for the natural wealth that exists in its 
waters, its excellent farm lands, its plaster quarries, and in the other riches 
that still lie buried in its mountain ranges. This poetic name, however, 
appears to be quite of recent origin. All the old French and English 
charts of the island give to the lakes the name of Labrador. It is true the 
English version of Pichon's descriptive sketch, in one place, speaks of the 
Golden Arm, but in every other part of the work he uses the old name. In 
Denys's map of 1672, and in that of the Sieur Bellin in 1744, we find 



182 ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG 

"Labrador" — the latter adding " appclcc par les sanvages ' Bidea?/boc/i.' ' 
It is still called by the Micmacs " Petoobook," which is the correct spelling 
of a word which the French reproduced as nearly as possible from the 
sounds. In all probability, it is the same name given by the Portuguese 
navigators to the sterile country to the east of Canada, which they were 
the first Europeans to discover. How it came also to be applied to this 
inland sea of Cape Breton we have no conclusive evidence to guide us. 
It is generally believed that the name was first given to the coast of the 
continent because Cortereal took away with him a number of Indians who 
were described as well fitted for slaves. No such incident is connected 
with the history of Cape Breton. If it were possible to believe that the 
name Brador or Bradour is an Indian name, meaning a deep and narrow 
bay, which, like the fiords of Scandinavia, stretches into the interior of a 
country, then the difficulty would be solved, but there is no good author- 
ity for this statement. Bradore bay, on the Labrador coast, is considered 
to be of French origin — simply the Breton mode of pronouncing Bras 
d'eau; and if we are to accept this as a fact, then it is easy to suppose 
that the French who settled on this Cape Breton sea gave it the name 
which describes its natural characteristics. 

It is a curious fact, which is worth mentioning in this connection, 
that a French privateer, commanded by M. de Brotz, which was cap- 
tured the year before the first siege of Louisbourg, while cruising in 
search of colonial vessels, was not only built on the lakes, but actually 
called after them, Labrador — another proof of the general acceptance of 
the name. It is just possible that among the early settlers in this part 
of the island there were some French settlers from Bradore Bay, on the 
bleak northeastern coast of the gulf, and that in this way the name was 
first given to this beautiful lake, which, in later times, so impressed its 
visitors that they changed it to the more poetic appellation which it now 
bears. 

If Bras d'Or is but a modern phrase, it is not the only example we 
have of the tendency to give a French version to names, the original 
meaning of which has been lost in the lapse of centuries. We see this 
illustrated in the name of the little bay of Mainadieu, to the westward of 
the dangerous isle of Scatari, to which was also sometimes given the name 
of Little Cape Breton. The southern head of this bay is that cape from 
which the large island itself has in course of years been called. Nearly all 
the French maps describe it as Menadou, and Charlevoix gives us, for a 
variation, Panadou — in all probability an Indian name, like Pictou in 
Nova Scotia,, or Mabou on the western coast of Cape Breton, or Cibou, 






ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG I83 

which was the Micmac name of either St. Anne's or Sydney, if not of 
both, since Seboo is Indian for a great river.* 

It was obviously easy to coin Mainadieu out of the old Indian word, 
so akin to it in sound, and to suppose that it was once given by some 
storm-tossed sailor who believed that he saw the hand of God stretched 
forth to guide him into this little haven of refuge on the rough Cape 
Breton coast. Nigh by are two little harbors on whose low hills fisher- 
men have dwelt from the earliest days of which we have any records, and 
whose names appear frequently in the accounts of the two sieges of 
Louisbourg, especially in that of 1758, since it was in one of these ports 
that Wolfe established a depot for the support of his batteries. 

Some years ago a woman of the neighborhood, while passing a little 
hillock, accidentally discovered a small jar which had been hidden for a 
century and a quarter or more, until the rains and snows had worn away 
the earth and brought it to light. As she lifted it carelessly a little 
stream of gold coin poured forth — louis d'or from the mint of the days of 
Louis Ouinze, whose head was imprinted on the metal. In all probability, 
in a hurried flight to Louisbourg, when the English came on the coast in 
1758, the treasure was buried and never reclaimed by the owner, who 
found his death behind the walls of the old town. The place where these 
coins were found is now known as Little Loran, in distinction from Great 
or Big Loran, the port nearest to Louisbourg, where Wolfe made his 
post. Some contend that the name is only a corruption of Lorraine, but 
nowhere in any writing or map is there authority for such a hypothesis. 
Bellin, Pichon, and others give Lorembec, which naturally recalls Kebec 
and Arambec, the other name of Norembeque or Norembec, and other 
Indian names of places in Acadia and on the gulf. In the Micmac tongue 
bek or bee is a familiar termination to the names of places, and one French 
writer has called this harbor Laurentbec. We may assume that Laurent- 
bee was simply an attempt to Gallicize an unknown Indian name whose 
sound to the ear naturally recalled the familiar title of the great gulf and 
river of Canada. Loran is only the corruption of the stately name of 
Lorraine, which was given it for years when no one, after the occupation 
by the English, could interpret the original word Lorembec, and there 
was a general tendency to fall back on the French regime in such matters 
of perplexity. In all likelihood we see in the strange and hitherto mean- 
ingless Lorembec a survival of an Algonquin word, which was applied in 
some remote time of which we have no accurate knowledge to the III- 

* See Rev. Dr. Rand's Micmac Dictionary, published at Halifax, N. S., 1888. The beautiful 
" Sissiboo " in western Nova Scotia is the same name in a slightly changed form. 



1 84 ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG 

defined region which was known as Norumbega, or Norumbec, or Norum- 
begue, and even Arambec — though Nova Scotia was probably Arambec — 
and was believed by some mariners and geographers of ancient days to 
extend from Florida even to the eastern shores of Cape Breton. The 
old French voyagers may have found the word on the coast of Cape 
Breton, and have given it to the places where they first heard it, and 
where it has lingered until its origin has been forgotten and it has at last 
become Loran. Thus we may see in these obscure harbors of eastern 
Cape Breton a link to connect us with the past of northeastern America 
— that land of shadows and mysteries where the city of Norumbega rose, 
with palaces as substantial as those chateaux-en-Espagne of which all of 
us dream in the buoyancy and enthusiasm of hopeful and early manhood. 

But we leave all these interesting memorials of a misty historic past 
that we find on the shores of Cape Breton, and pass on to Louisbourg, to 
which the thoughts of the student and traveler naturally turn. Our starting- 
point is Sydney, the present capital, prettily situated on a peninsula well 
adapted for a fine town, and the headquarters of a large coal trade — one of 
those old places where, among the modern improvements of towns nowa- 
days, a few quaint one-storied houses, tumble-down barracks, and worm- 
eaten wharves show it has had a history. Sydney has one of the safest and 
largest harbors in America, and has been, from the earliest times in the 
history of Cape Breton, the constant resort of vessels engaged in the 
fisheries, or in the commerce of this continent. 

One of the most noteworthy events in days before France built Louis- 
bourg was the fact that it was in this spacious haven Admiral Sir Hoven- 
den Walker anchored his fleet during the September of 171 1, after the 
great loss he sustained while on his way to attack Quebec. It was here 
he came to the determination to sail to England without striking a blow 
for her honor and gain in America. From time to time French corsairs 
found refuge in the sheltered nooks and creeks of this great port, but we 
have no record of any event of moment that signalized its history until 
the foundation of the town in 1784, by Lieutenant-Governor Des Barres, 
a soldier who took part in the second siege of Louisbourg, and was 
present at the death of Wolfe on the field of Abraham. The little cap- 
ital of the island was named in honor of Lord Sydney, then one of the 
queen's secretaries of state. The town has had a sluggish growth dur- 
ing its century of existence, and it is only within a few years, with the 
development of the great coal mines in the vicinity, that it has thrown 
off the apathy of the past, and taken a place among the active mercan- 
tile communities of Nova Scotia. It has an energetic competitor in 



ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG 185 

North Sydney, some six miles lower down the harbor, not far from the 
entrance of the port. In the summer days the port is visited by vessels 
of the French fleet that protect the fisheries on the coast of Newfound- 
land, and the industrious descendants of the Basque, Breton, and Norman 
adventurers of old still drag up the riches of the sea on the Grand 
Banks, where the codfish — the baccalaos of the Basques — appear as pro- 
lific as in the "days when those sailors first explored the unknown waters 
of eastern America. By the irony of fate, the only remains of French 
dominion now in the Gulf of St. Lawrence are the insignificant islands of 
St. Pierre, Miquelon, and Langley, off the southern coast of the great 
island to which the names of Baccalaos, Terre Neuve, Avalon, and New- 
foundland cling from the days of Cabot and Cortereal. Louisbourg is 
in ruins, and the French flag is no longer seen in that port, but floats 
only from the mastheads of ships of France in the harbor which they 
neglected in the days when her king was master on his royal island." 

After leaving Sydney we have to travel for a distance of at least twenty- 
four miles on a fairly good road, which offers no particular attractions 
except for a few minutes when we cross the Mira river, a noble stream 
which broadens, some miles from its mouth, into a long, extensive lake 
surrounded by well-wooded hills, and is justly named Grand Mira by the 
people. Glimpses of Catalogne Lake and of the great ocean away beyond 
to the eastward help to relieve the monotony of a rugged landscape. We 
pass a number of not too well cultivated farms, each with its little home- 
stead of logs or sawn lumber, chiefly occupied by Scotch settlers. Grad- 
ually we can smell the fresh salt air, that tells us of our nearness to the 
sea, and suddenly emerging from a desolate-looking country, covered with 
small spruce, or with stumps and rocks where there happens to be a little 
clearing, we find ourselves on the hills which overlook the harbor, which 
stretches before us from northeast to southwest. If the day be foggy 
and dull — and there is a prevalence of such weather on that southeast 
coast of Cape Breton — the feeling that comes to the visitor is one of intense 
loneliness as he surveys the scattered houses, the almost deserted port, the 
absence of any commercial activity, and the wide expanse of ocean stretch- 

* Until a few years ago the French flag floated from a tall staff on a grassplot near the water's 
edge in front of a large white house with wide, generous veranda and green shrubberies, which 
was and is still one of the conspicuous features of the harbor of Sydney. Within a stone's 
throw of this old mansion, whose framework is now nearly a century old, have anchored the 
vessels of the Newfoundland squadron for fifty years and more, and its quaint, low rooms are 
filled with mementos of illustrious French sailors, like Admirals Le Ronciere and Cloue, who in 
times past have partaken of the hospitalities of the kindly owner — the late Senator Bourinot — long 
a vice-consul of France. 



186 ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG 

ing away to the eastern horizon. This feeling is naturally intensified by 
memories of the very different scenes that were witnessed on the same 
harbor in the middle of last century. It is by such contrasts between the 
past and the present that a place like Louisbourg makes the most impres- 
sion on the mind. A large, bustling city would cause us almost to forget 
the historic days of old, and could not have the charm of the lonely aspect 
that the site of the old town now wears. 

The fortifications of Louisbourg were commenced in 1720, and cost 
the French nation three millions of livres, or about six million dollars; or, 
taking into account the greater value of money in those days, over ten 
million dollars of our money, and even then they were never completed in 
accordance with the original design, on account of the enormous expense, 
which far exceeded the careful estimates, and of the reluctance of the 
French king to spend money in America when it was required to meet 
the lavish expenditure of mistresses, and the cost of wars of ambition in 
Europe. The walls of the fortifications were chiefly built of a porphyritic 
trap — a prevailing rock in the vicinity.* A considerable portion of the 
finer materials used in the construction of the brick and stone masonry of 
the fortifications and buildings was actually brought from France, as bal- 
last, probably, in the fishing fleet from year to year ; but it is also well 
known that a good deal of the timber and brick was purchased from traders 
of New England, who had no objection to earn an honest penny, even 
among a people whom they at once despised and hated. Some of them, 
in all probability, helped at a later time to demolish the very walls for 
which they had furnished materials. It is stated with so much persistence 
by French officers, that we must believe there is some truth in it, that the 
fortifications had been constructed carelessly, and worthless sea-sand used 
in mixing the mortar. It is quite probable that at Louisbourg, as in Can- 
ada, the officials in charge of the works cheated the government in every 
possible way in order to amass enough to get out of the country, to which 
many of them had a strong aversion. 

This harbor, so full of memories, possesses natural characteristics which 
are peculiar to itself, and after a while bring with them a feeling of rest 
and isolation from the great world which frets and fumes away beyond it, 
and has brought none of its activity to its now relatively deserted shores. 

* Dr. Gesner, in his Industrial Resources of Nova Scotia, p. 303. " The quarry," he writes of a 
visit to the ruins in 1849, " is seen about half a mile from the town. The stones were employed 
in their rough state. With them I found a handsome cut rock, closely resembling the Portland 
stone of England. I have been informed that this rock was obtained by the French at Mira river, 
but I have never seen any like it in America. Pieces of fine polished marble were also found among 
the ruins of the governor's dwelling.'' 



ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG 1 87 

Nature here, too, is seen in most varied aspects. The very atmospheric 
changes, so sudden at times, somehow seem adapted to the varying moods 
of life. One day all is bright, and the waters of the port sparkle in the 
sunshine, the gulls and seabirds take lofty flights in the pure atmosphere, 
the patches of stunted spruce assume a deeper green, and the lights and 
shadows play above the ruined ramparts of the old town, to which the 
eye ever turns in remembrance of the past. Then in a moment the wind 
veers round, and as we look to the southeast we can just see above the hori- 
zon a low bank of gray shadow, which moves forward, and soon enshrouds 
the islands at the entrance and the lighthouse on its rocky height in a 
cloud of mist, which increases steadily in volume until at last the point of 
land on which the old fortress once stood is no longer visible to the eye. 
Then, a few hours later, the wind changes once more, a cooling breeze 
comes from the northwest, the dense fog is driven out to sea again, 
and the harbor is revealed in all its solitary beauty. Or perhaps the 
wind rises to a storm, and then the waves dash with great velocity on the 
rocks and islets that bar the ocean from the port, which, despite the tem- 
pest outside, seems remarkably unruffled, and affords still a safe anchorage 
to the boats and vessels that are now its sole tenants, instead of the 
great fleets of stately ships that whitened its waters in the days of old. 

Let us walk around this harbor on a bright day, when the fog, for once, 
has found its way beneath the horizon, and take a brief survey of the natu- 
ral features of this curious landscape, and of the memorials that still remain 
of the old regime. The lighthouse point, or rocky promontory that forms 
the northeastern entrance, is the terminus of a great mass of rocks, where 
the inevitable spruce has obtained a foothold, and the varied flora of this 
northern region bloom amid the crevices or on the swampy ground which 
is a prevalent feature of the country. The beach is one great collection of 
rocky debris, which seems to have been thrown up by some giant effort of 
nature, and it requires no slight effort to find one's way amid these masses 
of rock piled on rock, worn smooth as marble by the unceasing action of 
the waves, and covered at their base with great bunches of entangled 
seaweed and shells, which glisten like so many necklets of amber beneath 
the sunlight as it peers into the little pools that have been left by the tide 
when it has receded to the bosom of mother ocean. Some few paces east- 
ward of the lighthouse a mound or two of turf represents the battery 
which in Wolfe's time did so much execution on the works on Goat Island, 
about a third of a mile distant in a southerly direction — a mass of rock and 
earth, where old cannon balls and pieces of artillery are now and then 
turned up by the waves as they roll during the equinoctial gales on its 



1 88 ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG 

rugged shores. On these islands that guard the port seabirds without 
number still build their nests, and at certain seasons of the year, when the 
visitor lands among the rocks, they rise by myriads into the sky, and hover 
like a great cloud above the islets. The lighthouse, a tall wooden building 
with a fixed light, stands securely on a pinnacle of rock — a dreary home 
in the storms of autumn and winter, and the fogs of spring. From here, 
sometimes — although rarely at this particular point — in early spring, one can 
see vast fields of ice stretching as far as the eye can reach, blockading all 
approaches to the port, as in the days when Pepperrell's little expedition 
lay anchored at Canso. But the westerly winds soon scatter these ice-floes, 
and send them to melt in the warm current of the Gulf Stream, and the 
keeper from his lantern tower looks once more on the wide expanse of 
ocean, with all its varied moods in that uncertain region where storm and 
sunshine are ever fighting for the mastery. A short distance from the 
lighthouse there is a white modern cottage, a pleasant summer home, 
whose green lawn slopes to the edge of a little pond, guarded from the 
encroachments of the ocean by a causeway of stone. Here is a vista of 
land and sea of rare attraction for the wearied resident of the town. 

Following the sinuosities of the harbor we come to where once stood 
the careening wharf of the French, and here, when the writer last saw the 
place, was a high and long pier for loading vessels with the coal brought 
some twelve miles from the mines by a narrow-gauge railway. In this 
neighborhood, when the railway was built, there was to be a new town of 
Louisbourg, and a large coal business was to be prosecuted in summer and 
winter ; but the pier has fallen into decay — it is probably removed by this 
time — the railway has been derailed in places, the wooden trestle-work 
over Catalogne Lake has rotted away, and Louisbourg has again been 
deserted for the town of Sydney. The road round this rugged promon- 
tory runs through great rents blasted in the rocks, and nears at times the 
very edge of the precipices. At intervals are fishing stages and molder- 
ing warehouses, recalling old times of large business activity. We pass by 
the little northeast harbor which forms so safe a haven for the trading 
schooners and fishing boats which are always moored here as in former 
times. As we walk down the west side towards the site of the French 
town we notice that the land ascends gently from the very edge of 
the harbor, and forms a pleasant site for the present village of Louis- 
bourg, a collection of twenty or more whitewashed or painted houses, 
a canning factory, * and two or three churches. Some shops stand by 
the roadside or in the vicinity of the wharves, where there is generally 

* The manager was — perhaps is — also from Maine, like Pepperrell. 



ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG 1 89 

fish drying on flakes. Some meadows, covered with a spare crop of 
grass or late vegetables, represent the agricultural enterprise that is 
possible on a thin soil, which receives little encouragement in this 
changeable atmosphere of fog and rain, in this country where the spring 
is a delusion and the summer too often a mockery, since it is so short, 
though in July and August there are days whose cool, soft temperature is 
most delicious. The old ruins of the grand, or royal battery, about mid- 
way on the west side, are quite visible, and as we survey them, map in 
hand, it is easy enough with a little patience and an effort of the imagina- 
tion to trace the lines of the works. Here, however, as elsewhere, we can 
pay our tribute to the thoroughness with which the English sappers and 
miners, one hundred and thirty years since, obeyed their instructions to 
destroy the old fortifications, and leave not one stone on another lest 
they might at some time be found serviceable to an enemy. Just before 
coming to the barachois, so often mentioned in the accounts of the two 
sieges,* we see before us a large wooden chapel with a prominent steeple, 
the most pretentious ecclesiastical building in the place, and the cross 
that points to heaven is so much evidence that Rome claims her votaries 
in her old domain, and that the hatchets of the Puritan iconoclasts of 
Pepperrell's time were of little avail after all, but that her doctrines still 
flourish in the island of Cape Breton. We cross the barachois by a rude 
bridge and follow the road along the beach for a quarter of a mile or so, 
then come to a collection of fish stages and wharves made of poles laid on 
logs which are redolent of the staple industry of Louisbourg. Then we 
turn up a hill, and soon find ourselves on the grass-covered mounds of 
the old town. If we take a position on the site of the king's bastion, the 
most prominent point of the ruins, we see to the southwest the waters 
of the spacious Bay of Gabarus, generally called in old English books 
Cliapean rouge, though how it came to be so called has heretofore been 
one of the many puzzles that the names of many places in Cape Breton 
offer us. In the well-known map of Nicholas Bellin, the famous French 
engineer, which is given in Charlevoix's History of New France, the bay is 
called by the still more mysterious name of Gabori. As a matter of fact 
the bay appears to have been named at an early period after a M. Cabar- 
rus, a Frenchman of Bayonne, who was the first to visit its shores, though 
I have not been able to find the exact date.f It was on the beach of this 
great bay that the New England troops under Pepperrell in 1745 and the 

* The name barachois was given by the French to a salt water pond, having communication 
with the sea. The name is still common as barasois in Cape Breton. 

f In one of Dufosse's (Paris) catalogues appears the following entry, which corroborates the 



190 ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG 

British army under Amherst and Wolfe in 1758 made their landing and 
marched against Louisbourg. Immediately below are the remains of the 
casemates where the women and children found a refuge during the last 
siege. Looking at the three that remain, it is easy to see that any 
number of persons must have been huddled together in a very pitiable 
fashion. Sheep now find shelter within these rudely constructed retreats. 
All around them in summer time there are patches of red clover, mingling 
its fragrance with the salt sea breeze, and reminding us how often this 
grass grows rank and rich in old graveyards, as it were to show how 
nature survives the memorials of man's ambition and pride. The low, 
rugged country that stretches for a league and more to Gabarus presents 
all the natural features of rock and swamp, with patches of alders and the 
stunted fir that seem to flourish best on this poor, bleak coast. It is quite 
easy to follow the contour of the fortifications until they come to the old 
burying-ground on Rochefort Point, where hundreds of New Englanders 
and of French and English soldiers found their last resting-place in 1745 
and 1758. No tombstone or cairn or cross has been raised; the ground 
has never been blessed by priest ; the names of the dead are all forgotten. 
Frenchmen, Englishmen, and colonists, Catholics and Puritans, now 
sleep side by side regardless of the wars of creeds, beneath the green sward 
which the sheep nibble with all the avidity of their kind. 

The deep ditch near the King's bastion is still full of water, and the 
stumps of the picket palisades, which were raised in 1745 between the 
Princess's and the Brouillon bastions are visible in places. We can see, 
too, in the water the remains of the bridge which stretched across the 
shallow pond between the Maurepas and Greve batteries. The places of 
the numerous stages for drying fish in the old times on the harbor front 
can still be traced, with a little trouble, on the shore at low tide. On the 
site of the town there are piles of brick and stone, which have been dug 
up by the present inhabitants when they required materials for building. 
Many of the chimneys in the humble cabins of the fishermen are built of 
brick from France, or perhaps from New England. Cannon balls and 
bombshells are frequently found at low tide on the shores, and more than 
once an old swivel cannon has been dug up in the sand. It is rarely, how- 
ever, that any relics of interest or value are discovered at Louisbourg. 

statement in the text : " Cabarrus (Dominique de). Lettres de noblesse accordees au Sieur Domi- 
nique de Cabarrus, negociant a Bayonne, donnees a Versailles au mois d'Avril, 1789. Copie 
contresignee par d'Hozier de Serigny, 4 pp. in fol. Cachet du Cabinet d'Hozier. 

"Ext. C'est le frere du Sieur Dominique de Cabarrus qui a donne son nom a la baye 
Cabarrus a I'Isle Royale." 






ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG I9I 

Delving in the debris of an old foundation, probably that of the hospital, 
the writer once found some pieces of tarnished gold lace, which may have 
belonged to an officer wounded in the last siege. But such a treasure as 
was found at Loran — to give the place its now familiar name — has never, 
to my knowledge, been turned up among the ashes of the old town. All 
articles of value were taken away by the people, if, indeed, there were 
many in a place which few persons regarded as a permanent home. 

Those who have ever paid a visit, of late years, to the city of Cam- 
bridge, in Massachusetts, and lingered for a while under the noble elms 
that shade its wide streets and cluster around the buildings of Harvard, 
may have noticed a small gilded cross above the doorway of Gore 
Hall, where the great New England university has housed its principal 
library. One must at first wonder why this religious symbol, only found 
as a rule on Roman Catholic buildings or Anglican churches of an 
extreme type, should adorn the doorway of a seat of learning in once 
Puritan New England. On inquiry we find it is a historic link which con- 
nects the old Bay State with the distant and almost forgotten port on the 
windy eastern coast of Cape Breton. Nearly a century and a half has 
passed since this simple cross was taken from its place on a Louisbourg 
church, probably by one of the soldiers of Pepperrell's expedition, at the 
command of one of the Puritan clergymen, who regarded it as a symbol 
of idolatry. It was carried to New England and forgotten among other 
relics, until an enthusiastic and scholarly historian brought it to light and 
gave it the prominent position it now occupies in Harvard. Here we have 
undoubtedly clear evidence of the extreme liberality of these days that 
would make the old preacher, Moody, who carried to Louisbourg a hatchet 
to cut down the Papist images, lift his voice in stern rebuke of the degen- 
eracy of his countrymen were he permitted, by a higher power, to return 
to the land where he once denounced the Roman Catholic religion with so 
much bitterness of tongue. In the state where Governor Endicott cut 
the red cross from the English flag, the same symbol now not only invites 
the people to numerous churches, but seems to offer a benison to the youth 
of New England who pass beneath the portals of Harvard's library.* 

As one looks carefully in these days at the natural position of the old 
fortress, it is quite obvious that it must have been extremely weak on the 

* In a letter to the author, Dr. Justin Winsor, the librarian of Harvard, says : " The story is 
that the iron cross above the door of our library was brought back to Massachusetts after the siege 
of Louisbourg (in 1745) by the returned troops. When I found it, in 1877, in the cellar of the 
library, it had a label on it to that effect. It is supposed to have been on the Catholic chapel (in 
the citadel or hospital church ?). I say this much, and give a cut of it in the second volume of the 
Memorial History of Boston (frontispiece)." 



I92 ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG 

land side, when once an enemy obtained a footing on shore. The most 
dangerous point was, of course, Gabarus Bay, and the French would have 
been wise had they built strong permanent forts or batteries at every cove 
where there was a chance of an enemy's landing. The history of the last 
siege shows that the French were quite aware of the necessity for such 
batteries, but they had no force strong enough to maintain even the works 
they were able to construct with the materials close at hand. In endeavor- 
ing to prevent the landing they had left the town itself almost undefended. 
Then, when the enemy was established in force, the French were not able 
to hinder them from taking possession of the northeast entrance, and the 
green hills which command the town. The grand battery was never of 
any use, and the one at Lighthouse Point was also deserted at the first 
sign of peril. Both of these works, if held by the French, could have 
thwarted the plans of the English for some time ; but as it was there were 
no men to spare for these outworks, if, indeed, they were in a condition to 
resist attack for many days. The town, then, from the land side, stood 
isolated and dependent entirely on its own defenses. From the sea, on 
the other hand, it was much less liable to danger. We have evidence of 
this in the fact that the island battery at the entrance, during the two 
sieges, for weeks kept the fleet outside of the harbor. If Lighthouse 
Point had been defended by a powerful fort, garrisoned by a sufficient 
force, the entrance would have been almost impregnable. 

The rocky islands that lie between the ocean and the port, and make 
it so secure a haven in the most tempestuous season, present a very pict- 
uresque aspect as we survey them from the heights of the old town. They 
seem to form a sort of cordon of rocks and shoals, on which the sea rushes 
in all its impetuosity, only to find itself stopped in its fierce desire to 
reach the peaceful haven. The spray rises in times of storm in great 
clouds of mist on these dangerous rocky ledges, and then, as soon as the 
wind subsides, there is hardly a ripple to tell of the danger that lurks 
beneath the unruffled surface that hides these rocks, where death ever 
awaits the storm-tossed or careless sailor. It was on one of such rocks in 
the vicinity of Porto Novo, to the northeast of Louisbourg, that the French 
frigate Chameau, on her way to Quebec, was shipwrecked one August 
night in 1725, and all New France was "placed in mourning, and lost 
more in one day than she had lost by twenty years of war." It is easy to 
imagine that there are several channels among these Louisbourg islets as 
one surveys them on a fine, calm day, but woe betide the vessel that reck- 
lessly and ignorantly ventures within these dangerous passages, which are 
only so many lures to shipwreck and death. 



ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG I93 

As we stand on the ruined ramparts, let us for a moment forget the 
placid scene that forces itself upon us on every side in these days of the 
old port's departed greatness, and recall the history of the past, with its 
enterprising adventurers and discoverers, its bold soldiers and famous 
sailors, its squadrons of stately ships and its regiments drawn from France, 
England, and the Thirteen Colonies, then developing into national life 
and activity. Cape Breton, in these times, is merely a fine island to the 
tourist who travels through its picturesque lakes, and surveys its noble 
ports and bays only in the light of the practical present. Its geological 
features and its rich coal deposits attract the scientist. Others speculate 
with the eye and brain of the capitalist on the opportunities that its min- 
eral and other resources, and its admirable position at the entrance of the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, offer to enterprise and energy. Some still look 
forward with reason to the time when Louisbourg will become a great 
port of the world's commerce, and more than realize the conceptions of the 
astute Frenchmen nearly two centuries ago. But these are not the only 
thoughts that will press upon the mind at times when we travel over the 
historic ground that lies between the old village of Port Toulouse and the 
ruins of Louisbourg. We can see in imagination the sails of the Basque and 
Breton fishermen hovering centuries ago off the bays of the island, which 
had no name and hardly a place then in the rude maps of the world. We 
can see Spaniard and Portuguese venturing into its unknown rivers and 
harbors, and giving them names which were so many recollections of their 
old homes across the sea. At times, when the vessels of many nations 
anchor in its safe havens, we hear a curious medley of tongues — the Saxon 
words of Kent and Devon, the curious dialect of the Bay of Biscay, the 
sonorous Spanish and its offspring, the Portuguese ; the Celtic language of 
Bretagne, so closely allied to that of the ancient Britons across the English 
Channel. The years pass by, and the island still remains a solitude, save 
where the wandering Micmac raises his birch lodge and lights his fires on 
the shores of the inlets and rivers of the noble lakes, then in all the sub- 
limity of their pristine beauties — vistas of great forests untouched by the 
axe, and of mountains where the foot of European never trod. Then 
suddenly a town rises on its eastern shores — a town with walls of stone, 
where the cannon and lilies of France tell of the ambition of the nations 
of Europe to seize the new world, with its enormous possibilities. Then 
it is no longer the sails of adventurous fishermen that dot these waters. 
We see great fleets, with their armaments of heavy metal, ranged for miles 
off the harbor that now represents the power of France. We can hear 
the shouts of triumph as the flag comes down from the Vigilante, sur- 

V01.. XXVII. -No. 3.-13 



194 ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG 

prised on her way to succor Louisbourg. We can see the dim hull of 
the Are'tliuse stealing, amid the darkness of night, through the vessels of 
the blockading squadron, to tell the French king that his dream of empire 
in America is fast drawing to an end. We can see the old, leaky Notre 
Dame de Dclivrance — no longer a name of auspicious omen — carried into 
port with its rich cargo of gold and silver from the mines of Peru, amid 
the cheers of the sailors on the English ships, and of the soldiers as they 
crowd the ramparts of the town, over which the French flag is flying still 
in mockery of the hopes of De Ulloa and his French companions, when 
they sought the port as a safe refuge after their storm-tossed voyage from 
the Spanish colonies of the south.* We can see the men working like so 
many ants in the trenches, and manning the batteries from which the 
shot flies fierce and hot upon the devoted town, making great breaches in 
its walls. Farmers, fishermen, and mechanics of New England, sturdy, 
energetic, sharp-witted, full of wise saws and scriptural quotations specially 
adapted to themselves and their own wishes; men from the grass meadows 
of Devon and the hop gardens of Kent ; stalwart highlandmen whose 
hearts still go across the water to Prince Charlie, or linger in their Scottish 
glens, which may know them no more ; sturdy English sea-dogs, as ready 
to swear as to fight; the self-reliant, calm merchant of the Piscataqua, the 
tall, gaunt form of Wolfe, with his emaciated face, on which illness had 
left its impress ; Duchambon and Drucour, with disappointment and care 
depicted in their eyes, as they survey the ruins of their fortress ; the silent, 
sullen Frenchmen mourning their fate as they see the red cross of England 
flying above their citadel ; a gentle, cultured lady, amid the storm of shot 
and shell, showing Frenchmen that their women would, if they could, 
fight for France and her honor to the last ; f a sturdy sailor, who, in later 
times, was to give England the right to claim an Australasian continent 
in the southern seas. \ All these pass in rapid panorama before our eyes 
as we recall the shadowy past with its associations of victories won on 
three continents. Here we stand on ruins which link us with the victories 

* In 1745. after the capitulation, the French flag was allowed to remain on the citadel, and 
several ships were consequently decoyed into the port. Among these was the Delivrance, laden 
with ingots of silver from South America, and having on board a distinguished Spanish savant, 
Don Juan de Ulloa, who has left us a record of his impressions of Louisbourg. 

f Madame Drucour, wife of the governor, " has performed such exploits during the siege as 
must entitle her to a rank among the most illustrious of her sex ; for she fired three cannon every 
day in order to animate the gunners. After the surrender of the town, she interested herself in 
behalf of all the unfortunate people that had recourse to her mediation." See Pichon's Memoirs 
(London, 1760), p. 382. 

\ The famous Captain Cook was a petty officer on the English fleet. 



ONCE FAMOUS LOUISBOURG 195 

of Plassy, Rossbach, and Minden ; with new empires won in Asia and 
Europe; with the rise of dynasties, and the defeated schemes of kings and 
princes once dominant in Europe. Three continents were here allied in 
the days of Pitt, and whether we walk over these old ruins in Cape Breton 
or bow reverently before the monuments that tell of England's famous 
men in her ancient abbey, and see most conspicuous among them all the 
stately figure of Chatham, with his outstretched arm, " bidding England 
to be of good cheer, and hurling defiance at her foes," we feel that though 
this land of ours be new and have few of those historic memories that 
make every inch of England or of France so dear to the historian, the 
poet, and the novelist, yet here at least, at Louisbourg as at Quebec, and 
on the banks of Champlain, we have a rich heritage of associations that 
connect us with the most fascinating and momentous pages of the world's 
history. But we soon awake from this reverie to see around us only grassy 
mounds, and in place of the great fleets which once whitened the sea, from 
Lorembec to Gabarus, with their great spread of canvas, in days when 
ships were objects of interest and beauty, and not uncouth masses of iron 
and steel, we see now only a little fishing boat running merrily with a 
favoring breeze through the narrow entrance, perhaps a white sail or two 
in the distant horizon, or a lengthening streamer of smoke which tells us 
of a passing steamer, engaged in the commerce which long since left this 
port, once the hope of France. History often repeats itself, and perhaps 
the time may come when a great town will rise on the site of the old 
fortress ; not a town of bastions and batteries, to represent the ambition 
and evanescent glory of nations, but a town built on a permanent basis ot 
commerce, energy, and enterprise, with its port crowded with shipping 
bringing to it a constant freightage of riches greater than those concealed 
in the ships of Pepperrell's time; with mansions and edifices illustrating 
the culture and progress of the new era which had at last come to an 
island long forgotten by the world, despite the important part it once 
played in the wars of national ambition on the continent of America. 
With these hopes we leave the old port, where 

" Owners and occupants of earlier dates 

From graves forgotten stretch their dusty hands, 
And hold in mortmain still their old estates." 



Ottawa, Canada. 




SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES 

HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 

Part II 

At a still later day, the legislative council and house of representa- 
tives of the territory of Indiana adopted a series of resolutions which 
Governor William Henry Harrison approved, praying a suspension of the 
sixth article of the ordinance of 1787. As this document emanated from 
the territorial legislature, it came before congress with the force and effect 
of an official proceeding. It was referred to a special committee of the 
house of representatives on the 6th of November, 1807 ; this committee 
made an adverse report in the premises, and the house concurred in their 
denial of " popular sovereignty in the territories." The landmark of free- 
dom set up by the ordinance of 1787 for the benefit of the northwest 
territory was left undisturbed.* 

Meanwhile a new and larger territorial question had come to vex the 
councils of the nation. The status of the Louisiana country, under the 
stipulations of the treaty by which France ceded it to the United States, 
could but give rise to questions which were entirely novel as to the con- 
stitutional power of congress to regulate slavery in newly acquired terri- 
tory, and therefore in territory outside of the Constitution at the date of 
its adoption. It is known that the treaty of cession contained a stipula- 
tion to this effect : " The inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be 
incorporated into the union of the United States, and admitted, as soon 
as possible, according to the principles of the federal Constitution, to all 
the rights, advantages, and immunities of citizens of the United States; 
and in the meantime shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoy- 
ment of their liberty, property, and the religion which they profess." 

A question was early raised as^to the quality and extent of the recog- 
nition implied by the word " property," as used in this clause. By the 
opponents of slavery it was contended that the term " property," as here 
employed, could import only such property as was universally recognized 
"according to the principles of the federal Constitution," and therefore 
could not extend to " property in slaves," which was purely the creature 

* Annals of Congress. Tenth Congress, First Session, p. 919. 






SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 197 

of municipal law. But congress soon came to the resolution of such ques- 
tions by erecting the Louisiana country into two municipal communities, 
one of which, the southern, was called the " territory of Orleans," and 
the other of which, the northern, was called the " district of Louisiana." 
In the southern territory the institution of slavery was left undisturbed, 
but the importation of slaves from abroad was prohibited. The northern 
district was summarily annexed to the jurisdiction of Indiana territory, 
and so became subject to the principles of the ordinance of 1787, includ- 
ing the sixth article, which prohibited slavery. Again the discretionary 
power of congress over slavery in the territories was exemplified, and 
again did the policy of an equitable partition of territory between " the 
north " and " the south " receive a fresh affirmation. 

Under a new charter of temporary government given by congress to 
the territory of Orleans on the 2d of March, 1805, and under the terms of 
which any implied restrictions on slavery had been expressly repealed, it 
was held by many persons that even the interdict previously laid on the 
slave trade from abroad had been also repealed. It is probable that this 
construction was not foreseen or intended by congress, but in fact the 
foreign slave trade was revived for a season at the port of New Orleans 
under color of such an interpretation, and its prosecution was winked at 
by the federal authorities. It should be recalled that South Carolina, 
after having interdicted the foreign slave trade for a time, had revived it 
in 1804, in prospect of its speedy termination by federal enactment after 
1808, and a new activity was thereby given to the nefarious traffic by 
vessels clearing from the port of Charleston to the port of New Orleans.* 

The attention of congress having been called to this subject by a 
member of the house of representatives from South Carolina, Mr. David 
R. Williams, and a committee having been raised on his motion to con- 
sider "what additional provisions were necessary to prevent an importa- 
tion of slaves into the territories of the United States; " this committee, 
of which Mr. Williams was chairman, reported a resolution condemna- 
tory of the foreign slave trade as to " any of the territories of the United 
States." The resolution was adopted, and a committee was appointed 
to bring in a bill pursuant to its terms, but the measure failed to be 
acted on, notwithstanding the energy with which it was pressed by Mr. 
Williams. 

The foreign complications of the United States with England and 
France, which, extending from the beginning of our government, had 
resulted at last in a war with the former power, came in 1812 to transfer 

* Annals 0/ Congress. Sixteenth Congress, First Session, vol. i., pp. 263, 266. 



198 SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 

the stress of the sectional feud between " the North " and " the South," 
from questions concerning the power of congress to regulate slavery in 
the territories to questions concerning the power of congress to regulate 
commerce, to pass embargo laws, and thus to impair the rights of shipping 
property in the trading states. The discontents of the eastern states came 
to a head in the Hartford convention, and when these discontents had 
been appeased by the repeal of the embargo act and the return of peace, 
the sectional feud again swayed back to the question of the territories, and 
in the years 1 8 19 and 1820 vented itself in a fierce struggle over the 
admission of Missouri as a slave-holding state, and over the organization 
of Arkansas as a slave-holding territory. 

We have seen that an impassable chasm had been opened in the 
federal convention of 1787, between two classes of states differently inter- 
ested in the disposition that should be made of the vacant lands, and that 
this chasm was opened in the forum of the convention so soon as the 
question arose in that body as to the constitutional provision that should 
be made for the admission of new states into the Union. In the year 
1820, in this same matter of the public territory, an irrepressible conflict 
arose between two classes of states differing in their social systems, in 
their economic pursuits, and in their political predilections. The impassable 
chasm between the states was here opened in the forum of congress on a 
question then and there raised as to the terms and conditions on which 
Missouri should be admitted into the union of states. The chasm had 
been temporarily closed in 1819 by the allowance of slavery in the bill 
organizing the territory of Arkansas. 

Missouri after having been temporarily included in the district annexed 
to the territory of Indiana, and after passing through other stages of terri- 
torial subordination, had been erected into a separate territory by act of 
congress, approved June 4, 181 2. In this act no restriction of any kind 
was laid upon slavery, and greater legislative power was vested by 
congress in the general assembly created under the act than had been 
previously conceded to the legislature of any territory. 

What is called '"the Missouri question " arose, in the first stage of its 
emergence, from an attempt made in the house of representatives to insist 
on the prohibition of slavery in Missouri as the condition of her admis- 
sion into the Union. It was proposed to put this condition in the act 
of congress authorizing the territory to frame a state constitution. The 
opponents of this restriction, while generally admitting the sovereignty of 
congress over the territories in the matter of slavery, were unanimous in 
denying this prerogative to congress in the hour and article of admitting 



SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 199 

a state into the federal Union, for the obvious reason that such a restriction, 
in the absence of any constitutional power to impose it, would be the 
exercise of arbitrary authority; would impair the autonomy of a "sover- 
eign state;" and would destroy the equality of the states in a matter left 
free to each under the Constitution. Southern statesmen like McLane of 
Delaware, and Lowndes of South Carolina, frankly admitted the discre- 
tionary power of congress to regulate slavery in the territories. So far as 
I can discover, John Tyler of Virginia, then a member of the house of 
representatives from that state, and afterwards President of the United 
States, was the only person on the floor of either house of congress who 
openly questioned it at that juncture. 

Everybody knows that the scission between the slave-holding and the 
non slave-holding states in this great crisis of our political history was 
closed by what is called " the Missouri compromise." That celebrated 
compromise was brought forward in the shape of an amendment to the 
bill which provided for the immediate admission of Missouri as a slave- 
holding state, and provided further that slavery should be forever prohib- 
ited " in all the territory ceded by France to the United States, under the 
name of Louisiana, lying north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes 
north latitude, excepting only such part thereof as is included within the 
state of Missouri." The compromise was adopted in the Senate on the 
17th of February, 1820, by a vote of thirty-four yeas to ten nays. In the 
house of representatives it was passed by a vote of one hundred and 
thirty-four yeas to forty-two nays. A partition of the territory of the 
United States between the two classes of states at variance was now 
enacted into the statute law of the land. 

Florida was purchased from Spain in i82i,andwas erected into a terri- 
tory in 1822, with the toleration of slavery, but not without the interven- 
tion of congress at a later date to revise certain "regulations" of the 
territory which moved in the matter of slavery and its relations. The 
legislative assembly of Florida undertook to impose discriminating taxes 
on the slave property of non-residents. All such discriminating taxes 
were formally disallowed by congress, which thus asserted its just suprem- 
acy over each of the territories during the period of their territorial 
vassalage. 

The passage of " the Missouri compromise " marks the close of an old 
order and the beginning of a new in the secular controversy over the dis- 
position and regulation of slavery in the public territory. Mr. Jefferson 
confessed at the time that this Missouri question, " like a fire-bell in the 
night, awakened and filled him with terror," as being " the knell of the 



200 SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 

Union." He predicted again and again that the geographical line fixed by 
that compromise, because it " coincided with a marked principle, moral 
and political," and because it thereby created a clean and clear line of 
cleavage between the slave-holding and the non slave-holding states, would 
never be obliterated, but would be marked deeper and deeper by every 
new irritation in our federal politics. He saw with the eye of a political 
philosopher that the controversy between our two classes of states differ- 
ently related to the subject of slavery had passed from the sphere of 
economics into the sphere of politics, and that, too, into the sphere of politics 
made blood-warm by conflicting interests, and touched into a fine frenzy 
by conflicting views as to the ethics of slavery. From the first there had 
been a tacit attempt to effect the partition of public territory between the 
planting and the trading states, and to the end that the pending equilib- 
rium between the two classes of states might be maintained as far as 
practicable, it had not been uncommon to provide for the twin admission of 
a " slave state " and of a " free state " into the federal Union. But now the 
antithesis between the " slave states" and the " free states " was distinctly 
articulated in the polity and politics of the country. Henceforth the feud 
between them would be as internecine, so Jefferson said, as the feud 
between Athens and Sparta. He descried from afar the advent of a new 
" Peloponnesian war." 

His vision was true, but his analysis was insufficient. For in truth it 
was no fault of "the geographical line " fixed by the Missouri compromise 
that that line was so portentous, and that forty years afterwards, as 
Jefferson feared in 1820, it bristled with the bayonets of " states dissevered, 
discordant, belligerent." The fault was in the opposing and enduring 
forces which eagerly confronted each other across the line — forces of 
thought and passion so persistent and immitigable, that even when the 
party leaders of each seemed to be singing truce with their bugles, they 
were really marshaling their clans for new civic feuds of ever-widening 
sweep and ever-deepening intensity. 

In the year 1845 the republic of Texas was admitted into the Union by 
joint resolution of both houses of congress, and with a provision, inter a/ian, 
that " the Missouri compromise line," as a recognized compact between 
the sections, should be applied to the territory in case of its partition into 
states. The idea of a territorial " partition " was again embodied in our 
polity and politics. 

The annexation of Texas had for its natural, if not its inevitable, 
sequel, the war with Mexico, which resulted in the treaty of peace con- 
cluded at Guadalupe Hidalgo, and the ratifications of which were exchanged 



SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 201 

between the two countries at Queretaro on the 30th of May, 1848. By 
this treaty, a vast accession was made to the territorial possessions of the 
United States. The annexation of Texas had been avowedly prosecuted 
in the interest of slavery, considered as a political institution. It was so 
interpreted by Mr. Calhoun, as secretary of state, in a letter written by 
him to Mr. Pakenham, the British minister, under the date of April 18, 
1844. The Mexican war, though declared by our congress to have been 
begun " by the act of Mexico," was held by many at the south as well as 
at the north to have been precipitated by the act of the administration of 
President Polk in ordering an advance of United States troops on the ter- 
ritory in dispute between Texas and Mexico. Supporters of the war at 
the south had not hesitated to call it " a southern war," because it por- 
tended the aggrandizement of slavery considered as a political institution. 
Such sectional irritations could but excite a counter irritation among the 
representatives of "the North" in congress. As early as the 9th of August, 
1846, on the introduction of a bill into the house of representatives, appro- 
priating two million dollars to aid in the adjustment of our difficulties 
with* Mexico, Mr. David Wilmot of Pennsylvania brought forward his 
celebrated proviso, drawn mutatis mutandis, from the ordinance of 1787, 
but denuded of the clause enjoining the rendition of fugitive slaves. It 
was expressed in the following terms: 

" Provided, that as an express and fundamental condition to the acqui- 
sition of any territory from the republic of Mexico by the United States, 
by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to 
the use by the executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery 
nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory . 
except for crime whereof the party shall be duly convicted." 

The bill with this proviso annexed was passed in the house of repre- 
sentatives by a vote of eighty-five yeas to seventy-nine nays. The bill as 
thus amended went to the senate, where, by parliamentary strategy (that is, 
by " talking it to death "), the opponents of the bill caused it to fall through 
for want of time to act upon it before the hour fixed for the adjournment 
of congress at that session. At the next session a similar bill was passed, 
with a similar proviso, declared to be applicable " to all territory on the 
continent of America which shall hereafter be acquired by or annexed to 
the United States." This sweeping proviso, after being adopted in com- 
mittee of the whole, was finally rejected in the house of representatives 
on the 3d of March, 1847, by a majority of only five votes. 

The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was, therefore, concluded and rati- 
fied in full sight of the sectional exasperations it was destined to foment. 



202 SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 

Henceforth the " territorial question " assumed vaster proportions, com- 
mensurate not only with the extent of the newly-acquired domain secured 
from Mexico, but also with the growing rivalry of the two antagonistic 
scetions. The constitutional relations of the question were complicated, 
besides, with recondite questions of public law as to the force and effect of 
the local municipal law of Mexico in the matter of slavery. On the one 
hand it was contended that the slaveholder had no right to migrate to the 
new territory with his slave property, because, by the constitution of Mex- 
ico, the institution of slavery, always the creature of positive municipal law, 
could have no recognized existence on the soil in question. On the other 
hand it was argued that the territory of the United States, as the common 
possession of the several states, was held in trust by the federal government 
for the common enjoyment and equal benefit of all the people of the United 
States, with all the rights, privileges, and immunities severally secured by 
law to the inhabitants of the several states. It was further argued on this 
side that, at the moment the new acquisition was consummated, the ante- 
cedent municipal law of Mexico was superseded by the Constitution of the 
United States, which, proprio vigorc, extended its sway over the annexed 
domain, and placed the rights of the slave-owner under its shield. 

In this attitude of the question a proffer was made by southern mem- 
bers of congress to effect a truce between the sections by extending "the 
Missouri compromise line " to the Pacific ocean. The proposition was 
rejected by the northern members, who, in the stage which the contro- 
versy had now reached, steadfastly resisted any further " partition " of ter- 
ritory for the extension of slavery. Many were the parleys held in hopes 
of effecting a political armistice. By what is known as " the Clayton 
compromise," so named from the Delaware senator, Mr. John M. Clayton, 
whose name it bears, it was proposed that " the whole territorial ques- 
tion," as then pending, in relation to Oregon, California, and New Mexico 
should be referred to a special committee of eight senators, four from 
"the north," and four from "the south," who should also be equally 
divided in a party sense between democrats and whigs. In this committee 
it was proposed by a southern member to reaffirm " the Missouri compro- 
mise line " as a basis of settlement. The proposition was rejected by the 
northern members. This deadlock caused, as Mr. Calhoun afterwards said, 
" a solemn pause in the committee." When all prospect of an agreement 
on " the Missouri compromise line" had vanished in this committee, it was 
proposed by the southern members to " rest all hope of settlement on the 
supreme court as the ark of safety." The refuge sought by the fathers 
in the federal convention of 1787 now seemed the only asylum open to 



SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 203 

their children in the congress of 1848. The fathers had eaten sour grapes 
and the children's teeth were set on edge. A bill was matured in the 
committee, providing for an appeal to the supreme court of the United 
States from all decisions of a territorial judge in cases of writs of habeas 
corpus, or other cases where the issue of personal freedom should be in- 
volved ; the bill was reported from the committee with the approval of 
three-fourths of their number, but after passing through the senate was 
defeated in the house of representatives by a vote of one hundred and 
twelve nays to ninety-seven yeas. Five-sixths of the negative votes came 
from the northern states. 

After the failure of " the Clayton compromise," a bill organizing the ter- 
ritory of Oregon was passed as a separate measure, with a proviso annexed 
prohibiting slavery in the terms of the sixth article of the ordinance of 
1787. President Polk in an elaborate message to congress justified his 
approval of the bill by reasons drawn from the precedent set in the 
Missouri compromise act of 1820, as reaffirmed at the annexation of Texas. 
If William Grayson avowed that the southern delegates in the conti- 
nental congress of 1787 had "political reasons " in voting for the prohi- 
bition of slavery in the northwest territory, President Polk made no secret 
of the fact that he had " political reasons " in accepting the prohibition 
of slavery in Oregon — because it laid the basis of an argument for the 
parallel and lateral spread of slavery to the Pacific ocean, on the old 
theory of an equitable " partition " of territory between the two sections. 
So persistent, we see, was the stress of political motives in this struggle 
for a " partition " of the territories. 

Rendered impotent by its dissensions, the federal legislature, though 
clothed with plenary power over the territory of the Union, had virtually 
abdicated its functions with respect to the new domain acquired from 
Mexico. We had " conquered a peace " from Mexico but had lost it 
among ourselves. In prudent forecast of such disaster, Mr. Calhoun, 
" the Palinurus of the south," with a patriotism which does him honor, 
had introduced a resolution in the senate on the 15th of December, 1847, 
shortly after the opening of the thirtieth congress, declarative of the opin- 
ion that "to conquer Mexico and to hold it either as a province, or to 
incorporate it into the Union, would be inconsistent with the avowed object 
for which the war had been prosecuted [the redress of grievances] ; a 
departure from the settled policy of the government, in conflict with its 
character and genius, and, in the end, subversive of all our free and popu- 
lar institutions." Mr. Webster, "the Ajax Telamon of the north," was 
equally earnest in reprobating the dismemberment of Mexico, but these 



204 SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 

counsels of the two great opposing leaders passed unheeded by the zealots 
who at that time swayed the counsels of the administration. 

On the 4th of March, 1849, the administration of General Zachary 
Taylor was called to inherit the fateful legacy bequeathed to it by his pred- 
ecessor. He favored the early admission of California and New Mexico 
as states, under constitutions which had been prepared at their own initia- 
tive, in the absence of enabling acts from congress. Henry Clay, who had 
returned to the senate at this crisis to lend his great abilities to the work 
of conciliation, proposed on the 29th of January, 1850, that the pending 
territorial questions should be settled as part and parcel of the wide 
agitations springing up from slavery in all its relations under the Consti- 
tution. The five measures which he advocated, to "stanch the five bleed- 
ing wounds of the country," were: (1) the immediate admission of 
California as a state ; (2) the adjustment of the boundaries of Texas ; (3) 
a more effective bill for the recovery of fugitive slaves ; (4) the abolition 
of the slave traffic in the District of Columbia ; and (5) the passage of 
organic acts for the territorial government of Utah and New Mexico. 
These propositions, with all others then pending on the same subject, 
were, on the 19th of April, 1850, referred to a select committee of thirteen 
members, consisting of Messrs. Clay (chairman), Cass, Dickinson, Bright, 
Webster, Phelps, Cooper, King, Mason, Downs, Mangum, Bell, and 
Berrien. This committee submitted a report covering all the points 
above enumerated, and accompanied the report with a bill which, from 
the comprehensiveness of its scope, was called at the time " the omni- 
bus bill." This bill, in its relation to the territories, provided for their 
organization by acts of congress, but declared that the legislative power 
under them should not extend to the passage of " any law in respect to 
African slavery." Pending the consideration of this bill, Jefferson Davis 
of Mississippi moved on the 15th of May to amend the bill by substitut- 
ing for the words, " in respect to African slavery," the following clause : 
" No law shall be passed interfering with those rights of property growing 
out of the institution of African slavery as it exists in any of the states 
of the Union." At a later day a counter-amendment was proposed by 
Salmon P. Chase of Ohio in the following terms : " Provided, further, 
that nothing herein contained shall be construed as authorizing or per- 
mitting the introduction of slavery or the holding of slaves as property 
within said territory." These two amendments expressed the pro-slavery 
and the anti-slavery antithesis. After an animated debate they were 
both rejected in the senate by a vote of twenty-five yeas to thirty nays. 
Various other amendments having then been offered and defeated, 



SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 205 

Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois moved to strike out the words relating to 
" African slavery," and to provide that " the legislative power of the terri- 
tory should extend to all rightful subjects of legislation, consistent with the 
Constitution of the United States." This amendment, after being at first 
treated with almost unanimous contempt, receiving only two votes, was 
finally adopted and on the 31st of July, 1850, was incorporated in the 
Utah territorial bill, which was passed by a vote of thirty-two yeas to 
eighteen nays. The lassitude of exhausted disputants rather than the 
cohesion of clear-thoughted opinion was represented in this majority vote. 

It was sought by this amendment to remit the whole slavery discus- 
sion to the territorial legislatures, "subject only to the Constitution of the 
United States," as interpreted by the supreme court. The expedient 
was unhappily open to a double construction at the moment of its inven- 
tion. Some who favored it at the north supposed that the inhabitants 
of a territory would be left "perfectly free" to prohibit as well as to 
establish slavery during their period of territorial dependence. Others 
who favored it at the south repelled this assumption as extra-constitu- 
tional so far as the prohibition of slavery was concerned, and held that 
all legislation of a territory inimical to slavery would be null and void, 
because inconsistent with the Constitution of the United States. The bill 
as finally passed provided at first for the organization of Utah alone, but 
a few days later the senate passed a similar bill for the territorial gov- 
ernment of New Mexico, and the house of representatives having con- 
curred in both, they were both signed by President Fillmore on the 9th 
of September, 1850. 

In order to measure by a few criteria the magnitude and intensity of 
the opposing forces which had now come to their impact on the public 
territory, it is only necessary to recall the fact that, as early as the winter 
of 1844-45, the legislature of Massachusetts, borrowing a leaf from the 
nullification history of South Carolina, had declared by a solemn act, on 
the eve of the annexation of Texas, that such an act of admission " would 
have no binding force whatever on the people of Massachusetts." On 
the other side the legislature of Virginia declared on the 8th of March, 
1847, ^at in the event of a refusal by congress to extend " the Missouri 
compromise line" to the Pacific ocean, or in the event of the passage of 
the " Wilmot proviso," the people of that state " would have no diffi- 
culty in choosing between the only alternative that would then remain, 
of abject submission to aggression and outrage on the one hand, or deter- 
mined resistance on the other, at all hazards and to the last extremity." 
A similar resolution was reaffirmed by the Virginia legislature on the 



2o6 SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 

20th of January, 1849, accompanied with a request that the governor of 
the state, on the passage of the " Wilmot proviso," or of any law abolish- 
ing slavery or the slave trade in the District of Columbia, should immedi- 
ately convene the legislature in extraordinary session " to consider the 
mode and measure of redress." Even after the so-called " compromise 
measures of 1850" had been enacted by congress, declarations still more 
emphatic and proceedings still more positive were promulgated by the 
legislatures of Mississippi and South Carolina. 

"The great pacification" of 1850 had failed to pacificate. How fond 
was the illusion wrought by it may be read in the fact that though the 
two great political parties of the country, the whig and the democratic, 
had accepted "the compromise measures of 1850" in their respective 
"platforms" for the presidential election of 1852, as putting "a finality" 
to the slavery agitation and as the supreme test of political orthodoxy ; 
and though the candidates of the latter had prevailed over those of the 
former because they were supposed to stand "more fairly and squarely" 
on the basis of that adjustment, yet it was reserved for the leaders of the 
democratic party, in this very matter of the territories and their govern- 
ment, to reopen the whole slavery agitation with a breadth and violence 
never before known in our annals. Because the surface of our political 
sea was at that moment no longer swept by storm and tempest, men 
flattered themselves with the hope that the winds of sectional passion 
were dead, whereas they were only tied for a season in the bag of yEolus. 
Their roar might still be heard by those who had ears to hear. 

Congress in 1853 and 1854 was called to organize the territory of 
Nebraska, carved out of that portion of the Louisiana purchase which, 
lying north of 36 30' north latitude, was covered by the Missouri compro- 
mise of 1820 prohibiting slavery. At first the committee on territories in 
the senate, Stephen A. Douglas being chairman, did not purpose to disturb 
the terms of that compromise ; but the territorial bill for Nebraska, in 
respect of the legislative power it conferred, was couched in the same terms 
as had been prescribed in the bills for the government of Utah and New 
Mexico. As those bills were meant to leave these territories tabula rasce 
in the matter of slavery and its relations, it was indeed hinted by the com- 
mittee that the " principles " on which those bills proceeded were incon- 
sistent with the retention of a " compromise" which had placed an invidi- 
ous limitation on popular sovereignty in the territories, under the guise 
of placing an invidious interdict on slavery. After hesitating for a time 
on the brink of the chasm which he saw to be yawning before him, Mr. 
Douglas, on the 23d of January, 1854, in the act of reporting a bill for the 



SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 2o; 

organization of two territories, one to be called Nebraska, and the other 
Kansas, boldly proclaimed the doctrine that the Constitution and all laws 
of the land extended to these territories "except the eighth section of the 
act preparatory to the admission of Missouri into the Union, approved 
March 3, 1820, which was superseded by the principles of the legislation 
of 185c, commonly called 'the compromise measures,' and is declared 
inoperative and void." That is, the terms of " the Missouri compromise," 
which the committee of the senate were "not prepared to depart from" 
when they made their first report, were now declared to have been already 
repealed by the later compromises of 1850. 

As two rays of light, when they impinge in the physical realm, may so 
neutralize each other as to produce darkness, so it would seem that two 
"compromises," when they impinge in the political sphere, may so neu- 
tralize each other as to produce an explosion. Certain it is that the repeal 
of " the Missouri compromise," while having for its avowed object to effect 
the sempiternal banishment of " the slavery agitation " from the halls of 
congress, and its localization in the distant domain of the territories, had 
for its consequences to set the whole nation by the ears. It threw the 
apple of sectional discord into congress, into the supreme court, into every 
home in the whole land. 

How far our federal politics in this recoil from a recorded precedent 
and an established landmark had swung from the moorings of the Con- 
stitution in the matter of the territories and the power of congress over 
them, may be gauged by a single remark which JVIr. Calhoun dropped in 
the last speech he ever delivered in the senate (it was on the 4th of March, 
1850), when he referred to the fact that as recently as during the debate 
on the organization of Oregon territory, everybody in the senate, if he 
mistook not, " had taken the ground that congress has the sole and absolute 
power of legislating for the new territories." Congress in 1855, smitten 
with paralysis by the shock of " an irrepressible conflict " between the 
"free states" and the "slave states," was compelled to declare its 
ddclie'ance as to a power so singly vested in it that its power was "sole," 
and so fully vested in it that its power was " absolute." In fact, it was 
not the quality or extent of the power, but the incidence of the power, which 
led the politicians to shuffle it out of sight. 

The first effect of the effort to " localize " the " slavery agitation," by 
relegating it to the territories, was to precipitate a political and military 
crusade alike from "the North" and from "the South" for the speediest 
possible seizure and occupation of the two strategic points of Kansas and 
Nebraska, which had been so rashly uncovered by the tactical blunders of 



208 SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 

politicians manoeuvring for a position. A second effect of the new policy 
was to convert the forum of the supreme court into the cJiampclos of a judi- 
cial tourney which, by its decision, served only the more to embroil the 
fray it was sought to compose. The Dred Scott decision is commonly sup- 
posed to have placed its aegis over the rights of slave property in the terri- 
tories during the interim of their subordination to the power of congress, 
but when the opinion of Chief Justice Taney, which was read as the opinion 
of the supreme court in that famous case, is collated and compounded 
with the separate opinions of the justices who, it is supposed, " concurred " 
in that decision, this conclusion is by no means clear or certain. Among 
the " concurring " justices there is surely no one who, whether for his 
learning or his character, is entitled to greater weight than Mr. Justice 
Campbell. But that great jurist, in passing on the merits of the case, 
expressly stated that he did not " feel called upon to decide the juris- 
diction of congress," and that " courts of justice could not decide how 
much municipal power may be exercised by the people of a territory 
before their admission into the Union." Indeed, the Drcd Scott decision 
did but render the confusion worse confounded. It was discovered at last 
that " the ark of safety," to which our statesmen, from the origin of the 
government, had looked for refuge from the turbulence of the '' terri- 
torial question," could not outride the storm. 

It remains, then, to say that the dogma of " popular sovereignty in the 
territories," never a principle of the Constitution, and never striking any root 
in the history of the country before the date of our Mexican acquisitions, 
was a mere expedient and makeshift, invented for the evasion of a duty 
which congress had become incompetent to perform because of the schism 
in our body politic — a schism created by the wrench and strain of two distinct 
social systems contending for supremacy in the same national organism. 

I have ventured on this long review not only for the historic interest of 
its separate stages, but also for the light it sheds on the difference between 
the opposing forces which at different epochs met and impinged at the same 
point of impact — the public territory. At the epoch of the ratification of 
the articles of confederation, at the conclusion of peace with Great Britain 
in 1783, at the formation of the Constitution in 1787, the great differentia- 
tion between two classes of states had turned on the question of the owner- 
ship, partition, and government of the unoccupied lands wrested from the 
British crown. The condition of unstable equilibrium was here produced 
by the presence and antagonism of two classes of states differently endowed 
with territorial possessions. Under the Constitution, from 1789 to i860, 
this condition of unstable equilibrium resulted, in the first stadium of our 



SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 20g 

history, from the presence and antagonism of two classes of states with 
different economic systems, determined by the waning profit of slave labor 
in the northern states, and by the increasing profit of slave labor in the 
southern states. From an unstable equilibrium swaying primarily in eco- 
nomics, this sectional counterpoise passed, in its second stadium, to an 
unstable equilibrium swaying in party politics ; and this second stadium was 
reached at the advent of "the Missouri compromise," with its geograph- 
ical line of discrimination between " the two great repulsive masses," pitted 
against each other in the same parallelogram of forces — the federal Union. 
From the year 1820 to the year i860, the jar and jostle of these great 
repulsive masses continued to increase in vehemence of momentum and in 
amplitude of vibration, until at last they shook the Union to pieces for a 
season, in the secession of the Confederate States. 

It was natural and inevitable that this great oscillation of opposing 
and enduring forces should have always come to its highest ascensions in 
the partition and government of the common territory, because it was 
then that the two contending sections could find the freest field for polit- 
ical rivalry and hope for the largest trophies of political conquest. After 
the bargain had been struck in the federal convention between the trad- 
ing states of New England and the planting states of South Carolina and 
Georgia, in virtue of which the former secured the congressional regulation 
of commerce, and the latter secured the constitutional allowance of the 
slave trade till the year 1808, it was foreseen at the time that two great 
objects of sectional interest would still survive in the Union — the fisheries 
for the benefit of New England, and the Mississippi valley for the benefit 
of the southern states. This fact was not only foreseen but openly stated 
on the floor of the federal convention* It does not need to be said that 
the question of the Mississippi valley opened an immensely wider field 
for the play of economical and political forces within the Union than the 
question of the fisheries. The former, in its newly emerging issues, was 
destined to supply recurring questions of purely sectional and domestic 
politics. The latter, in its newly emerging issues, could but supply such 
questions in the second degree, for in the first degree they are always 
questions of international politics. 

All this was clearly perceived, I say, in 1787, and in 1788 when Patrick 
Henry and William Grayson " thundered and lightened " in the Virginia 
convention against the ratification of the Constitution. The struggle 
for the territories under our present Constitution has always -been, 
down to i860, as Grayson phrased it in 1788, " a contest for dominion — 

* Elliot's Debates, vol. v. p. 526. 
Vol. XXVII.-No. 3.-14 



2IO SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 

for empire " in the federal government. ' It has been a contest on the 
one side for the protection and extension of slave labor, with the order 
of economics and politics which such a social system implies ; and a con- 
test on the other side, for the protection and extension of free labor, 
with the order of economics and politics subtended by a diversified 
system of industry. The distinction between the opposing forces and the 
point of their impact was revealed at once when the shock of battle came 
in i860; for with the first shock of that battle, the question of the terri- 
tories, as a watchword and challenge between the two sections, sank 
beneath the horizon of the national consciousness in the twinkling of 
an eye. The " territorial question " never had any significance except as 
the earnest and pledge of political ascendency in the federal Union ; and 
when the civil war came, that significance was buried out of sight by 
the new form which the impact had taken in passing from words to blows. 
The antagonistic forces now stood face to face in battle array. The house 
so long divided against itself had come at last to realize that, if it was not to 
fall, it " must become all one thing or all the other ;" and so it came to pass, 
rather by the logic of events than by the logic of human wisdom, that the 
war for the political union of the states passed into a war for the social and 
economical unification of the American people. It is sorrow and shame that 
this beneficent result could not have been reached without the rage and 
pain of a great civil war ; but now that it has been reached, the sorrow and 
shame of the old epoch, with the rage and pain of the transition period, 
are slowly but surely melting away into a new and deeper sense of 
national unity, with its vaster problems of duty and opportunity. The 
problems before us are indeed of increased complexity and difficulty, but 
they move no longer in the political dynamics of two distinct civilizations, 
each boasting its superiority to the other, and each wasting its energy by 
working at perpetual cross purposes with the other. The energies for- 
merly expended in the " irrepressible conflict of opposing and enduring 
forces " can now be conserved in the political dynamics of a unified civil- 
ization, and can be correlated into new forms of social and economical 
evolution, without detriment to our " indestructible union of indestruc- 
tible states." 



ItM^^Utiy^ 



Columbian University, Washington, D. C. 



PATRICK HENRY IN THE VIRGINIA CONVENTION, 1788 

It has been sometimes represented that Mr. Madison's logic prevailed 
over Mr. Henry's eloquence in this memorable contest, in which they were 
the leaders. It is true that Mr. Madison argued with great logical powers, 
and that he was a prince among logicians. But it is not true that Mr. 
Henry was simply eloquent. He also displayed great logical powers, and 
upon the question of the plan of government proposed, over which the 
trial of logic occurred, Mr. Henry prevailed, carrying the convention for 
the amendments he proposed by a large majority. 

John Marshall, after he had achieved his great reputation as chief jus- 
tice of the United States, upon a visit to Warrentown, Virginia, was asked 
his opinion of Wirt's Life of Mr. Henry. He replied that he " did not think 
it did full justice to its subject. That while the popular idea of Mr. Henry, 
gathered from Mr. Wirt's book, was that of a great orator, he was that 
and much more — a learned lawyer, a most accurate thinker, and a profound 
reasoner." And proceeding to compare him with Mr. Madison : " If I 
were called upon," said he, "to say who of all men I have known had the 
greatest power to convince, I should, perhaps, say Mr. Madison, while Mr. 
Henry had without doubt the greatest power to persuade." 

In this convention, however, Mr. Madison and his party carried their 
point by influences very different from those of logic, some of which, we 
have seen, were questionable. The strongest force that they brought to 
bear was the overshadowing influence of Washington. Mr. Monroe wrote : 
" Be assured General Washington's influence carried this government, "a'nd 
such was the opinion expressed by Grayson and Mason. Even this great 
influence would have failed, in all probability, had the convention known 
that New Hampshire had made the ninth state to ratify on June 21st, or 
had Governor Clinton's letter to Governor Randolph been laid before that 
body. As it was, the result was attained by inducing several of the dele- 
gates to vote against the wishes of their constituents. Had these voted 
the sentiments indicated by instructions, or by the votes of their asso- 
ciated delegates, the result would have been against ratification without 
previous amendments. The fact that Mr. Henry carried the convention 
on the main topic of the debate — the defects of the proposed constitution 
— is but a part of the honor to be accorded to him. A study of the 
reported debates shows that he was a statesman of the highest order, and 



212 PATRICK HENRY IN THE VIRGINIA CONVENTION, 1788 

that he understood the nature of the new government and foresaw its 
practical working more clearly than any of his contemporaries. 

His first and great objection to the new plan was that it constituted a 
consolidated government, with powers drawn directly from the people and 
operating directly upon the people of the adopting states, and changed the 
existing confederation of sovereign states into a great national supreme 
government. He said in his first speech: "That this is a consolidated 
government is demonstrably clear ; and the danger of such a government 
is, to my mind, very striking. . . . Who authorized them (the framers) 
to speak the language of we the people, instead of we the states ? States 
are the characteristic and the soul of a confederation. If the states 
be not the agents of this compact, it must be one great consolidated, 
national government of the people of all the states." 

This view of the nature of the new government he continually referred 
to, and insisted on. Mr. Madison in reply said : " I conceive myself that it 
is of a mixed nature : it is in a manner unprecedented ; we cannot find 
one express example in the experience of the world. It stands by itself. 
In some respects it is a government of a federal nature; in others it is of 
a consolidated nature. Who are parties to it? The people, as comprising 
thirteen sovereignties, not as one great body." 

This definition Mr. Henry ridiculed unmercifully. He said : " This 
government is so new, it wants a name. I wish its other novelties were 
as harmless as this. . . . We are told that this government, collect- 
ively taken, is without example ; that it is national in this part, and 
federal in that part, etc. We may be amused, if we please, by a treatise 
of political anatomy. In the brain it is national ; the stamina are federal ; 
some limbs are federal, others national. The senators are voted for by 
the state legislatures ; so far it is federal. Individuals choose the mem- 
bers of the first branch ; here it is national. It is federal in conferring 
general powers, but national in retaining them. It is not to be supported 
by the states ; the pockets of individuals are to be searched for its main- 
tenance. What signifies it to me that you have the most curious anatomi- 
cal description of it in creation ? To all the common purposes of legisla- 
tion, it is a great consolidated government." 

Later, when he had pushed Mr. Madison to the wall, and wrung from 
him the admission that by the possession of the sword and purse the new 
government possessed everything of consequence, he said, triumphantly: 
"Mr. Chairman, it is now confessed that this is a national government. 
There is not a single federal feature in it." 

— William Wirt Henry's Life of Patrick Henry 



A GROUP OF MISSOURI'S GIANT LAWYERS 

NEARLY ALL OF NATIONAL FAME 

I was sworn in as a member of the St. Joseph bar in April, 1849. The 
Buchanan county bar was then ten years old, the first term having been 
held on Monday, July 15, 1839, a t the house of Joseph Roubidoux,* Hon. 
A. A. King, judge; Samuel Gilmore, high sheriff; Warren Toole, clerk. 
The first case was Andrew S. Hughes vs. Ishmael Davis; dismissed by 
plaintiff. Andrew S. Hughes was the first lawyer, and Ishmael Davis, 
father of R. T. Davis, one of the first settlers. The county seat being 
located by commissioners at Sparta, the next court was held there at the 
house of David Hill, now a corn field, where the county seat remained 
until 1847, when it was removed to St. Joseph by a vote of the people. 

The bar at Sparta is only traditional to me, but seems real, as I so often 
talked with the old actors there. When I came it was a thing of the past 
except in memory. 

While the county seat was at Sparta, the local attorneys residing 
there were Amos Rees, then a brilliant young lawyer, who soon removed 
to Platte City, and was a Kansas pioneer in 1854, and died in Leaven- 
worth City in 1885 at the age of eighty-four, an honored and successful 
lawyer ; Henry M. Vooris, a Kentuckian of great original genius, who 
followed the county seat to St. Joseph, and died in 1876 as judge of the 
supreme court of Missouri — whose epitaph, in the Shakespearian phrase, 
can be lined, " He was an honest man," and, I can add, a great one. 

There was also Lawrence Archer, a South Carolinian, who left St. Joseph 
in 1850 for health, and still lives in San Jose, California, an honored citi- 
zen of the golden state. Another was James B. Gardennier, a Tennesseean, 
young, ambitious, and talented. He made a brilliant canvass for congress 
in 1850 against Governor Willard P. Hall, and was defeated by a few votes; 
was appointed in 185 1 attorney-general by Governor King, and died at 
Jefferson City long ere his powers had matured. The next was Robert M. 
Stewart, afterward governor, and one of the brainiest men who ever filled 
the gubernatorial chair of Missouri. Born in New York, he emigrated 

* In an article on " The Beginnings of the City of St. Joseph " {Magazine of American History, 
xxvi., 108], the log-house of Joseph Roubidoux is described, and a picture given of the first post- 
office in St. Joseph, 1841. 



214 A GROUP OF MISSOURI'S GIANT LAWYERS 

west, edited a paper in Kentucky and at St. Charles, Missouri, and landed 
at Rushville in 1839, settled i n DeKalb, and soon defeated Jesse B.Thomp- 
son, the leading Democrat, for the legislature. His great theme was the 
building of a railroad from Hannibal to St. Joseph, and in 1848 he got the 
bill passed and traveled over the line of it for months, being carried from 
a hack into the hotels, as he was bent almost double with rheumatism. 
In 1850 he had enough money pledged to make the survey, and in 1852 
congress made the land grant of 68,000 acres. In 1854 he was in the 
senate, and procured state aid to assist in building it, and it is one of the 
pleasing reflections of age to know that the writer's vote carried that bill 
over the veto of Governor Sterling Price in 1854. Governor Stewart gave 
way to habits of dissipation in his later years, which ended his life and 
prevented his being nominated for vice-president in 1864 instead of 
Andrew Johnson, the idea being to put on the ticket with Mr. Lincoln a 
loyal man from a southern state, but one born in a northern state if such 
could be found. Governor Stewart suited all the conditions, except that 
on the momentous day he appeared in the convention at Philadelphia in 
bad condition, and lost the prize. He died in St. Joseph in 1870. 

Another jurist at Sparta was Peter H. Burnett, the first circuit attor- 
ney in the Platte Purchase, who emigrated to Oregon in 1844, from thence 
to California in 1848, was the first governor, a supreme judge, and is now 
full of years and honor at eighty-six, awaiting the call of the just made 
perfect. There was William B. Almond, a Virginian, who lived a life full 
of incident and romance, reaching St. Louis in the early thirties. He 
was with the American Fur Company several years on the Yellowstone. 
Coming back to Lexington, Missouri, he married, and in 1837 followed the 
emigrants to old Sparta, going back to Platte City in 1842. He went to 
California in 1849, was elected judge in 1850, came back in 1852, and was 
elected judge in the St. Joseph district ; resigned and returned to Cali- 
fornia in 1854, and came back to help settle Kansas in 1856. He died at 
a hotel in Leavenworth City in i860. The next at Sparta was Benjamin 
F. Loan, born in Breckenridge, Kentucky. He settled in Jackson County 
and read law, came to Sparta in 1840, and won manly fame and wealth by 
his talents, honesty, and devotion to his clients, and died at St. Joseph in 
1881, greatly regretted and honored by his fellow-citizens, after serving his 
district six years in congress. 

William Cannon of Tennessee, of the Andrew Jackson school, was there 
also, a rough, unhewn, but strong man, who left Sparta for Texas about 
1845, ar, d died in 1852. Following him was Willard P. Hall, born at Harp- 
er's Ferry, Virginia, in 1820, of a revolutionary family; a clear and strong 






A GROUP OF MISSOURI'S GIANT LAWYERS 21 5 

intellect, he succeeded Peter H. Burnett as circuit attorney in 1844; was 
in the Mexican war, in General A. W. Doniphan's regiment; in congress 
six years; brigadier-general, lieutenant-governor, and governor; refused 
the position of supreme judge twice, as the writer knows, being solicited 
by the governor to urge his acceptance of the position. He died full of 
years and honors at his home in St. Joseph in November, 1882. 

The last of the Sparta lawyers, but not the least, was General Andrew 
S. Hughes, a Kentuckian, sent by President Adams in 1826 to the Platte 
Purchase as an agent to the Pottawatamie Indians. He was a brother- 
in-law to Governor Metcalf of Kentucky, commonly called " old stone- 
hammer," because he was a most excellent stonemason and built many 
chimneys for the earlier settlers in Mason county, Kentucky, and one for 
the writer's grandfather in 1793 in that county. General Hughes had 
been a senator in Kentucky, and when the Platte Purchase was admitted 
as part of the state, and his wards, the Indians, had vanished, he returned 
to his first love and practiced law. He is the only one of the above-named 
Sparta lawyers I did not know personally, and for each and every one of 
them I have a warm and genial recollection that involuntarily starts a sigh 
and a tear, coupled with the pleasing memories that they were my friends. 
General Hughes was a brilliant and successful lawyer, but too indolent to 
labor. His few forensic efforts put him at the front rank of his profession, 
where he stood as long as he practiced. He left one child, an industrious 
son, General Bela M. Hughes, now of Denver, Colorado, who inherited all 
the sparkling wit, brilliant anecdote, and real genius of the father. Ven- 
erable in years and honors, the son approaches the fourscore mile post 
with all the simplicity and hospitality of the patriarchal days. The writer 
recently spent an evening with him at his home in Denver. 

These settlers of Sparta were supplemented by General A. W. Doni- 
phan, W. T. Wood, and David R. Atchison, residents of Liberty, in Clay 
county, Missouri. Nearly all these men were distinguished in after life. 

In the year of 1840 there were four great bars in the United States, 
celebrated for wit, learning, and genius. First, Boston, with its Webster, 
Choate, Sumner, Parker, and their compeers; second, Richmond, Virginia, 
with Leigh, Wise, Botts, and their colleagues; third, Lexington, Ken- 
tucky, with Clay, Breckenridge, Tom Marshall, Dick Menefee, Matt John- 
son, and many others since known to fame; fourth, the supreme court of 
Mississippi, with S. S. Prentiss, Alex. McClung, Jeff Davis, Henry S. 
Foote, Sharkey, Baldwin, Marshall, Smede, and Coleman. These were 
the most brilliant bars in the United States. They were the " last of the 
Mohicans " as common law expounders, for in the next decade the com- 



216 A GROUP OF MISSOURI'S GIANT LAWYERS 

mon law was largely superseded by code procedure. Science, form, and 
precedent gave place to agrarian platitudes of simplicity. This effort to 
get simpler forms was the worm which smote Jonah's gourd, and was like 
the parliamentary edict of the fourth year of James I., which reduced 
common law to statute ; that dethroned Coke and Littleton, and the 
crowning of kingly prerogative as a court of the last resort. It was the 
dynamo that wrecked the government by beheading Charles I. in 1649. 
The common law dominated the courts of this country until code prac- 
tice was enacted in New York in 1847. The bar has gained in learning, 
but lost in forms, eloquence, and force. The profession has lost in cour- 
tesy, dignity, and the professional aplomb which put the lawyer in the 
front rank as leader and legislator. 

A senator in the United States senate for twelve years, vice-presi- 
dent four years, and president of the interstate for one day, were the 
achievements of David R. Atchison. Conqueror of New Mexico and Chi- 
huahua, with millions of wealth and territory, was the result of the cam- 
paign of the first Missouri regiment under General Doniphan in the Mex- 
ican war. Three governors, six district judges, four supreme court judges, 
eight generals, and all successful and profound lawyers. This old bar 
well deserves a place amid the archives of a nation. In April, 1849, when 
I became a member of the St. Joseph bar, most of the Sparta bar were in 
successful practice. In addition, there were John Wilson, a son of Senator 
Robert Wilson, and Jonathan M. Bassett. 

In 1849 A. W. Terrill of Austin, Texas, was a young attorney, a Mis- 
sourian by birth, who has since earned fame in his adopted state. Judge 
Henry S. Tutt, a Virginian, who commanded the guard of honor that 
conducted Lafayette from Washington City to Richmond in 1825, was 
then a member of the bar, and he and myself are the only resident law- 
yers who drag superfluous on the stage ; and looking though the glimmer of 
the forty years which have so greatly changed the profession, the judicature, 
and the country, I may exclaim, " There were giants in those days." Most 
of them have passed the dark river, and time forbids I should attempt 
to delineate the characters of the many actors who have since added lustre 
to the Buchanan county bar. Some have passed like meteors, lighting for 
a moment the legal sky, while many honored names remain to break a 
lance in the forensic arena, but their prowess and achievements must be left 
to an abler chronicler. 



St. Joseph, Mo. 





CAREER OF BENJAMIN WEST 

BIRTH OF THE FINE ARTS IN AMERICA 

In the wilds of the new world, a century and a half ago, there was, 
apparently, no spot less likely to produce a famous painter than the 
Quaker province of Pennsylvania. And yet, when George Washington 
was only six years old there was born in the little town of Springfield, 
Chester county, a boy whose interesting and remarkable career from 
infancy to old age has provided one of the most instructive lessons for 
students in art that America affords. 

Perhaps Benjamin West's aptitude for picture-making in his infancy, 
while he was learning to walk and to talk, did not exceed that of hosts 
of other children, in like circumstances, in every generation since his time. 
But many curious things were remembered and told of this baby's perform- 
ances after he had developed a decided talent for reproducing the beau- 
tiful objects that captivated his eye. It was in the summer of 1745, a 
few months before he was seven years old, that his married sister came 
home for a visit, bringing with her an infant daughter. The next morn- 
ing after her arrival, little Benjamin was left to keep the flies off the 
sleeping baby while his mother and sister went to the garden for flowers. 
The baby smiled in its sleep, and the boy was captivated. He must catch 
that smile and keep it. He found some paper on the table, scrambled 
for a pen, and with red and black ink made a hasty but striking picture 
of the little beauty. He heard his mother returning and conscious of 
having been in mischief tried to conceal his production ; but she detected 
and captured it, and regarded it long and lovingly, exclaiming as her 
daughter entered, "he has really made a likeness of little Sally!" She 
then caught the boy in her arms, and kissed instead of chiding him, and 
he — looking up encouraged — told her he could make the flowers, too, if 
she would permit. The awakening of genius in Benjamin West has been 
distinctly traced to this incident as the time when he first discovered that 
he could imitate the forms of such objects as pleased his sense of sight. 
And the incident itself has been aptly styled " the birth of fine arts in 
the new world." 

The Quaker boy, in course of years, left the wilderness of America to 
become the president of the Royal Academy in London. His irreproach- 



2l8 CAREER OF BENJAMIN WEST 

able character not less than his excellence as an artist, gave him com- 
manding position among his contemporaries. From first to last he was 
distinguished for his indefatigable industry. The number of his pictures 
hafs been estimated, by a writer in Blackzvood's Magazine, at three thou- 
sand ; and Dunlap says that a gallery capable of holding them would be 
four hundred feet long, fifty feet wide, and forty feet high — or a wall a 
quarter of a mile long. 

The parents of Benjamin West were sincere and self-respecting, and 
in the language of the times, well-to-do. His mother's grandfather was 
the intimate and confidential friend of William Penn. The family of his 
father claimed direct descent from the Black prince and Lord Delaware, 
of the time of King Edward III. Colonel James West was the friend 
and companion in arms of John Hampden. When Benjamin West was 
at work upon his great picture of the " Institution of the Garter," the 
king of England was delighted when the Duke of Buckingham assured 
him that West had an ancestral right to a place among the warriors and 
knights of his own painting. The Quaker associates of the parents of the 
artist," the patriarchs of Pennsylvania, regarded their asylum in America 
as the place for affectionate intercourse — free from all the military predi- 
lections and political jealousies of Europe. The result was a state of 
society more contented, peaceful and pleasing than the world had ever 
before exhibited. At the time of the birth of Benjamin West the interior 
settlements in Pennsylvania had attained considerable wealth, and unlim- 
ited hospitality formed a part of the regular economy of the principal 
families. Those who resided near the highways were in the habit- — after 
supper and the religious exercises of the evening — of making a large fire 
in the hallway, and spreading a table with refreshments for such travelers 
as might pass in the night, who were expected to step in and help them- 
selves. This was conspicuously the case in Springfield. Other acts of 
liberality were performed by this community to an extent that would 
have beggared the munificence of the old world. Poverty was not 
known in this region. But whether families traced their lineage to 
ancient and noble sources, or otherwise, their pride was so tempered with 
the meekness of their faith, that it lent a singular dignity to their 
benevolence. 

The Indians mingled freely with the people, and when they paid their 
annual visits to the plantations, raised their wigwams in the fields and 
orchards without asking permission, and were never molested. Shortly 
after Benjamin West's first efforts with pen and ink, a party of red men 
reached and encamped in Springfield. The boy-artist showed them his 



CAREER OF BENJAMIN WEST 219 

sketches of birds and flowers, which seemed to amuse them greatly. 
They at once proceeded to teach him how to prepare the red and yellow 
colors, with which they decorated their ornaments. To these Mrs. West 
added blue, by contributing a piece of indigo. Thus the boy had three 
prismatic colors for his use. What could be more picturesque than the 
scene where the untutored Indian gave the future artist his first lesson 
in mixing paints ! These wild men also taught him archery, that he 
might shoot birds for models if he wanted their bright plumage to copy. 

The neighbors were attracted by the boy's drawings, and finally a rela- 
tive, Mr. Pennington, a prominent merchant of Philadelphia, came to pay 
the family a visit. He thought the boy's crude pictures were wonderful 
as he was then only entering his eighth year. When he went home he 
immediately sent the little fellow a box of paints, with six engravings by 
Grevling. John Gait, who wrote from the artist's own statements,* de- 
scribes the effect of this gift upon the boy. In going to bed he placed the 
box so near his couch, that he could hug and caress it every time he wak- 
ened. Next morning he rose early, and taking his paints and canvas to 
the garret, began work. He went to breakfast, and then stole back to his 
post under the roof, forgetting all about school. When dinner time came 
he presented himself at table, as usual, but said nothing of his occupation. 
He had been absent from school some days before the master called on 
his parents to inquire what had become of him. This led to the dis- 
covery of his secret painting, for his mother proceeded to the garret and 
found the truant. She was, however, so astonished with the creation 
upon his canvas, that she took him in her arms and kissed him with trans- 
ports of affection. He had made a composition of his own out of two 
of the engravings — which he had colored from his ideas of the proper tints 
to be used — and so perfect did the picture appear to Mrs. West that, 
although half the canvas remained to be covered, she would not suffer 
the child to add another touch with his brush. Sixty-seven years after- 
wards, Mr. Gait saw this production in the exact state in which it was 
left, and Mr. West himself acknowledged that in subsequent efforts he 
had never been able to excel some of the touches of invention in this first 
picture. 

The first instruction in art which the artist received was from Mr. 
William Williams, a painter in Philadelphia. Young West's first attempt 
at portraiture was at Lancaster, where he painted " The Death of 
Socrates" for William Henry, a gunsmith. He was not yet sixteen, but 
other paintings followed which possessed so much genuine merit that 
* John Gait's Life of West, published in 1816. 



220 CAREER OF BENJAMIN WEST 

they have been preserved as treasures. One of these is in possession of 
General Meredith Reed of Paris, France, a descendant of the signer. 
West returned to his home in Springfield, in 1754, to discuss the question 
of his future vocation. He had an inclination for military life, and volun- 
teered as a recruit in the old French war ; but military attractions van- 
ished among 'the hardships involved, and in 1756, when eighteen years 
old, he established himself in Philadelphia as a portrait-painter, his price 
being "five guineas a head." Two years later he went to New York, 
where he passed eleven months, and was liberally employed by the mer- 
chants and others. He painted the portrait of Bishop Provoost, those of 
Gerardus Duyckinck and his wife— full length — one of Mrs. Samuel Breese 
and many others, which are in the families of descendants, and character- 
istic examples of his early work. 

In 1760 an opportunity offered for him to visit Rome, Italy. He car- 
ried letters to Cardinal Albani and other celebrities, and as he was very 
handsome and intelligent — and came from a far away land about which 
hung the perpetual charm of tradition and romance — he soon became the 
lion of the day among the imaginative Italians. It was a novelty then for 
an American to appear in the Eternal city, and the very morning after 
his arrival a curious party followed his steps to observe his pursuit of art. 
He remained in Italy until 1763, and while there he painted, among 
others, his pictures of " Cimon and Iphigenia," and "Angelica and Me- 
dora." His portrait of Lord Grantham excited much interest, and that 
nobleman's introduction facilitated his visit to London, which proved so 
prolific in results. There was no great living historical painter in Eng- 
land just then, and at first there was no sale for West's pictures, as it was 
unfashionable to buy any but " old masters." But the young artist was 
undaunted, and presently attracted attention in high places. His picture 
of " Agrippina Landing with the Ashes of Germanicus," painted for Dr. 
Drummond, Archbishop of York, secured him the favor of George III. 
and the commission from his Majesty to paint the " Departure of Regulus 
from Rome." His untiring industry and gentlemanly habits were con- 
spicuous, and maybe regarded as among the great secrets of his continual 
advance and public recognition. His " Parting of Hector and Andro- 
mache," and " Return of the Prodigal Son," were among his notable pro- 
ductions of this period. His " Death of General Wolfe " has been, says 
Tuckerman, " truly declared to have created an era in English art by the 
successful example it initiated of the abandonment of classic costume — a 
reform advocated by Reynolds, who gloried in the popular innovation." 
His characters were clad in the dress of their time. Reynolds said to the 



CAREER OF BENJAMIN WEST 221 

Archbishop of York : "I foresee that this picture will not only become 
one of the most popular, but will occasion a revolution in art." It was 
purchased by Lord Grosvenor. Among the long list of paintings executed 
by order of the king were " The Death of Chevalier Bayard ; " " Edward 
III. Embracing His Son on the Field of Battle at Cressy ; " " The Instal- 
lation of the Order of the Garter ; " " The Black Prince Receiving the 
King of France and His Son Prisoners at Poictiers," and " Queen Philippa 
Interceding with Edward for the Burgesses of Calais." West was one of 
the founders in 1768, of the Royal Academy, and succeeded Sir Joshua 
Reynolds as president of the institution in 1792, which post he held almost 
uninterruptedly until 1815. 

In the year 1780 he proposed a series of pictures on the progress of 
revealed religion, of which there were thirty-six subjects in all, but he 
never executed but twenty-eight of these, owing to the mental trouble 
which befell the king. He then commenced a new series of important 
works, of which " Christ Healing the Sick " was purchased by an institution 
in Great Britain for ^3000, and was subsequently copied for the Pennsyl- 
vania Hospital. " Penn's Treaty with the Indians" was painted for Gran- 
ville Penn, the scene representing the founding of Pennsylvania. West 
wrote to one of his family that he had taken the liberty of introducing 
in this painting the likeness of his father and his brother Thomas. " That 
is the likeness of our brother," he says, " standing immediately behind 
Penn leaning on his cane. I need not point out the picture of our father, 
as I believe you will find it in the print from memory." Tuckerman says 
that the work which, in the opinion of many critics, best illustrates the 
skill of West in composition, drawing, expression, and dramatic effect, is 
his " Death on the Pale Horse." His " Cupid," owned in Philadelphia, is 
one of his most effective pictures as to color. 

The full-length portrait of West by Sir Thomas Lawrence, P. R. A. 
which forms the frontispiece to this number of the Magazine, represents 
the great artist in his character as president of the Royal Academy, deliv- 
ering a lecture on " coloring " to the students. Under his right hand may 
be noticed, standing on an easel, a copy of Raphael's cartoon of the 
" Death of Ananias." The picture of West's face has been considered a 
perfect likeness, but the figure somewhat too large and too tall in its 
effects. A copy of this portrait was made by Charles R. Leslie; and 
Washington Allston also painted a portrait of the artist. There exists, 
it is said, a portrait of West from his own hand, taken apparently at about 
the age of forty, three-quarter length, in Quaker costume. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE ARBUTUS 

AN INDIAN LEGEND * 

Many, many moons have faded, 
Many, many moons have vanished, 
Since an old man in his wigwam 
Dwelt beside a frozen river, 
Dwelt alone beside the river, 
In a forest black and lonely. 
Long and white his beard and locks were, 
Choicest furs his heavy garments, 
For the world was one long winter — 
Snow and ice o'er all the landscape. 
Winds went wildly through the forest, 
Searching all the trees and bushes, 
Searching for the birds to chill them, 
Over hill and over valley, 
Chasing evil sprites before them. 
And the old man through the forest, 
Through the snow-drifts deep and chilling, 
Sought for wood to feed the fire 
Dying in his lonely wigwam. 
Homeward in despair he staggered, 
Sat beside the dying embers, 
Cried aloud in voice of terror : 
" Mannaboosho, Mannaboosho, 
Save me, ere of cold I perish." 
And the wild wind's breath of coldness 
Blew aside the lodge door rudely, 
And a maiden, winsome, lovely, 
Entered from the gusty darkness. 
Red her cheeks like sweet wild roses 
Burning by the dusky forest ; 
Large her eyes, with lustre glowing 
Like a fawn's eyes in the darkness ; 
Long her hair and black as raven, 
Black as Kah-gah-gee, the raven, 
And it swept the ground she walked on. 
In her hands were buds of willow, 
On her head a wreath of wild-flowers, 
Ferns and grasses were her clothing, 
And her moccasins were lilies, 
* The author is indebted to Hon. C. E. Belknap of Michigan for the prose version of this legend. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE ARBUTUS 22J 

Lilies white that love the meadows ; 

When she breathed, the air around her, 

All the air within the wigwam, 

Passed from winter into summer. 

And the old man said : " My daughter, 

I am very glad to see you ; 

Cold my lodge, indeed, and cheerless, 

But it shields you from the tempest. 

Tell me who you are, my daughter, 

How you dare to brave the tempest, 

In the clothing of the summer ? 

Sit you here, and tell your country, 

Name your victories in order, 

Then my great deeds I will tell you, 

I am Manito the Mighty." 

Filled he then two pipes for smoking, 

Filled he pipes with the tobacco, 

So that they might smoke while talking. 

When the smoke in curling eddies 

Warmed the old man's breath, he uttered 

Words of boasting, words of glory • 

" I am Manito," he boasted, 

" When I blow my breath, a stillness 

Falls upon the flowing waters." 

And the maiden said in answer : 

" Lo, I breathe, and all the landscape 

Blossoms with a thousand flowers." 

And the old man said in answer : 

" When I shake my long locks hoary, 

All the ground with snow is covered." 

"I but shake my curls," she answered, 

"And the warm rains fall from heaven." 

" When I walk," the old man answered, 

From the trees the leaves come falling ; 

Creatures wild in terror flee me, 

Hiding each in winter fastness ; 

Wild birds leave the lake and river, 

Fly away to distant countries." 

"When I walk," the maiden answered, 

" Plants lift up their heads in beauty, 

Many leaves come on the branches, 

Birds come back from distant countries, 



224 THE ORIGIN OF THE ARBUTUS 

Singing with delight to see me — 

All the world is full of music." 

Thus they talked in emulation 

Till the air within the wigwam 

Warmer grew and ever warmer, 

And the old man's head kept nodding 

Till it lay upon his bosom, 

Lay upon his breast in slumber. 

Then the sun came back in splendor, 

And the bluebird, the Owaissa, 

On the wigwam's top alighting, 

Called aloud with joyous singing : 

" Say-ee, say-ee, I am thirsty ! " 

And the river cried in answer : 

" I am free, come here and drink me ! " 

As the old man slept, the maiden 

Passed her small, white hand above him ; 

Small he grew and ever smaller, 

From his mouth came streams of water ; 

Small he grew and ever smaller 

Till his form had almost vanished, 

And his clothing turned to green leaves. 

Then the maiden, lowly kneeling 

On the ground before the green leaves, 

From her bosom pure and lovely 

Took white flowers most fair and precious, 

Hid them there among the green leaves. 

Then she breathed upon the blossoms, 

Breathed upon the blossoms saying : 

" All my virtues give I to you, 

All my sweetest breath I give you ; 

All who pick you must be lowly, 

All on bended knees must pick you." 

Through the woods and o'er the prairies 

Passed away the lovely maiden ; 

All the birds sang love songs to her, 

And where'er her footstep lingered, 

Grows to-day the sweet-breathed May-flower. 





O}- 




Shelburne Falls. Massachusetts. 



A CORNER OF COLONIAL PENNSYLVANIA 

Macaulay, in that inimitable chart for the historical narrator, an Essay 
on History, tells us that he who would present the fine shades of national 
character must see ordinary men as they appear in their ordinary business 
and their ordinary pleasures. He must obtain admittance to the'convivial 
table and the domestic hearth. He considers no anecdote, no peculiarity 
of manner, no familiar saying as too insignificant to illustrate the operation 
of laws, of religion, and of education, and to mark the progress of the 
human mind. Everything, therefore, which casts a ray on other times, 
every morsel which has been snatched from the " wastes of time," is in 
some sense history, or the material of which history is composed. 

An attempt is here made to place on the canvas suggestions of what 
primitive rural Pennsylvania was like from data which have escaped the 
larger meshes of the drag-net of general history. The county of Bucks, in 
the southeastern corner of the state, is one of the three original counties, 
and the particular locality in which Penn's " country house " was situated ; 
thus it has been selected as the typical community of that state. It became 
an organized county in 1684. Its official records extend back to that year 
with unbroken continuity. The inventories of the estates of deceased 
persons, deeds, court records, wills, and well-authenticated tradition have 
been laid under contribution for this reproduction of the " still life " of 
the early settlers, with something of their surroundings, what they wore, 
the furniture of their homes, the vehicles they traveled in, the value af 
their possessions, the books they read, the prices of their produce, and the 
inns in which they were entertained. 

The story of colonial New England seems tempestuous, sanguinary, 
and forbidding in contrast with the Arcadian repose with which life rip- 
pled on for one hundred years on the green shores of the Delaware. From 
the arrival of Penn to the revolution there are no points of exciting interest 
for the writer in the history of Pennsylvania. The Indians were friendly. 
Their children romped in the dooryards of the white families. There 
were no religious feuds, for Penn was a man of boundless catholicity. All 
sects had perfect immunity. He was a Quaker, but established no church. 
He was an enthusiast, but not a bigot. His province, therefore, presents 
the unique spectacle of a colony founded by religious zealots in which 
there was perfect tolerance. 

Vol. XXVII.-Nb. 3.- 15 



226 A CORNER OF COLONIAL PENNSYLVANIA 

Nothing illustrates more forcibly the improved social condition of the 
people of eastern Pennsylvania than the changed facilities for travel. As 
late as 1783 there were eight populous townships in Bucks county in which 
there was not a single pleasure carriage of any sort. In that year, a full 
century and more after Penn's arrival, there was one " chariot " owned in 
the entire region. A chariot was as high up in the world as a vehicle 
could then aspire. The swain who paused in the furrow to regard its tri- 
umphal progress over the rough roads of the period, many of them little 
improved to this day, felt that he was gazing at one of the rare spectacles 
of the earth, and not to be mentioned in the same breath with the " carts," 
" drags," " chaises," " phaetons," " riding chairs," and other quaint and curi- 
ous conveyances which rattled the bones of forefathers and foremothers 
"over the stones." In two of the townships, then as now among the 
wealthiest in Bucks, there was not a two-horse wagon in use before 1745. 
For about sixty years goods and passengers were transported on horse- 
back or in rude one-horse carts. The distance to the meeting-house, the 
smithy, the store, and the election place was great, and must have made 
serious inroads upon the time of the settlers. 

" Did the forefathers vote ? " was the topic in a recent number of one 
of our magazines. So far as the Pennsylvania forefather is involved, it 
may be said that his visits to the election for nearly a century must have 
been infrequent. Until 1777 the election for the whole county, and it 
embraced a large area, was held at one place, and many voters were 
obliged to travel thirty or forty miles to cast a ballot. Few of the offices 
were elective, little interest was shown, and relatively few votes recorded. 
For many years, too, the only meeting-house was in Falls township, in 
which Penn's private manor was situated. Worshipers traveled to this 
sanctuary from the remote townships, twenty-five miles or more distant. 
For the first quarter of a century after the English occupation, it was no 
unusual thing for settlers to drive twenty-five miles to the nearest mill or 
smithy, but in those times horses were rarely shod, and blocks used by the 
Indians to grind corn were freely loaned to the whites. An important 
part of the " furniture " of the horse was the side-saddle. The Pennsyl- 
vania grandam sat a horse well and enjoyed a ruddy, robust womanhood. 

The garb of the Pennsylvanians in the first century finds no imitation 
in the modern fashion plate. Dr. John Watson, an excellent local author- 
ity, furnishes a sketch of the dress, manners, and customs of the people of 
Buckingham, one of the ancient townships. He remembered back as far 
as 1750, and his information for the previous years was derived from the 
first settlers, or from those who had known them familiarly. Dr. Watson's 






A CORNER OF COLONIAL PENNSYLVANIA 227 

sketch was published in 1826 in the memoirs of the Pennsylvania Histor- 
ical Society. He writes that laboring men wore buckskin for breeches, 
jackets of hemp and tow, wool hats, strong shoes with brass buckles, and 
linsey and leather aprons. A " well groomed " gentleman wore a coat 
with three or four plaits in the skirt wadded like a coverlet, cuffs to the 
elbow, and broad-brimmed beaver hat. A woman in full fashion wore 
stiff whalebone stays worth eight or ten dollars, silk gown plaited in the 
back, sleeves twice as large as the arm, " locquet " buttons, and long- 
armed gloves. Brides in addition to this wore a long black hood. 

The inventory of the contents of a Bucks county dry goods store in 
1745 shows the following fabrics, all of which have long since passed out 
of the vernacular of fashion : " Isingham, bag and gulix, quilted hum- 
hums, turketas, single allopeens, jumps and bodice, whalebone and iron 
busk, alibanies, dickmansoy, cushloes, crimson dannador, byrampauts, 
naffermanny, prunelloe, barragons, druggett and floretta." The early 
court records teem with curious applications for the licensing of inns and 
for the laying out of roads. In 1727 one Thomas Jones, in asking for a 
road along his premises, closed an urgent appeal with the assertion that 
he would " always be ready to pray for the eternal happiness of the Hon- 
orable Bench." The old court papers fix in a definite way the value of arti- 
cles then in common use. An indictment of 1761 charges the prisoner with 
the theft of a pair of women's stays, valued at two pounds sixpence; a pair 
of men's pumps, seven shillings sixpence. Conrad Hause in 1763 received 
thirty lashes for stealing a woolen petticoat of the value of seven shillings. 
A tame doe was worth four pounds ; a yard of calico, six shillings, many 
times its present price ; a linen handkerchief, two shillings, and a silk 
handkerchief, three shillings. One hundred and fifty years ago two gills, 
or a " drink," of Pennsylvania rum cost eightpence. 

Property in slaves was quite common among the colonists in Bucks for 
a long time. There is little novelty in the statement that the early Penn- 
sylvanians, as well as the inhabitants of the other colonies, kept human 
chattels, but the fact is vividly brought to mind when one finds slaves 
repeatedly inventoried with cattle, implements, and products. Certain 
differences in the ordinary modes of living between the former days and 
the present are indicated in the inventories. Household articles are often 
named in groups, by rooms, so that the actual equipment of parlor, bed- 
room, kitchen, are faithfully set forth. Thus it seems to have been no 
unusual circumstance to have a bed in the parlor as late as 1760, and prob- 
ably for some years afterward. 

Occasional glimpses of the literature of the eighteenth century which 



228 A CORNER OF COLONIAL PENNSYLVANIA 

had found its way into the colony are given. An examination of several 
lists about the middle of the century brings to light the following titles : 
Tillotsons Sermons, Dr. Scott's Christian Life, ChillingswortJis Works, 
Isaac Pennington 's Works. The inventory of the estate of one of the most 
bookish men of the county, dying in 1745, exhibits the following catalogue : 
Scwell's History of England, Reformers of Ye Church of England, Dy die's 
Dictionary, The Complete Distiller, The Poems of Catherine Phillips, Ye 
Fair Hypocrite, The Evil of Stage Plays, Memorials of Woodland, Ye Works 
of King fames, Travels of Fine Godliness. 

The ancient courts of the county were, relatively speaking, much more 
largely attended than the courts of the present day. In the early days 
then there were no local newspapers to glean from the field of gossip. The 
news of the period was carried by word of mouth, and " court time " was 
the great occasion to trade bits of tattle afloat in far-off neighborhoods. 

The old records are full of proceedings against " prisoners taken in exe- 
cution," as unfortunate debtors were then called. Sometimes the debtor 
was discharged by making satisfaction to his creditor" by servitude " ; that 
is, he was sentenced by the court to serve each creditor long enough to dis- 
charge the debt. Robert Lawrence, in 1765, was sentenced to serve twenty 
creditors in succession. The limit of his temporary slavery was seven 
hundred and twenty-four days. When the debt was under ten pounds, 
and the debtor was a soldier " in His Majesty's service," he was dis- 
charged. 

Penalties were extremely severe. In 1758 the negro " Christmas " was 
tried for burglary. He broke into a house and stole articles of dress 
valued at two dollars and a half, was convicted, and sentenced to be 
hanged. 

Irving says, in the Sketch Book, that he entered " for the hundredth time 
that picture of convenience, and broad, honest enjoyment — an English 
Inn." English literature teems with references to these retreats. Their 
names have been carefully preserved from the earliest times. Their 
legends, traditions, and associations are imbedded in English history, essay, 
and biography. Since the introduction of railways in the " tight little 
island," the great roads have ceased to be the thoroughfares they once 
were. The ideal inn has therefore fallen into neglect. In Escott's England, 
attention is called to the probable extinction of these interesting features 
of social life in the parent country. In Pennsylvania, as elsewhere, it has 
passed through the same development, and is threatened with a like 
fate from the operation of similar causes. 

With the introduction of the inn in Pennsylvania came also those curi- 



A CORNER OF COLONIAL PENNSYLVANIA 229 

ous, ancient signboards, some of which gave names to the English inns 
for generations before they were set up in this country. It being the prac- 
tice to insert the sign names in the applications for license to the county 
court in Pennsylvania, these petitions furnish an official directory of those 
singular legends by which owners of inns distinguished their houses. The 
horse has been repeatedly honored in these names. He is presented in a 
variety of colors and relations, such as " The Sorrel Horse," " The Black 
Horse," " The Waggon and Horse," etc. The animal kingdom also fur- 
nishes " The Lion," " The Elephant," " The Bull's Head," " The White 
Bear," "The Buck," "The Eagle," and "The Swan." Names were often 
found in the implements of agriculture and its products : " The Harrow," 
"The Barley Sheaf," "The Plow." Historical names and incidents are 
preserved in " The Penn's Manor House," " The Indian." Associations of 
the road find expression in " The Half Way House," " The Traveller's 
Rest," " The Drover." Inns along the Delaware were appropriately 
named " The Waterman," " The Deck Boat," "The Anchor," etc. 

It would be easy to extend the inquiry outlined in this sketch much 
further, but enough is given to suggest sources of information of the past 
to be found in the dust bins of the public offices in all the counties of the 
older states. Much of the material is too microscopic for the eye of the 
general historian, but it furnishes all we shall ever know of the life of that 
very large segment of the colonial population which Mr. Lincoln would 
have called the " common people." 



/%j£yPtyU^ d % /fy^L 



DOYLESTOWN, Pa 




MINOR TOPICS 
SIGNIFICANCE GIVEN TO COMMON WORDS 

" Great writers and orators are commonly economists in the use of words," 
writes Edwin Percy Whipple in his American Literature. " They compel common 
words to bear a burden of thought and emotion which mere rhetoricians, with all 
the resources of the language at their disposal, would never dream of imposing upon 
them. But it is also to be observed that some writers have the power of giving a 
new and special significance to a common word, by impressing on it a wealth of 
meaning which it cannot claim for itself. Three obvious examples of this peculiar 
power may be cited. Among poets, Chaucer infused into the simple word green a 
poetic ecstasy which no succeeding English poet, not even Wordsworth, has ever 
rivaled, in describing an English landscape in the month of May. Jonathan 
Edwards fixed upon the term sweetness as best conveying his loftiest conception of 
the bliss which the soul of the saint can attain to on earth, or expect to be blessed 
with in heaven ; but not one of his theological successors has ever caught the 
secret of using sweetness in the sense attached to it by him. Dr. Barrow gave to 
the word rest, as embodying his idea of the spiritual repose of the soul fit for 
heaven, significance which it bears in the works of no other great English divine. 
To descend a little, Webster was fond of certain words, commonplace enough 
themselves, to which he insisted on imparting a more than ordinary import. Two 
of these, which meet us continually in reading his speeches, are interesting and 
respectable. The first of these appears to him competent to express that rapture 
of attention called forth by a thing, an event, or a person, which other writers 
convey by such a term as absorbing — or its numerous equivalents. 

There is no word which the novelists, satirists, philanthropic reformers, and 
Bohemians of our day have done so much to discredit, and make ^-respectable 
to the heart and imagination, as the word respectable. Webster always uses it as a 
term of eulogy." 



ANECDOTES OF THE DARK DAY OF 1780 

A somewhat unique work has recently been issued in Salem, Massachusetts, by 
Sidney Perley, entitled Historic Storms of New England, which contains a graphic 
description of the dark day of 1780. The light of the sun seemed to be almost 
taken from the earth, and a strange darkness settled over the land. Pieces of burnt 
leaves were continually falling, and the rain water was covered with a scum-like soot, 



MINOR TOPICS 231 

which would indicate to the people of this generation that the forests were on fire 
in some direction. Some of the incidents related by Mr. Perley are interesting. 

" In Boston, one of Rev. Dr. Byles's parishioners sent her servant to him when 
the darkness was greatest, asking whether or not in his opinion it did not portend 
an earthquake, hurricane, or some other elementary commotion. ' Give my respect- 
ful compliments to your mistress,' facetiously replied the doctor, ' and tell her I 
am as much in the dark as she is.' 

At Salem, Dr. Nathaniel Whittaker's congregation came together at their 
church, and he preached a sermon in which he maintained that the darkness was 
divinely sent for the rebuke of the people for their sins. 

An incident with a certain humorous tinge took place at Medford. When the 
day was darkest, a negro named Pomp, who was very much frightened, went to his 
master and said : ' Massa, the day of judgment has come ; what shall I do ? ' 
'Why, Pomp, you'd better wash up clean, and put on your Sunday clothes.' Per- 
ceiving that his master showed no signs of fear, Pomp began to draw his attention 
to evidence of his conviction. ' Massa, it has come ; for the hens are all going to 
roost.' ' Well, Pomp, they show their sense.' ' And the tide, massa, in the river 
has stopped running.' 'Well, Pomp, it always does at high water.' 'But, 
massa, it feels cold; and the darkness grows more and more.' 'So much the 
better, Pomp, for the day of judgment will be all fire and light.' Pomp concluded 
that he would wait for something further to turn up before preparing for the great 
day. 

The legislature of Connecticut was in session at Hartford. The deepening 
gloom enwrapped the city, and the rooms of the state house grew dark. The 
journal of the house of representatives reads : ' None could see to read or write in 
the house, or even at a window, or distinguish persons at a small distance, or per- 
ceive any distinction of dress, etc., in the circle of attendants. Therefore, at 
eleven o'clock adjourned the house till two o'clock afternoon.' The council was 
also in session, and several of its members exclaimed, ' It is the Lord's great day.' 
There was a motion to adjourn, but Col. Abraham Davenport, a member from 
Stamford, quickly arose, and with great moral courage and reason said : ' I am 
against the adjournment. Either the day of judgment is at hand, or it is not. If 
it is not, there is no cause for adjournment. If it is, I wish to be found in the 
line of my duty. I wish candles to be brought.' " 



232 



NOTES 

NOTES 



The half-king's opinion of Wash- 
ington's military ability — The fol- 
lowing interesting statement is from the 
journal of Conrad Weiser, September 3, 
1754: " By the way Tanacharisson, other- 
wise called the Half-King, complained 
very much of the behavior of Colonel 
Washington to him (though in a moder- 
ate way, saying the Colonel was a good- 
natured man, but had no experience), 
saying that he took upon him to com- 
mand the Indians as his slaves, and 
would have them every day upon the 
outscout and attack the enemy by them- 
selves, and that he would by no means 
take advice from the Indians; that he 
lay at one place from one full-moon to 
the other and made no fortifications at 
all but that little thing upon the meadow, 
.where he thought the French would 
come up to him in open field; that had 
he taken the Half-King's advice and 
made such fortifications as the Half- 
King advised him to make, he would 
certainly have beat the French off ; that 
the French had acted as great cowards, 
and the English as fools, in that engage- 
ment ; that he (the Half-King) had car- 
ried off his wife and children, so did 
other Indians, before the battle began, 
because Colonel Washington would never 
listen to them, but always driving them 
on to fight by his directions." 

Petersfield 



George Bancroft's social and in- 
tellectual position — Mr. Andrew 
McFarland Davis writes : " The social 
position which Mr. Bancroft held when 
he returned from Germany to this coun- 



try was enviable. His friendships com- 
prehended the great men of two hemi- 
spheres for half a. century. Learned 
societies at home and abroad had elected 
him to honorary membership. He bore 
honorary degrees from American, Eng 
lish, and German universities. A partial 
list of these societies and degrees occu- 
pies nearly half a column in the quin- 
quennial catalogue of Harvard Univer- 
sity. The senate of the United States 
extended to him the unprecedented 
honor of free access to the floor of their 
chamber. His society was eagerly sought 
both at Washington and at Newport, 
and it required all the restraints of his 
methodical habits to preserve strength 
for the work still before him. Towards 
the close of his life the anniversaries 
of his birthday were made much of by 
friends. Flowers, messages and con- 
gratulations were showered upon him. 

The position of Bancroft's history as 
the standard history of the United States 
has left for the critics to discuss only 
the question how long the work will be 
able to maintain this position. The 
Edinburgh Review says : ' The real lib- 
erality, the general fairness, the labor 
and conscientious research it evinces, 
deserves, and we are assured will receive, 
his [the English reader's] warmest ap- 
probation.' The Westminster Review 
predicts ' with confidence that his work 
will be reckoned among the genuine 
masterpieces of historical genius. ' Lecky, 
in his England in the Eighteenth Century, 
accuses him of violent partisanship, and 
charges that it greatly impairs his ' very 
learned history.' If the English people, 



QUERIES 



233 



as a whole, had not been able to appre- 
ciate Bancroft's labor and conscientious 
research, his fairness of purpose, and 
the real liberality beneath his sharp, in- 
cisive criticism, it could only have been 
because they had become less tolerant 
than we know them to be." 



University extension true cul- 
ture — The work of the American soci- 
ety for the extension of university teach- 
ing is practically, and intentionally, of 
the nature of an object lesson to the 
United States on the successful organi- 
zation and conduct of university exten- 
sion. The society now carries on ex- 
tension work in five states, and two more 
are organizing under its direction. These 
seven states present almost every con- 
ceivable variety of equipment, culture, 
financial condition and local peculiarity. 
Out of the organization of work under 
such varying conditions the society is 
gathering a rich store of wisdom and 
experience for the benefit of any city or 
locality desiring to start extension work. 
From a wide experience in city, town 
and village — with and without the nu- 
cleus of some existing institution ; in 



localities ranging in general culture from 
the university town to the simple farm- 
ing district — with methods of financial 
support, including the gifts of single in- 
dividuals, a guarantee fund formed by- 
several persons or by some society, pop- 
ular subscription, or simple advertise- 
ment and self-supporting courses, the 
great fundamental principles underlying 
successful organization are being slowly 
evolved. 

The results of its experience the 
American society places at the disposal 
of any college, individual or society de- 
siring to undertake extension teaching. 
From the report of the first year, and 
the estimates for the coming season, it 
appears that in carrying on this national 
experiment, the American society in its 
two years of existence will have ex- 
pended, including the expenses of local 
centres, no less than forty thousand dol- 
lars ; nearly all of which, with the ex- 
ception of lecturers' fees paid by local 
centres, has been given by public-minded 
citizens of Philadelphia. Another illus- 
tration of the fact that true culture is 
not selfish, but recognizes and fulfills its 
obligation both to individuals and to the 
nation. 



QUERIES 



First American lady to petition 
the king — The London newspapers of 
October 17, 1764, contained the follow- 
ing item : "On Wednesday the 19th of 
September last, an American lady was 
introduced to his Majesty at Richmond, 
and presented a petition. His Majesty 
received the distressed stranger with his 



wonted charitable goodness, and assured 
her of his royal protection. It is imag- 
ined her prayer will be granted, she be- 
ing the only American lady that has 
had occasion to apply to his Majesty." 

Who was the lady, and what was the 
nature of her petition ? 

Petersfield 



234 



REPLIES 



Colonel mainwaring hammond — 
Is anything known concerning the family 
of Colonel Mainwaring Hammond, an 
early settler of Virginia ? In what part 
of Virginia did he live ? Was his wife, 
Jane Hammond, who was a sister of 
the wife of Colonel William Willoughby, 
commissioner of the British navy when 
he died in 1651 ? Was Captain Law- 



rence Hammond of Boston, Massachu- 
setts, who was a son of Mrs. Jane Ham- 
mond of Virginia, also a son of Colonel 
Mainwaring Hammond ? These facts 
are needed by Mr. and Mrs. Edward E. 
Salisbury of New Haven, Connecticut, 
in the preparation of their large Family 
Histories and Genealogies, now nearly 
completed. 



REPLIES 



Harry croswell's libel on Jeffer- 
son [xxv, 320] — There was an inquiry in 
my article in the last April(i8c)i) number 
of the Magazine of American History 
to learn if any one could tell whether 
Harry Croswell, convicted of a libel on 
President Jefferson and appealed, ever 
had a new trial. Mr. E. P. Magoun, of 
Hudson, New York, while unable to an- 
swer the question, gives me the follow- 
ing items of interest : 

"In 1802 a newspaper by name The 
Bee was commenced by Charles Holt, 
in Hudson, New York. With some 
interruptions Mr. Holt had published 
The Bee for the previous five years at 
New London, Connecticut. Having in- 
curred a fine and imprisonment there, 
under the Sedition Act, it became nec- 



essary for him to seek another location, 
and being invited by the republicans, 
transferred his printing materials and 
paper to Hudson, New York. Its circu- 
lation was about one thousand. On the 
appearance of The Bee in Hudson, a 
small paper, less than a letter sheet in 
size, was issued from the office of Mr. 
Croswell, called The Wasp, by ' Rob- 
ert Rusticoat, Esq.' Its object was in- 
dicated by the following couplet : 

' If perchance there comes a Bee, 
A Wasp shall come as well as he.' 

It was published but a short time, and 
both Wasp and Bee stung with personal 
abuse." 

Horatio King 
Washington, D. C. 



SOCIETIES 

SOCIETIES 



235 



New YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY — The 
stated meeting for February was held on 
Tuesday evening, the 2d inst., the presi- 
dent, Hon. John A. King, in the chair. 
Announcement was made of the gift to 
the gallery of a portrait in oil of the 
Hon. Myron Holley, presented by his 
daughter, Miss Sallie Holley. Mr. 
Eugene Smith read the paper of the 
evening entitled, "A Village Hampden 
of New Amsterdam." It described the 
life and settlement at Harlem of Captain 
Jochem Pieterson Kuyter, whose famous 
plantation was named Zengendal, or 
Vale of Blessing. 



Illinois," being a careful study of his 
life and public services. Remarks were 
made by Rev. Robert W. Patterson and 
Colonel Frank A. Eastman. 



Chicago historical society — The 
quarterly meeting was held on January 
19th at its hall, in Dearborn Avenue, 
President Edward G. Mason in the chair. 
The reports of the secretary and libra- 
rian were read, showing a gratifying in- 
crease in the society's collections through 
purchase and gifts. Hon. Lambert Tree 
has enriched its collection of pictures 
by the presentation of a chromo-litho- 
graph representing the entire block of 
buildings, including signs, on the north 
side of Lake Street from Clark to La 
Salle, in 1859, and their appearance 
while being screwed up to the new grade 
established by the city at that time, the 
merchants continuing their business in 
the buildings while they were being 
raised from their old foundations. It 
was one of the most important retail 
blocks in the city. Mr. John Moses, 
the secretary, then read an able, instruc- 
tive and interesting paper, entitled, 
" Richard Yates, the War Governor of 



The RHODE ISLAND historical so- 
ciety at its regular meeting, January 
26th, President Rogers in the chair, list- 
ened to an interesting paper on " The 
Anglo-American Revision of the Trans- 
lation of the Bible," by Dr. Thomas 
Chase. The speaker gave an account 
of Tischendorf's finding of valuable old 
manuscripts of the Bible and their pub- 
lication. It was one of the causes of 
the revision of the Bible. It was a new 
witness of the validity of the text. It 
was found that there were disagreements 
with the Greek text. People were sur- 
prised that there were differences. They 
supposed the text had been miraculously 
preserved. Some one hundred and fifty 
thousand differences have been found, 
but nineteen twentieths of them are 
quite unimportant. Errors often arise 
from accidental repetitions. In the case 
of the New Testament there are the 
words of the fathers, and numerous later 
versions with which to work out the cor- 
rect text. Having a better knowledge 
of Greek lexicography, the students of 
this century were fitted to revise the 
translation of King James. In the 
opinion of the lecturer the time was 
ripe for the revision. He spoke of the 
faithfulness with which the committee 
had worked, and the accuracy of results. 
In his opinion the revision of 1881-85 
will supplant that of 161 1, as it sup- 
planted the Geneva version. 



236 



SOCIETIES 



Remarks were made by Rev. Dr. 
Vose, Secretary Perry and President 
Horatio Rogers. Attention was also 
called to certain recent gifts to the so- 
ciety, among which was a painting of 
General Barton, given through the will 
of the late George F. Cushman, a grand- 
son of General Barton. 



THE ONEIDA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

held its annual meeting on January 12th, 
at Utica, New York, President Charles 
W. Hutchinson in the chair. After the 
reading of reports, the following officers 
were unanimously reelected : president, 
Hon. Charles W. Hutchinson ; vice- 
presidents, Henry Hurlburt, George D. 
Dimon, Hon. Daniel E. Wager ; record- 
ing secretary, Rees G. Williams ; corre- 
sponding secretary, General C. W. Dar- 
ling ; librarian, Dr. M. M. Bagg ; 
treasurer, Warren C. Rowley ; executive 
committee, Alexander Seward, Daniel 
Batchelor, George C. Sawyer, N. Curtis 
White, Bloomfield J. Beach of Rome. 

On the evening of the same day S. N. 
D. North of Boston delivered the annual 
address before the society, his theme 
being " The Evolutions of the Factory 
System." He said : " It is the peculiar 
glory of Oneida county that she fur- 
nished the first and best types of these 
early textile manufacturers in New York 
State. It was claimed by Hon. J. G. 
Dudley, in an address before the New 
York Historical Society, that the first 
woolen factory built in the United 
States was that of Dr. Seth Capron, at 
Oriskany, which was built in 1809 and 
incorporated, by act of the legislature, 
in 181 1. This is an obvious error, for 
woolen factories — nearly as complete in 



their equipment — were in operation in 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Con- 
necticut before the close of the last cen- 
tury. But the genesis of both the wool- 
en and the cotton industries in New 
York State was upon the banks of the 
Oriskany and Sauquoit Creeks. Dr. 
Capron, who inspired both enterprises, 
was moved to the undertaking by the 
patriotic desire to achieve for his coun- 
try an industrial independence com- 
mensurate with the political independ- 
ence he had contributed so much to 
secure." 



The new jersey historical soci- 
ety held its annual meeting in the state 
house at Trenton, New Jersey, on the 
26th of January, 1892. Officers elected 
for ensuing year were : John Clement, 
president ; Dr. S. H. Pennington, Gen- 
eral W. S. Stryker, Rev. Dr. G. S. Mott, 
vice-presidents ; William Nelson, corre- 
sponding secretary ; W. R. Weeks, re- 
cording secretary ; F. W. Ricord, treas- 
urer and librarian ; George A. Halsey, 
John F. Hageman, David A. Depue, 
Nathaniel Niles, John I. Blair, Franklin 
Murphy, Garret D. W. Vroom, James 
Neilson, executive committee. The re- 
ports showed that the society has about 
six hundred members, and a library of 
twenty-eight thousand nine hundred and 
forty-nine volumes. 

The paper of this annual meeting was 
read by Mrs. Martha J. Lamb, editor of 
the Magazine 0/ American History, its 
subject being " Some Important Events 
in Colonial History." It related chiefly 
to the three colonies, Virginia, New York 
and Massachusetts, with a background 
of European history. "One of these 



SOCIETIES 



'■37 



colonies," Mrs. Lamb said, "had been 
founded for gold, another for trade, and 
the third for religion's sake, yet the clar- 
ifying processes of growth and develop- 
ment in a century and a half brought 
them into close relations with one an- 
other in producing one of the grandest 
events in the world's annals, the birth of 
a nation." 



The Rochester (new york) histor- 
ical society held its regular February 
meeting in the chamber of commerce. 
The paper of the evening, " Rochester 
in the Forties," was read by Dr. Porter 
Farley, which called out many interest- 
ing reminiscences from those present. 
This promising society has recently is- 
sued its first volume of publications — a 
valuable contribution to the historical 
bibliography of western New York. 



Saugatuck historical society, 
Westport, Connecticut. The annual 
meeting of this society was held on the 
6th of February, the president in the 
chair. Reports were read showing the 
progress of the society. During the year 
two hundred and seventy-seven volumes 
have been received, also forty-two 
pamphlets, several maps, and various 
relics. The officers elected for ensuing 



year were : Horace Staples, president ; 
Wm. J. Jennings, Wm. H. Saxton, Rev. 
K. MacKenzie, vice-presidents ; Rev. 
James E. Coley, secretary ; Wm. Gray 
Staples, librarian ; Dr. L. T. Day, treas- 
urer. 



The new york genealogical and 
biographical society continues to hold 
monthly meetings at its rooms, No. 23 
West Forty-fourth street. At the meet- 
ing October 9, no regular paper was pre- 
pared, but President Wilson read por- 
tions of an article which he had read 
before the Huguenot society, on " Judge 
Bayard's London Diary." At the meet- 
ing, November 13, Edward Wakefield of 
London, England, delivered an address 
on "The Domesday Book," giving an 
interesting account of this old English 
record, the name of which, he said, sig- 
nified that it was intended as a final 
record, from which there was no appeal, 
like the Divine judgment at domesday. 
At the meeting December 13, Berthold 
Fernow of Albany lectured on " The 
Churches and Schools of New York " ; 
and at the first meeting of the new year, 
January 8, 1892, Josiah C. Pumpelly 
read a sketch of the life of " Captain 
John Paul Jones, the hero of the Bon 
Homme Richard." 



233 



BOOK NOTICES 



BOOK NOTICES 



WASHINGTON'S JOURNAL, 1747-1748. 
Copied from the original with literal exact- 
ness and edited with notes. By J. M. Toner, 
M. D. Square Svo, pp. 144. Joel Munsell's 
Sons, Albany. 1892. 

This journal of a journey over the mountains 
was the earliest literary effort of George Wash- 
ington, begun when he was but one month over 
sixteen years of age. He had left school that 
year and must either go to college or embark 
in business. His aptitude for mathematics at- 
tracted attention, and as land surveying was then 
a profitable and genteel pursuit in the colonies, 
he expressed a wish to engage in it. He was 
presently sent out by Lord Fairfax into the 
Shenandoah valley, and his surveys and reports 
gave such satisfaction that he was continuously 
employed by his titled patron for upwards of 
three years. All the notes of surveys that can 
be found or that are now known to exist, are 
gathered into this volume. They have been 
copied with literal exactness, and the accompa- 
nying journal is printed just as it was recorded 
by the hand of its author. This literalness is 
wisely adhered to in the interest of truth and 
for the benefit of earnest students of history 
unable to consult personally the originals. 
Washington needs no apology for the marks of 
hasty composition, as it was written for himself 
alone. But boy as he was it will be observed 
that he wrote clearly and that his observations 
were always apt and instructive. The volume 
is edited with notes which add immensely to its 
value. Washington writes, March 16, "We 
set out early and finished about one o'clock and 
then traveled up to Frederick Town where our 
baggage came to us . . . where we had a 
good dinner prepared for us, wine and rum 
punch in plenty and a good feather bed, with 
clean sheets, which was a very agreeable regale." 
The scholarly editor, Dr. Toner, adds a note 
here on " feather beds " which were a great lux- 
ury in early times. In another place he de- 
scribes the position of the razor in colonial 
days — it being the essential part of a gentle- 
man's toilet outfit. The volume is accompanied 
by an excellent index, and altogether is a most 
welcome contribution to Washingtonia. 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 
WAR OF THE REBELLION. Addresses 
delivered before the New York Commandery 
of the Loyal Legion of the United States, 
1883-1891. Edited by James Grant Wilson 



and Titus Munson Coan, M.D. New York: 
published by the Commandery. 

Such is the indifference of certain Americans 
to certain other Americans and their belongings 
that we are quite safe in assuming that to avast 
majority of readers the title of "Loyal Legion" 
is meaningless. We use the term readers in a 
general sense, for those who read the Magazine 
of American History may be supposed to be 
somewhat better informed in such matters than 
is the public at large. Still we venture to pre- 
dict that a very large proportion of those who 
read this paragraph know more about the French 
Legion of Honor than they do about this hon- 
orable military order of their native land. The 
inconspicuous little tri-colored rosette that one 
may now and then see worn in the button-hole 
of an elderly gentleman means that its wearer 
has, in his day, looked into the muzzles of rebel 
rifles when they meant business, and has borne 
himself honorably through whatever perils he 
may have been called upon to face. The Loyal 
Legion looks very carefully into a candidate's 
service record before it admits him to fellow- 
ship. No stigma of "pension grabbing" can 
be laid to its charge, though possibly it may 
have individual " grabbers " among its members, 
nor has the baneful influence of politics crept 
in to disturb the harmony of its proceedings. 
The Loyal Legion is made up of commissioned 
officers of the Arm)' or Navy who served honor- 
ably in the Civil War. It was founded in Phil- 
adelphia just after the assassination of Mr, 
Lincoln in 1865, and has now " commanderies" 
in nearly all the principal cities of the North. 
and a total membership of about seven thou- 
sand. It was modeled after the Society of the 
Cincinnati, and in like manner perpetuates 
itself by heredity. For many years the New 
York commandery has held five yearly meetings, 
at each of which, the tables being cleared, 
some papers have been read or some address 
delivered, which are now collected in a hand- 
some volume, bearing the imprint of the com- 
mandery, with its insignia stamped on cover 
and title page. The contents include twenty- 
seven papers, all of them personal experiences 
bearing upon some event of historical import- 
ance. Read by men who themselves took part 
in the episodes described, and in the presence of 
others who were at the time similarly engaged, 
these essays are all instinct with a local color 
that can hardly be looked for in type. Never- 
theless they are highly creditable in literary 
form, and speak well for the attainments of the 
men who wrote them. The edition of this very 
handsome volume is limited to one thousand 



BOOK NOTICES 



239 






copies, and as it has not been stereotyped this 
number cannot be increased. For a frontis- 
piece the editors have secured, through the 
courtesy of the Messrs Appleton, an excellent 
steel engraved portrait of Admiral Farragut, 
and it is, perhaps, worthy of remark that one of 
the most entertaining papers of the series is by 
the son of that gallant officer, Lieut. Loyall Far- 
ragut. late of the United States Army. The 
volume is the first published by the New York 
commandery, and will no doubt be followed by 
others. 

THE FAITH DOCTOR, A STORY OF 

NEW YORK. By Edward Eggleston. 

i2mo, pp. 427. New York: D. Appleton & 

Co. 1891. 

This may be called one of the best novels pro- 
duced by a New York writer within a decade 
at least. It is vigorously written, while its pur- 
pose, to counteract the harm done by the mind- 
cure believers and the Christian Scientists, gives 
a certain vitality to its pages that is exceptional 
in modern works of fiction. Dr. Eggleston 
says his book was not written to depreciate any- 
body's valued delusions, but to make a study of 
human nature under certain conditions. He 
reminds us of the religious fervor of the Miller - 
ites, who were looking for the end of the world 
within the memory of most of us, and how cur- 
ative mesmerism gave way to spirit-rappings 
and clairvoyant medical treatment. Now that 
spiritism in ali its forms is passing into decay, 
the field is free to mind-doctors, and faith- 
healers. His heroine. Phillida Callender, is a 
charming character, who inherits the missionary 
spirit from her father, and who is deluded by 
her own earnestness into manifold blunders. 
The hero is also interesting, and Dr. Eggleston's 
satirical showing of how he made himself a fine 
gentleman, is admirably off-set by his manly 
character and conduct throughout the story. 
" His various accomplishments represented 
many hours of toil, but it was toil of which his 
associates never heard. He treated himself as 
a work of art, of which the beholder must judge 
only of the result, with no knowledge of the 
foregoing effort." There is much that is amus- 
ing and much that is instructive in this story. 
The pictures of life on the east side of New 
Vork are perhaps the most skillfully portrayed 
scenes in the book. Dr. Eggleston has no 
patience with shams, and deals severely with 
Mrs. Frankland, who thinks she has a gift for 
expounding Scripture, and who gives Bible 
readings in the mansions of the rich, and reaps 
therefrom a golden harvest. She is a woman 
who believes in her own sincerity of purpose 
and considers the rousing and awakening the 
emotionally religious to be the noblest work on 
earth. 



LETTERS OF CHARLES DICKENS TO 
WILKIE COLLINS. Edited by Laurence 
Hutton. i6mo. pp. 171. New York: 
Harper & Brothers. 

Mr. Hutton could very probably make an 
interesting book out of far more slender mate- 
rial than letters between two great English 
novelists of the time. Epistolary correspond- 
ence is a delicate matter to handle, and calls for 
a true editorial judgment and a genuine literary 
instinct in arranging for publication. In these 
respects nothing is lacking in the pages before 
us, which comprise not only characteristic letters 
from both these great men, but facsimile re- 
productions of handwriting, of playbills and the 
like which are extremely valuable and entertain- 
ing. Dickens and Collins first met in 185 1, 
and although the latter was much the younger 
man, they presently became warm friends, and 
their intercourse, personally and by correspond- 
ence, continued up to the time of Dickens's 
death twenty years ago. The letters cannot 
be otherwise than entertaining to everyone who 
takes an intelligent interest in the literature of 
our time. 



IN BISCAYNE BAY. By Caroline Wash- 
burn Rockwood. Illustrated. ]2mo. pp. 
286. New York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

Floridian literature at the present rate of in- 
crease bids fair to fill a considerable space in 
the annual book list, and if the standard set by 
the present volume is maintained the state will 
ere long be most sumptuously represented. 
Biscayne Bay is as yet known only to a few 
hundred favored individuals. It lies near the 
extremity of the great peninsula, two hundred 
miles and more beyond continuous rail connec- 
tion with the North, and seventy miles from the 
nearest coastwise steamboat line. It is there- 
fore beyond the reach as it is beyond the desire 
of the average tourist, but it is one of the fairest 
spots in all Florida, and deserves all that can 
reasonably be said in its praise. Mr. Thomas 
Avery Pline of this city, a veteran yachtsman, 
and one of the most successful of amateur pho- 
tographers has contributed to the book before 
us many of what he aptly terms " photographic 
sketches," showing the bay and its shores, the 
"glades," and some of the surviving Seminoles 
in their most picturesque aspects. The context 
is a clever love story, interwoven with sketches 
of winter life in that heavenly clime, and intro- 
ducing so many actual names that the reader 
remembers the fate of " Cape Cod Folks" and 
trembles for the result. All lovers of Florida 
will find the volume full of entertaining pictures, 
literary as well as artistic. 



240 



BOOK NOTICES 



AN UTTER FAILURE. A novel. By Mi- 
riam Coles Harris. i6mo, pp. 334. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. 
Mrs. Harris made a brilliant advent before 
the novel reading world long ago as the author 
of " Rutledge " — a novel which was one of the 
mysteries of its day, the author long maintaining 
her incognito. While we cannot safely predict 
either comparative success, or comparative want 
thereof for the present tale, it will certainly 
command an interested audience for associa- 
tions' sake. It is charmingly written, and pre- 
sents certain aspects of life, love, and law, in a 
light that will be new and fascinating to a large 
majority of readers. The scene is for the most 
part laid in Florence, with an enthusiastic ap- 
preciation of the beauties of that famous city. 



LIFE AND LETTERS OF GENERAL 
THOMAS J. JACKSON (STONEWALL 

JACKSON). By his wife, Mary Anna 
Jackson. With an introduction by Henry 
M. Field, D.D. Illustrated. Crown 8vo, 
pp. 479. New York : Harper and Brothers. 
1892. 

This story of the life of a remarkable man 
presents many features of the deepest interest. 
Dr. Henry M. Field, who writes an introduction 
to it, says : " Stonewall Jackson was the most 
picturesque figure in the war. Not so high in 
command as General Lee on the one side, or 
General Grant on the other, neither had a per- 
sonality so unique. In Jackson there were two 
men in one: he united qualities that are not only 
alien to each other, but that seem almost incom- 



patible — military genius of the highest order 
with a religious fervor that bordered on fanati- 
cism ; a union of the soldier and the saint for 
which we must go back to the time of Crom- 
well. A thunderbolt in war. he was in society 
so modest and unassuming as to appear even 
shy and timid. A character in which such con- 
tradictions are combined is one of the most 
fascinating studies in American history." This 
book does not aim to chronicle the military 
career of the great general. '* That." says Dr. 
Field, '"has long since been done bv military 
critics at home and abroad, who have made a 
study of his campaigns, following his rapid 
marches, in which he was not surpassed by Na- 
poleon in his first campaigns in Italy ; and find- 
ing in his peculiar strategy enough to give him 
a place among the great captains of the age. 
But with Jackson, as with others who have 
acted a great part in public affairs, there was 
another side to the man — an inner life, known 
but to few, and fully known only to her who 
was united to him in the closest of all human 
relations, and to whom this man of iron was 
the gentlest and tenderest of human beings." 
Mrs. Jackson presents the history of Stonewall 
Jackson's family wilh many incidents of his 
boyhood and school life. He was four years at 
West Point, 1842-1846, and in the Mexican 
War from 1846 to 1S48. In 1851 he became a 
professor in the Virginia Military Institute, in 
which he remained until 1861. One of the 
most interesting features of the work is his do- 
mestic correspondence during the Civil War, 
judicious selections from which may be found 
in this volume. Mrs. Jackson has given the 
reading public a most interesting work, pre- 
pared with ability and in the best of taste. 




frzfkOiz^ 



f Ft/. / 



-: 



MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 

Vol. XXVII APRIL, 1892 No. 4 

THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 

ITS HISTORY AND EDUCATIONAL IMPORTANCE 

THERE are few more interesting processes than tracing the develop- 
ment of civilization and mental powers through the handiwork of peo- 
ples of successive ages in the much too imperfectly understood past, or fol- 
lowing the march of intellectual culture in modern times by means of a 
felicitous acquaintance with the offspring of the pencil. The city of Balti- 
more possesses an institution, of which any city might well be proud, where 
all this may be achieved in the midst of object lessons in such variety and 
beauty and value as not to be easily described — a private collection which 
has been gradually unfolding during the last half-century until it has 
reached proportions of unrivaled magnitude and far-reaching influence. 

Its history is unique and suggestive. Nearly a century after the inci- 
dent recently chronicled as " the birth of the fine arts in the New World," 
a young man of Scotch-Irish ancestry, who had but just passed his twenty- 
first year, educated as a practical engineer and destined to be concerned 
for a lifetime in the most engrossing of all vocations — the building and 
management of railroads — resolved to gratify an inborn taste for art by 
devoting a portion of his earnings each year to the purchase of fine 
pictures. Had he chosen for himself the profession of an artist he would 
unquestionably have won great success and distinction through his untiring 
energy and love for the beautiful. But the strong forces that were united 
in his character impelled him naturally into broader fields, and made him 
a man of affairs. He had the genius for colossal undertakings, and the 
faculty and will-power for leadership and control. At the same time, even 
while in his early laborious engineering service, he exhibited that acute 
intuition and poetic sentiment which characterize the true artist. The 
first picture he bought was an engraving, for which he paid five dollars. 
He was then in the beginning of his remarkable business career. Hence- 
forward he lived, as it were, two lives. Instead of amusing himself in hours 
of reprieve from exacting duties as men usually do, he applied himself at 
every spare moment to the severe study of the various branches of art. 

Vol. XXVII.-No. 4.-16 



242 THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 

He was veritably the architect of his own fortunes, but he was no more 
spirited and inflexible in his pursuit of ways and means for opening south- 
ern and southwestern railroads and organizing into a system the whole 
network of lines between the lakes and the Gulf of Mexico, thereby con- 
centrating the products of nearly a score of states at the seaboard for 
home consumption and shipment abroad, than he was in his aesthetic pur- 
pose to stimulate art culture in America by forming a collection of treasures 
— adopting the most helpful and healthful of all methods for its accom- 
plishment, that of dealing directly with the artists themselves. He became 
a connoisseur, but it was not by chance or accident. He made the acquaint- 
ance of the best artists of the period, and with an eye for real merit was 
much more to them than a patron — he made suggestions, encouraged the 
exercise of their best talents, and was their appreciative and consistent 
friend. As time rolled on he visited Europe frequently, and became famil- 
iar with every art collection from which there was anything to be learned. 
He met eminent English and continental artists, sculptors, and art critics. 
His judgment in art matters commanded respect and confidence in high 
places. He did not at any time incline to the great works of the old 
masters, but aimed to inspire living artists into the production of matchless 
masterpieces. He bought their paintings, but if they subsequently reached 
a higher degree in art expression, the new picture displaced the less valu- 
able in his gallery, irrespective of cost. During all the decades since the 
beginnings of this famous collection the pruning process has been constantly 
in exercise, until its treasures have become a complete index to the best 
examples of art in the present century. As the income of Mr. Walters 
increased he proceeded to add art objects of many classes from every age 
and clime to his expanding collection, until it would seem as if the com- 
plete history of the world might be written from these silent teachers and 
preachers. 

Mr. Walters has resided in Baltimore since 1841. There is peculiar 
historical significance in the location of his mansion under the shadow of 
the finest monument in America to the memory of Washington, but the 
edifice presents few external indications of the uses to which it is dedicated. 
Let us pass in, and as far as practicable indulge in a comprehensive survey 
of the collection as a whole. The picture gallery is the first attraction, 
and it is in itself a work of art — restful in form, in light, and in coloring, 
poetical in its effects, with nothing to distract the senses from its incompa- 
rable exhibits. We are reminded by the presence of several new treasures 
upon easels that Mr. Walters is a progressive collector, never allowing a 
year to pass without important additions. Of these, Turner's magnificent 



THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 



243 




"the rare vase." 
{From an etching 0/ the painting by Fortuny, owned by Mr, Walters.] 



244 THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 

" Grand Canal in Venice," the best work of that master in America, com- 
mands attention and admiration ere we proceed. Of a different character 
and conspicuously at home among the masterpieces, as if long accustomed 
to their society, hangs the " Rare Vase," by Fortuny, in which brilliant 
color effect is combined with the utmost refinement of drawing and a 
mastery of the deeper subtleties of art. There are five Fortunys in the 
collection, but we have chosen this exquisite gem for illustration ; although 
in the " Hindoo Snake Charmers " there are certain effects which no other 
painter has probably ever placed upon canvas, and which are marvels of 
accomplishment. 

The place of honor on the wall, at the side of the gallery near the 
Turner, is assigned to the " Edict of Charles V.," by Baron Leys, one of 
the finest historical paintings in modern times, which was awarded one of 
the eight grand medals of honor at the Paris Exhibition of 1867. It 
shows a crowd of people in the market place of an old Netherland city, 
probably Antwerp, listening to the fatal decree of the emperor in 1550, 
that all persons convicted of heresy should be burned alive, buried alive, 
or beheaded. These terrible penalties were also incurred by those who 
should deal in heretical books, or in any way defend the doctrines of the 
Reformation. The dramatic unity of the assemblage, with the quaint Dutch 
town in the background of the picture, shows that the painter sought to 
reproduce the actual life of the period, and that he was master of the 
rarest and most precious quality in historical composition and painting. 
The portraiture is excellent, and he has not omitted to place a bookseller's 
shop in the foreground, to emphasize the tyranny in relation to printers. 
It will be remembered by our readers that this edict was renewed by 
ordinance of Philip II., ia 1556, whose outrageous cruelties caused the 
revolt of the Netherlands, and the subsequent growth of the Dutch 
Republic into a great power, taking a notable part in the settlement of 
America. This masterpiece was painted for a nobleman, Count Lieder- 
kirke, and has never been copied. A beautiful picture in water colors, 
resting upon an easel, by the French master Louis Gallait, entitled 
" Counts Egmont and Horn," relates to the same exciting period of per- 
secution. It represents the Duke of Alva, the emissary of Philip II. in 
the Netherlands, contemplating the two beheaded counts, who had suffered 
death by order of the Spanish king. 

There are six examples of the work of Alma-Tadema, the clever pupil 
of Baron Leys, in the collection, of which " Sappho " is perhaps the most 
characteristic and widely appreciated. "Claudius" displays the great 
tragic power of the artist, but in the fine rendering of apt and animated 



THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 



245 



attitudes and expressions " Sappho " has no superior among his paintings; 
and we have in it a political as well as poetical flirtation between two of 
the greatest lyric poets of antiquity. Tadema displays exceptional versa- 
tility. There is a pretty story connected with his " Xantha and Phaon," 
in water color. He wrote to Mr. Walters from London in 1884 concern- 
ing it, and of his little picture which suggested the charming idyl of 
"The Question" by George Ebers, saying : "It has now come to this: I 
painted a picture, Ebers wrote a novel upon my picture, and I have now 
painted a picture upon his novel. The title of the new picture is there- 
fore the names of the hero and heroine of the book, ' Xantha and Phaon,' 

. . I do hope you may be satisfied, as that is the only wish that made 
me work hard ; and could it be otherwise ? as you must always look at 
this picture as a result of your last visit to my studio, at which I felt truly 
gratified." The history of Tadema's picture of the " Triumph of Titus " 
is equally interesting; the subject was suggested by Mr. Walters, who was 
fully aware that it would involve classical studies, and furnish broader 
scope to the genius of the master. The canvas is small, but alive with 
graceful figures, revealing a fine sense of color, and rare skill in com- 
position and vigor of expression, as well as historical accuracy in costume 
and detail. 

At one end of the gallery hangs the famous " Hemicycle " by Delaroche, 
and at the other end, Corot's celebrated religious picture, " The Martyr- 
dom of St. Sebastian." The " Hemicycle " depicts a group of seventy-five 
distinguished painters, sculptors, and architects of the world, from the 
time of Pericles to that of Louis XIV., an enormous assemblage — where 
none lose their distinction, none are awkward, and none depreciated — met 
together on the occasion of the distribution of prizes for successful talent. 
It is a work of great historic interest, every figure being a portrait in 
accordance with the best known authorities, and because of having been 
the original study painted for the semicircle wall of the amphitheatre 
of the School of Fine Arts in Paris, and rescued by the pupils during the 
reign of the Commune in that city. It lay for a long time at Marseilles 
before it could be shipped with safety to Baltimore. If Mr. Walters should 
ever care to relinquish it to the French he could fix his own price, for the 
only copy of it that exists in Paris was made by a pupil, not by the master. 
Theophile Gautier says it is finer by far than the larger picture which 
Delaroche painted on the wall of the Beaux-Arts. The " St. Sebastian " is 
a masterpiece of quite another sort. It is eight feet high by four wide — the 
largest picture in the collection. It recalls somewhat in its composition the 
" Peter Martyr " of Titian. It is sober in tone, yet rich in coloring and acces- 



246 THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 

sories. Corot was several years painting it. He wrote to a friend in 185 1 : 
" I am at this moment working upon a historical landscape, embellished 
with a St. Sebastian succored by some holy women, and with care and 
work I hope, under the guidance of Heaven, to make a lovely picture." 
In the language of a well-known connoisseur, "This country may rejoice in 
having in the ' St. Sebastian ' one of the most important and admirable 
existing examples of French landscape." It is Corot's finest work, and a 
masterful revelation of his ability to express on canvas the most elusive 
and abstract ideas. 

There are seven Millets in the gallery, and it is a source of honest pride 
that Americans were the first to recognize the genius of this accomplished 
artist, one of the pupils of Delaroche. "The Sheepfold by Moonlight" 
was amongthe one hundred masterpieces in the memorable Paris exhibition 
of 1883. In it the sheep are huddled together at a fence while a little 
beyond is the shepherd wrapped in his cloak and with his gaunt dog stand- 
ing out in the flooding moon radiance which seems to transform common- 
place objects into spectral images. Albert Wolff remarks: " Poetry pene- 
trates and solitude invades the fancy so completely that we think not of 
the size of the picture. It becomes immense, like nature." " The Potato 
Harvest " is also poetic and powerful — an exquisite little picture represent- 
ing a genuine phase of country life ; while the " Summer Landscape " is like 
a note of joy struck from a usually sad lyre. The scene is in a harvest field, 
with reapers and binders among the yellow sheaves. In the foreground a 
young peasant, who has thrown his rake and blouse on a golden swathe, 
is seated in the hot, shadeless path, sharpening the blade of his scythe. 
The simplicity of the handling, the delicate gradations of the perspective, 
and the mingling of the objects into one harmonious symphony of light and 
air are all exquisite. 

The two greatest landscapes of Rousseau are here, and in such contrast 
that every one should examine them critically. The " Early Summer After- 
noon " is marvelous in its expression of light, distance, and warmth. 
" Le Givre — Winter Solitude" represents a frosty scene on the lonely 
hillsides of Valmondois in shivering November. The composition is weird 
but simple. Small hillocks heaped in the foreground are covered with 
half-melted snow, and the sun with a strange red glare in the midst of a 
leaden sky appears like an angry threat among the heavy clouds. It is a 
serious picture, grand and prophetic; the wonder is that professional 
connoisseurs failed for many years to comprehend its value. 

Jules Dupre, another eminent French landscape painter, is seen to 
great advantage in "The Old Oak," a fine specimen of brilliant coloring; 



THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 



247 




" SYRIA— THE NIGHT WATCH." 

[From the painting by Briton Riviere, owned by Mr. Walters.} 

« 

and in "A Bright Day," which is a breezy, charming, sunshiny scene. The 
landscapes and cattle pieces of Troyon and Van Marcke are instinct with 
the poetry of nature and pastoral life. Troyon's " Repose" and "Cattle 
Drinking " are both masterly paintings and in touch with the spirit of 
truth and tender feeling. The latter was executed in 185 1, and appeared 
among the one hundred masterpieces in 1883. The sun breaking through 
storm-clouds pervades the scene with mellow and electrifying effect. 
Everything animate and inanimate seems to feel the inspiration of light 
and warmth and joy, while the glare of the foreground softens in the moist 
atmosphere into immeasurable distance along the brook. The sunshine 
meanwhile dances upon the coats of the moving cattle, and bathes the 
landscape and the laughing waters with sparkling light. There are five 
Van Marckes, of which the "Approach of the Storm " is on a very large 
canvas and occupies a place of honor above the " Hemicycle" at the end 
of the gallery. It presents a striking group of cattle standing out from the 
luminous background of green foliage varied by a changing play of lights 
and shades, soft and harmonious in tone. Another Van Marcke is the 
study of a cow rubbing its head upon a fence which runs along a flowery 
hillside, and he has also a masterly painting of a white cow in full sun- 
light — both of which are among the best examples of his style. 

" Syria — the Night Watch," by Briton Riviere, is a painting with an 



248 THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 

idea, which once seen can never be forgotten. Syria is a country, including 
Palestine, of great historic and sacred interest. In ancient times merchants 
of every nation met and traded in her rich marts. Damascus, its capital, 
is confessedly the oldest city of the world, and Antioch was the third city 
of the Roman empire. The ruins of Syria in their massive proportions 
and architectural splendor are among the finest on the globe ; the picture 
represents lions prowling about, alert, with stealthy feline tread among 
these moonlit relics of ancient temples. The beautiful masterpiece of Meis- 
sonier, " 1814," is here, the painting that separated itself from the rest of his 
works and assumed a position apart as his greatest creation — with all his tech- 
nical excellences — when Meissonier's works were gathered together for an 
exhibition of his power. It is a small canvas representing Napoleon upon 
his favorite white horse, surveying from the top of a hillock the battle-field 
of the morrow. The drawing of the horse and of the figure and of all the 
accessories leaves nothing unexpressed. It is a real Napoleon, with all his 
possibilities as well as his actualities. 

The exquisite studies of child-life by Edouard Frere, of which we find 
here no less than half a dozen, are replete with tender sentiment and 
generous sympathy with little people. "The Little Dressmaker," " Going 
to School," "Preparing Dinner," "The Cold Day," "Helping Herself," 
and "The Little Housekeeper" are true subjects for such a painter, and 
are sure to interest children of all ages. Near the entrance hangs that 
delicious representation of infantile mischief by Knaus, " Mud Pies," and 
a larger and more recent work by the same artist, "The Truant," is the 
most popular of the late additions to the gallery. In the " Mud Pies " 
the village children are at work at pottery ; one little girl has her fat hand 
half buried in the earth by the stream, another is running with mud to the 
log, which is the work-shop, but the interest and humor of the painting are 
concentrated in a little tow-headed urchin who stands near by wholly 
absorbed in his novel employment. In " The Truant " an aged teacher 
is leading the naked " runaway " from the swimming pool, where other 
boys are dancing and shouting at the discomfiture of their luckless com- 
panion. One may turn easily from these examples to " The Hopeless 
Case " by Rotta, a dainty bit of humor, in which an old shoemaker is 
passing a final verdict on a worn-out shoe which a young girl has brought 
to be mended. 

One of the largest dramatic pictures in the collection, and one of the 
finest military paintings extant, is " The Attack at Dawn," the surprise of 
a French outpost by the Germans, by De Neuville. The yellow rays of a 
street lamp fall upon a snow-covered street over which the combatants are 



THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 



249 



S 



% 5 

S, v. 




250 THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 

scattered — some in the act of firing, others fleeing, a few lying wounded or 
dead in the snow. From the half-open door of an inn through which a light 
streams, half-wakened soldiers are emerging, pulling on their coats as they 
run. In the distance the enemy are seen advancing in compact mass, 
with steady tread, their superior force and calm assurance of manner indi- 
cating that the result is already a foregone conclusion. The action is 
marvelously strong and the handling of lights inimitable. The examples 
of Gerome differ widely in their subjects. "The Duel after the Mas- 
querade" — too well known through engravings to require any special 
mention; "On the Desert" — a gem of artistic workmanship, executed 
with a free hand; " Diogenes " creeping out of his tub, formerly in the 
Belmont collection ; and the more recent production " The Christian 
Martyrs — the Last Prayer," constitute the four Geromes. This last paint- 
ing was upon the artist's easel from 1863 to 1883, and was repainted three 
times. It represents a group of Christians kneeling in the amphitheatre 
awaiting their death. The artist has seized the moment of intensest 
expectation, just as the half-famished lions are bounding into the arena, 
and portrays not the carnage but the sublimity of martyrdom. 

Among the American artists represented are Durand with a poetic 
composition, a glen in the Catskills with water tumbling down the rocks 
and the peaks of the mountains showing in the distance, Darley, Hart, 
Eastman Johnson, Elliott who has furnished the finest examples of portrait 
painting in the collection, Church with his " Morning in the Tropics," 
Woodville, Gilbert Stuart, Baker, Hunt, W. O. Stone whose contribution 
is the portrait of W. W. Corcoran, and Palmer and Rinehart who are 
represented with statuary. Rinehart was a sculptor whose brief career, 
so full of achievement and promise, owed its spring to Mr. Walters's 
appreciation. There is a full-length portrait of Mr. Walters, by Leon 
Bonnat, which is a superb piece of technique, and while the subject is not 
idealized it is an exceptionally fine piece of work. There is an example 
by the distinguished Vibert in the collection, "Toreadors before entering 
the Arena," and two by Rosa Bonheur, " The Andalusian Bulls " and 
"The Conversation." Millais is represented by " News from Home," a 
young soldier in the uniform of a Highland regiment reading a letter in 
the trenches before Sebastopol. Gallait, one of the greatest of the roman- 
ticists, has five pictures on these walls, of which "The Power of Music" 
is the masterpiece. Two young musicians, a brother and sister, orphans, 
have stopped after a weary day's travel to rest near an ancient tomb. 
The girl reclines upon the knees of her brother, and the tones of his 
violin are lulling her to sleep. Among the pictures that belong to the 



THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 25 1 

history of art is the " Lost Illusions" by Gleyre, the galley floating away 
into twilight — a visionary bark charged with angelic forms, the illusions of 
youth and hope, drifting into the land of dreams, the twilight of memory 
— a pathetic picture quite remote from the realism of present art. 

Munkacsy, who is best known to the world by his " Christ before 
Pilate," is represented in this collection by " The Story of the Battle," a 
new rendering of his famous " War Times" exhibited at Vienna in 1873. 
A young soldier has returned to his native village and is recounting to a 
group of attentive listeners the dangers through which he has passed. 
The picture is less tragic than its predecessor, but none the less interesting, 
and even better in color. " Orpheus and the Muses," by Jalabert, is a 
poetical landscape of woods and rocks, with the Muses clad in floating 
drapery and grouped in various graceful attitudes, entranced by the strains 
of Orpheus, whose figure is dimly outlined in the background. The widely 
known religious picture, "The Christian Martyr," which was commenced 
by Delaroche and finished by Jalabert, is here. It represents a beautiful 
young girl with her hands tied, floating down the current of the stream 
in which she has been drowned. The reader will understand the value 
of examples of Delaroche in a collection like this when it is remembered 
that such artists as Jalabert, Millet, Gerome, Hebert, Yvon, and Daubigny 
were his pupils. Yvon has a portrait head of Napoleon. The four 
examples of Daubigny are all delightful, because characteristic of his 
style of subject and delicacy of expression. The three Delacroix, 
" Christ on the Cross," the " Combat," and " Jesus on the Sea of Galilee," 
form a remarkable group in which the great colorist is seen -at his best as 
a painter, unhampered by the necessity for expounding a literary idea 
which characterized the French romanticists. " A Cold Day," by Schreyer, 
is a notable painting. One of the simplest but most powerful dramatic 
pictures in the gallery is the " Suicide " by Decamps. An artist on the 
verge of starvation has shot himself in his miserable garret. The 'Acci- 
dent," an affecting page from rural life, by Dagnan-Bouveret, represents 
a surgeon binding up the hand of a manly little lad. Any work of this 
artist is bound to attract the most earnest attention, for he has a charm 
of touch which brings it instantly out from its surroundings. One of the 
most remarkable exhibitions of technical skill and splendor of color is the 
" Slipper Merchant of Cairo " by Villegas. Two fine examples of Rico 
illumine the wall— one a picture of "Venice," the other " Gathering Oranges, 
Toledo." Of Jules Breton a beautiful little treasure, " The Close of Day," 
shows the artist in his happiest vein. There is one stirring picture in the 
collection by Horace Vernet, who was a power in his time, " Italian 



252 THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 

Brigands surprised by Papal Troops." " The Forest of Fontainebleau," by 
Diaz, is noted for vividness and freshness of coloring and for skillful treat- 
ment of the sky. Zamacois, the Spanish master, has a fine interior depict- 
ing an incident of the French occupation of Spain in 1812. Ziem's bright 
sketches of " Venice," all aglow with warmth and color, attract much 
admiration. Miiller furnishes some interesting features of Egyptian life 
and scenery. The heroine of Hawthorne's " Scarlet Letter," Hester 
Prynne, with little Pearl in her arms, was painted by Merle, to whom Mr. 
Walters had sent the novel asking for the picture. When Hawthorne saw 
it he said it realized his idea of the character he wished to portray, and 
gave it his unqualified approval. The beautiful young woman is repre- 
sented in " the attire which seemed to express the attitude of her spirit, 
the desperate recklessness of her mood, by its wild and picturesque pecul- 
iarity." She has just been conducted from the prison by the town-beadle 
— " a personage who prefigured and represented in his aspect the whole 
dismal severity of the Puritanic code of law, which it was his business to 
administer in its final and closest application to the offender " — to the 
platform of the pillory. This was a penal machine that stood nearly 
beneath the eaves of Boston's earliest church, and appeared to be a fix- 
ture. Above the scaffold was a frame-work of torture so fashioned as to 
confine the human head in its tight grasp, and thus hold it up to public 
gaze. Hawthorne says, "The very ideal of ignominy was embodied and 
made manifest in this contrivance of wood and iron. In Hester Prynne's 
instance the sentence was that she should stand a certain time upon the 
platform, but without undergoing the gripe about the neck, . . . the 
most devilish characteristic of this ugly engine." 

In marshaling this brilliant procession of art treasures rapidly before the 
reader there is no thought of making the specification exhaustive, but rather 
to give a general idea of what is implied when this collection is called one of 
masterpieces, and of its mission as an illustration of the art history of the 
century. It has obviously been founded, cherished, and developed by one 
mind, with the exercise of critical acumen and the scrupulous observance 
of consummate method in selection and arrangement. Its comprehensive 
and diversified character is the secret of its national and international fame. 
It would be difficult to suggest a greater service to any country than the 
gathering thus together of works typical of the various decades and schools 
of art to" which they belong, as standards for reference and study. 

Mr. Walters early recognized the educational importance of beautiful 
examples of porcelain and Japanese art-objects, and his extraordinary 



THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 



253 




"the scarlet letter." 

{From a photograph 0/ the painting by Merle, owned by Mr. Walters.} 

" Under the leaden infliction which it was her doom to endure, she felt, at moments, as if she must needs 
shriek out with the full power of her lungs, and cast herself from the scaffold down upon the ground, or 
else go mad at once." — Hawthorne. 



254 THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 

accumulations since his attention was thus directed would read like a 
fairy story if it was among the possibilities to translate the inexpressible 
— beauties and' statistics — into prosaic lines and chapters. As it is, we 
must be content to catch the spirit of the superb collection, irrespective 
of details. 

The front and rear parlors are separated by two handsome fluted 
columns in black and gold, and the visitor is impressed at the first glance 
with the simplicity and harmonious richness of their appointments. The 
ceiling is frescoed in Pompeian style, the woodwork ebony relieved with 
gold, the furniture of Louis XVI. fashion, covered with Persian silk 
embroidered in unique designs and colors in the most delicate needle- 
work — every object, indeed, even to the carpet, has distinct artistic 
significance. A carved table in the front parlor, of great beauty, from the 
Trianon, is doubly interesting from its association with Marie Antoinette, 
and a curious old mahogany sideboard dating back a hundred years, 
once in possession of the English bishop of Westminster, graces the rear 
parlor. Three historic cabinets occupy central positions, one of which is 
decorated with paintings by Angelica KaufTman in the time of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, another exhibits the most exquisite metal-work of the Louis 
XVI. period, while the third dates back to Louis XV. Upon the walls 
hang family portraits by the celebrated American portrait painters Elliott 
and Baker, and fine portrait busts of Mr. Walters and his wife and 
daughter, by Rin chart the sculptor, hold places of honor. 

Of the museum of art-gems gathered from all periods in ancient and 
modern times, and from all the principal nations of the earth — in silver 
and gold and porcelain and glass and precious stones — we can say less 
than we could if it occupied only one shelf. Its very magnitude, filling 
every receptacle and scrap of space, renders even an adequate outline 
of it on paper unattainable. We find examples of Venetian gold and 
enameled work with Byzantine mountings of precious stones, curious 
spoons showing the early handicraft of such countries as Russia, Sweden, 
and Norway, articles in crystals and malachites handsomely mounted in 
gold, and articles in pearl and onyx and Egyptian jasper, also mounted 
in gold. A famous " horn of plenty," in crystal, is the ornament of one 
of the cabinets, decorated with three bands, upon each of which is a pro- 
cession of exquisitely enameled figures in vivid colors on a dark ground. 

The collection of Viennese porcelain is very beautiful and complete. 
Many of the plates are decorated with copies of the old masters, others 
with flowers in captivating effects. All the periods of European porce- 
lain are represented. There is a superb tureen of old English work not 



THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 255 

now in use, and an exceedingly rare exhibit of soft paste porcelain made 
in France before the art of making modern porcelain was discovered, 
which was produced under the superintendence of the sovereign in a 
complex way, the decoration sinking into the ware and becoming a part 
of it. The work of Solon is perhaps the most dainty and beautiful of any 
to be seen here ; he first brought into esteem the unique decoration of 
pate sur pate, in which the decoration is made of the same material as the 
ware and is most wonderfully wrought. Every one should notice these 
Solon vases upon which are delicate figures of women in flowing drapery 
— white on a soft gray ground. Solon was in the factory of Sevres, and 
married the daughter of Haviland. Some fine pieces of Chinese porcelain 
in turquois color, that were brought by the Dutch from the east and 
mounted by Marie Antoinette's goldsmith in the most artistic manner, 
are of great rarity ; also celadon green lotus-leaf bowls upheld by wrought 
gold dolphins ; and some deep red vases, changed by their gold mountings 
into ewers with antique handles and beaks. The Sevres and Dresden 
examples are of marvelous beauty. Some of the Sevres plates bear 
decorations by Van Marcke. Among the finest large specimens of 
modern Sevres are two dark blue vases that were presented to the wife 
of Louis Philippe, decorated with admirably finished portraits of the king 
and queen. These are believed to represent the fullest development of 
the purely artistic influence which has dominated in the European manu- 
facture of porcelain in contrast to the decorations of the best period of 
Oriental art. The vase of the French empress made at Sevres is seen 
here, of beautiful antique pattern, the body-color a brownish black, with 
a broad circumference of white on which is painted a group of figures in 
profile. It was sold to Mr. Walters by permission of the empress. The 
attempts of the Sevres manufactory to reproduce the solid colors of the 
Chinese are also shown. The dark blue glaze can be seen in several 
dainty cups, some of which are elegant examples of the jeweled Sevres in 
imitation of rubies, emeralds, and turquoises. The Dresden ware includes 
many lavishly decorated pieces, a dainty little cup for instance bearing a 
copy of Holbein's Madonna. 

Famous European jewelers are represented, as Castellani, who was 
also a distinguished collector and archaeologist; he refused at one time to 
make a watch-chain after a Greek pattern because the ancients never wore 
watches. Another Roman jeweler exhibits in a stone cameo brooch, set 
in diamonds, exquisite delicacy of workmanship from a design by Rine- 
hart — a full-length but tiny figure of a miniature Flora, or Spring, scatter- 
ing roses. In silverware the ages seem to have contributed all their 



256 THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 

wonders — articles in Damascus silver wrought in the highest style of 
ancient art, studded with gems — real turquois ; Italian of two hundred 
and fifty years ago; Irish of 1674; English of many periods ; and Dutch 
and French examples of antique workmanship. These articles are of 
every size and for every conceivable use. From Boucheron, the famous 
French silversmith, is a large pitcher of dull gray silver that has the 
effect of burnished steel ; from Meurice — probably the most famous living 
silversmith at the time he made Mr. Walters's handsome private table 
service — a charming conceit in gold and silver, representing two little boys 
attempting to pry open a huge pearl oyster, which is supported by two 
gilt mermaids, and sprigs of seaweed in gold are seen lying in the polished 
interior surface of the shell. American skill and taste in silver-work are 
represented by Moore, who made his fame on the celebrated silver vase of 
William Cullen Bryant ; and by Tiffany, who has here an elaborately 
decorated pitcher in repousse, and many others. 

We have loitered so long that opportunity to speak of the numerous 
busts in marble, and the beautiful specimens of Moorish and Venetian 
and antique cut glass, has escaped. Between the parlors hangs a magnifi- 
cent Moorish vase with enameled patterns on colored glass. In the din- 
ing-room are many art objects of the first interest and importance, such 
as a wonderful clock; Persian flagons in metal work; a magnificent Sevres 
vase some four feet high, decorated by the eminent artist Andre with a 
landscape painting of the forest of Fontainebleau ; and a great Hizen 
plaque, among many other plaques on the walls, perhaps sixteen inches in 
diameter, and profusely ornamented with enamels — a plaque which has 
made the tour of the world and been admired by almost every nation in 
existence. It was purchased in Constantinople. The general effect in 
this room, of the decoration, carpet, and furniture covering, is that of 
exceptional elegance combined with the severest simplicity in the blend- 
ing of delicate colors. We cannot quite close our eyes in passing through 
the entrance hall where Rinehart's marble statue, " The Woman of Sama- 
ria," occupies the place of honor near the door. Specimens of Florentine 
and Roman mosaic in several tables are notable examples of that art: one 
in Florentine mosaic is of Irish marble, against the black surface of which 
the inlay, a spray of orange-blossoms, is thrown into strong relief ; and one 
in Roman mosaic where the inlay — bits of prepared glass — produces a 
fine miniature view of St. Peter's at Rome. There are among the many 
historic objects some very rare and beautiful specimens of different mar- 
bles from the palace of the Caesars ; and the walls are lined with beauti- 
ful and suggestive placques and pictures, each one a study. 



THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 257 

In the Dutch and the Marie Antoinette bed-chambers on third floor, 
everything is made to conform with scrupulous accuracy to the taste 
prevailing in the periods represented. The Marie Antoinette room is a 
reproduction of the queen's sleeping apartment in the "Little Trianon " 
at Versailles. Hangings of blue silk, stamped with the royal fleur-de-lis 
in silver, conceal the doors, and a canopy of the same material lined with 
delicate lace hangs above and at one side of the bedstead. The wall is 
lined with Chinese silk in blue and crimson, wall-paper not having then 
been invented. In the Dutch chamber Mr. Walters had paper made to 
imitate the leather wall decorations of the Dutch in the particular period 
he aimed to reproduce. The massive furniture in this room displays old 
Dutch wood-carving art to great advantage, and old Dutch paintings look 
down from the quaint walls. 

One room is devoted to the water-colors — several scores of them — of 
Leon Bonvin, a French artist very little known outside of Mr. Walters' 
collection, but whose artistic gifts found expression in sketches of flowers, 
weeds, fruits, vegetables, and landscapes, more perfectly original and 
exquisitely beautiful than anything of the kind ever known. When Mr. 
Walters discovered this artist, whose history was one of romantic interest, 
he bought his pictures one by one, and the connoisseur has only to look at 
and study them to recognize their intrinsic worth. 

Another room is set apart for the works in bronze of the famous French 
sculptor Barye, who gave the best years of his life to the study of animals ; 
and its walls are hung with designs in water-colors of his great artistic 
masterpieces. This man engaged himself in a branch of sculpture that 
was despised by the amateurs and art-critics of the time, and all his early 
efforts were hampered with vast obstructions. He had to live and learn the 
distasteful lessons which always come to the unappreciated. But when a 
half century had rolled on, the world unexpectedly awoke to the fact that 
the entire period had produced but this one sculptor of animals who 
showed great genius. In the year 1833 Barye first sent a number of his 
works to the Salon, including a vigorous statuette of " A Stag borne down 
by two Hounds," and of a " Lion crushing a Serpent." " These called 
forth a general cry of astonishment," wrote Gustav Planche: "the model 
of the lion was purchased by government, and the bronze cast with rare 
skill by Gonan and placed in the Tuileries, when a well-known artist 
exclaimed with angry sneer, ' Since when has the Tuileries been a men- 
agerie ?' : This "Lion crushing the Serpent " has continued to stand in 
the Tuileries gardens, while one party after another has arisen to call 
itself the lion and brand its opposition with the name of serpent, and 



258 THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 

at the Universal Exposition of 1889 in Paris, a cast of it was given a very- 
conspicuous place. 

Attention was drawn by this work to the young sculptor's varied powers, 
and orders came to him from high places. The Duke of Orleans wanted 
a set of dining-table ornaments, and asked Barye for nine pieces, each to 
be an elaborate group in bronze ; and these were all duly executed by 
him. The largest of the nine contained three animals and three men, the 
smallest contained two animals. " The Tiger Hunt " was the centrepiece, 
and at the ends of the table stood " The Bear Hunt " and "The Hunt of 
the Elk;" on the sides of the table were the " Lion Hunt" and "Wild 
Bull Hunt ; " the four duels — combats each between two animals — occu- 
pied pedestals at the four corners of the centrepiece. This table-service 
was sold by the Duchess of Orleans in 1853, and is now in the Walters 
collection. 

Barye wrought his modern ideas into classical shapes, and pursuing his 
studies with intensity his works multiplied with marvelous rapidity. He 
received many orders which did not evoke his finest efforts, but as he 
became equipped at all points he was able to cover a wide field. His 
preference was for animals, yet he revealed great skill in modeling the 
human figure. He was in his sixty-eighth year when a piece of silver was 
needed for the Grand Prix at the Longchamps races, and he was asked to 
put into solid silver his " Walking Lion," one of his notable creations, " that 
august beast which shows in its gait as well as in its face an anger colossal, 
yet as cold as befits a sovereign without ruth accustomed to destroy what- 
ever comes in his path." Barye accepted and received a certain quantity of 
silver for the purpose, but on weighing the lion after casting he found 
less silver by weight in the object than he had received. He in his exces- 
sive honesty immediately cast some silver in flat bars and screwed them to 
the bottom of the stand, without saying a word to any one, which brought 
the weight to the desired amount. This beautiful work was won by 
Comte de la Grange with the racing mare Fille de l'Air, and is now owned 
by Mr. Walters, and on exhibition in this gallery, which it is well known 
contains the best collection of Barye's works on the globe. 

We must not overlook a magnificent assortment of tapestries and his- 
toric embroideries. Those of the early Chinese embrace some beautiful 
examples made for the old emperors. The Japanese exhibits display genuine 
art, and some hand-cut velvets are here which are rarely if ever found in 
this country. The Persian embroideries, both those that cover the entire 
surface of the linen with their silken stitches, and those wrought upon a 
silken ground with metal threads of silver and gold, and beautiful silken 



THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 



259 



a x 




260 THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 

rugs, are almost bgyond price. Moorish embroideries on fine linen, with 
patterns mostly geometric, are also of great beauty. From these it is but 
a step to the intelligent collector's books of original designs and drawings, 
including those of very many of the best French artists and of Chinese 
artists. 

As we return to the principal galleries at the rear of the house on main 
floor, we tarry among the Oriental objects in the gallery between the 
entrance hall and the great picture gallery. There are twenty-four large 
cabinets surrounding it next the walls, and ten long cabinets in the cen- 
tral part of this gallery, each with distinctly differing specimens therein. 
The collection here exhibited, containing bronzes, porcelain, jades, and crys- 
tals, has no parallel anywhere. Apart from its beauty and its excellence 
in art and design, its immense importance as a historic collection of the 
oldest art known in the world cannot be overestimated. It is in itself a 
perpetual surprise and delight. It begins with Chinese dishes made by 
her earliest monarchs, and follows down, period after period, of celebrated 
dynasties. It commences in same manner with the earliest efforts at art 
industry in Japan and Corea. It follows the Japanese through their artistic 
centuries, and as a culminating point gives us an entire cabinet of porcelain 
made for the successive rulers of Japan when at the height of its culture 
and power. These costly pieces were never for sale, but held for presents 
such as one prince might give another. The cabinet of jades is of special 
interest. This precious stone stands next to the diamond in hardness; it 
is found only in Tartary and wrought only by the Chinese, who value it 
above all other gems. It can only be cut by drilling with diamond-pointed 
needles in lines, and then cracking off the piece when it is so drilled. It 
is polished with diamond dust, and the labor of preparing a piece of cut 
jade is a matter of years. When the work on a piece is started relays of 
workmen labor on it night and day until it is finished — and even then it 
takes years to finish a single piece. There are two of these examples here 
which are famous for having been the property of the Chinese emperor, 
captured by the rebels in the Tae Ping rebellion and sold to the Dutch 
who at that time controlled all commerce with the east. One of these is 
the largest known polished piece of jade and is mounted on silver; the 
other is mounted on gold studded with turquois. There is also an 
exquisite specimen known as jewelry jade, the color and the size of which 
excite the emulation of all collectors. 

In the same cabinet are some magnificent Japanese crystals — a ball, 
for instance, which reflects everything in the room, giving it the effect of a 
kaleidoscope ; also a tea crystal in the shape of a sugar bowl, an eastern 



THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 



26l 




A BOUQUET OF PINKS. 

[From a sketch by Leon Bonvin, owned by Mr. Walters. 



sceptre of jade of marvelous beauty, and a wonderful specimen of flexible 
silver-work in the form of a serpent. In the cabinet containing enamels 
and lacquers we find the French transparent enamel made by Tismar, first 



L 



262 THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 

known to the American world through the specimen sent to Mr. Walters 
in grateful recognition of his assistance to a needy discoverer, for Tismar 
rediscovered the art known only to Benvenuto Cellini, and which died with 
him.* Near by hangs the Russian transparent enamel, which was greatly 
admired at the last Paris exposition, but which is manifestly inferior to the 
French discoverer's work. In this same cabinet are three gorgeous vases 
of Tsin Shin lacquer, vermilion in color and entirely covered with an intri- 
cate pattern carved by hand ; also a set of shells of Japanese lacquer, the 
worth of which far exceeds its weight in gold, on which are specimens of 
the finest Chinese egg-shell porcelain, and dishes of carved ivory and 
metal. There are, too, some incense burners of hand-wrought silver that 
have served as the inspiring thought to modern silversmiths in both Eng- 
land and America. The great bronze object in the middle of the room, 
which was the grandest ornament of the sacred temple, dedicated in 1700, 
at Uyeno, Tokio, Japan, is about twelve feet high. The huge sea dragon 
upholds an immense bronze incense vase, the lid of which is surmounted 
by the god of the sea, bearing the insignia of his rank on his head — a 
wonderful design, the sea dragon at the base with the sea god at the top. 
Chinese bronzes occupy one side of the gallery, and Japanese bronzes 
the other. The Chinese are very unique in character, as their hammered 
surfaces are mottled with gold and silver well beaten in. But rarer still is a 
Chinese vase whose surface is enriched with a sprinkling of malachite, the 
art of which is entirely unknown. There are some examples in vases of 
the famous Chinese solid colors, sang dc bceuf, coral, and still deeper red. 
Another Chinese vase, nearly three feet high, bears date of the eleventh 
century. In the corner is a matchless imperial yellow vase that was 
rifled from the emperor's palace in China in the rebellion ; its wondrous 
quality is apparent to the least informed visitor who watches the beautiful 
iridescent glaze that distinguishes the imperial dragon with its five claws. 
There is one small cabinet containing subjects known to the non-expert 
as peach-blows; the quality of this ware has never been approached, and 
the origin and art of the work is still a mystery, it having been lost, and 
possibly never known to more than two or three persons. There are vases 
fashioned under the famous Ming dynasty, 1 368-1649, others of the early 

* " This was first made of a network of pure gold, as silver or copper could not stand the strong 
firing and would melt ; afterward the different compartments are filled up with enamel, and have 
to be filled and go to the fire about ten times, till they are in bevel ; many pieces are ruined before 
obtaining perfection — it is certainly one of the finest things ever done in the way of enameling." 
Tismar worked diligently more than eight months, from the description in the book of memoirs of 
Benvenuto Cellini, and after many trials reproduced successfully the wonderful bowl of King 
Francis I. 



THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 263 

eighteenth century, showing in their decorations the effect of European 
influences. The Chinese and Japanese exhibits in this collection cover 
a period of over eight hundred years. There is one case of genuine Sat- 
suma, whose creamy yellow and pale chocolate hues and delicate crackle 
are now known chiefly through imitations. The finest Satsuma was made 
between the years 1775 and 1820. It was about the year 1595 that the 
Prince of Satsuma, having invaded Corea, brought home a number of 
potters with their families and established factories, keeping these people 
isolated for more than two and a half centuries, so that their work could 
not be imitated. Beneath the cases which display so much of bygone 
luxury are drawers containing not less than one hundred and fifty swords 
with their attachments and appliances. Swords were objects of much 
honor in Japan, and the richness and variety of their ornamentation strikes 
one with amazement. The names of the famous sword-makers are en- 
graven upon their work, and thus handed along. One man wrought a 
blade so keen that when held upright in a stream it would cut a sheet of 
paper that floated against it by the current. The lacquer work of Japan 
dates one hundred and eighty years before the Christian era. Five 
hundred or more of the choicest lacquers are arranged in glass cases in 
the centre of the main picture gallery, and they illustrate forcibly the 
artistic magnificence attained by the old artists in lacquer. Beneath 
these cases are drawers filled with a striking collection of Inros and 
Netsukes — the Inros being a small medicine chest, and the Netsukes a 
little carved ivory ornament attached to the silken cords by which the 
Inros, or tobacco-pouches, depended from the girdle — and many of them 
are wonderful in their representation of life and action, and humor and 
grotesque caricature and satire. 

The small gallery of water-colors opens from the Oriental gallery on 
the side ; thus the arrangement is such that all visitors may pass through 
both on their way to the grand picture gallery. For studying the 
several thousand specimens of artistic excellence in these varied lines of 
production Mr. Walters has taken care to have them placed in chronologi- 
cal order, and he has furthermore prepared a small illustrated handbook 
on the beginnings and history of ceramic art, for the general good. He 
has long been in the practice of giving the fullest opportunity to students 
in the art-schools and to specialists and serious-minded people to examine 
the collection in all its details and characteristics. Occasionally he has 
sent out invitations to a general reception of the most learned and famous 
of America's connoisseurs in art and literature, and the acceptances have 
been so prompt and universal that guests have journeyed from all parts 



264 



THE WALTERS COLLECTION OF ART TREASURES 



of the Union to be present. During three months of every year Mr. 
Walters allows the Poor Association of Baltimore to sell tickets of admis- 
sion at fifty cents each, and throws open his doors to the public. A 
worthy charity is thus enriched, and an opportunity given to thousands of 
art lovers to visit the galleries. There is no art collection, public or pri- 
vate, accessible to the people of this country where so many real treas- 
ures may be enjoyed, and no private art collection in any quarter of the 
world of such munificent proportions and genuine value. It is veritably 
a connoisseur's collection, or rather, as we have seen, it is a connoisseur's 
collection of collections — a masterly triumph in the art of collecting. The 
brilliant gallery of paintings, serenely interpreting the principles of the 
best modern art, where nothing mediocre ever finds a place, and high 
standards of excellence continually appeal to every element of culture, is 
but one feature of the uplifting and truly intellectual achievement which 
from modest beginnings less than fifty years ago has become of such price- 
less character and educational significance. On every side are evidences 
of life-long study, acute discrimination, and critical taste, which the 
trained scholar delights to chronicle, and which can never be otherwise 
than generously appreciated. Each year public interest in this varied 
collection increases, and more and more travelers come from afar to taste 
of its never-failing springs of pleasure, inspiration, and instruction. 




LOYALTY TO OUR COUNTRY, PAST AND FUTURE 

" YOUR OLD MEN SHALL DREAM DREAMS, YOUR YOUNG MEN SHALL 
SEE VISIONS." — JOEL ii. 28* 

In these words the prophet has happily noted the diversity in the 
tendency of thought, in the earlier and latter days of life — visions in 
youth, dreams when the evening closes around. It is as touching as it is 
true, that the young man's ideals are always beyond his reach ; they 
recede as he pursues. But the time spent in that pursuit is not lost ; the 
experiences of life are an education for spirit and soul ; knowledge grows; 
facts fill the gaps left by flitting fancy; and the past has a reality about 
it more helpful than the promise of the unrealized future. In our dream 
we live life over again ; we are with those whom we knew and revered ; 
their spirits commune with ours ; something settled and assured is there ; 
acts, achievements ; things done ; rewards attained ; fame which fears no 
loss; honor which shall shine in undimmed lustre from age to age. There, 
no disappointment is to be dreaded, such as that which might come of 
the morrow's change ; last year is safe, though the next be uncertain. 
Dreams are suggested, as it seems, by the occurrences of the preceding 
hours or days ; one thing after another comes back to thought ; the maze 
may be intricate and involved, but it is made up of what was once, of 
what did actually happen, and so there is in our dreams a basis of truth 
and fact. But visions — save such as God may send — appear to be the 
projection of one's own desire and wish upon a plane surface in front ; 
the shaping of a passion, the bodying of soul hunger or thirst, and all 
without sure promise of coming to pass. A dream has some substance ; 
a vision may be as thin as the spectre on the Brocken, as impalpable as 
drifting mist. And so the young men see visions and the old men dream 
dreams, because in youth it is natural to press forward impetuously to we 
know not what, while it is the way of age to rest, and reflect, less confi- 
dent in self, and willing to surrender all to God. 

I speak to you to-day, men and brethren, as the " Sons of the Revolu- 
tion." It seems to me that, in this friendly bond, you stand where you 

* The sermon delivered at St. Thomas's Church, New York City, before the " Sons of the 
Revolution'' and their invited guests, "The Colonial Dames of America," in connection with 
the celebration of Washington's Birthday. 



266 LOYALTY TO OUR COUNTRY, PAST AND FUTURE 

must take notice of a past and a future, with the consciousness of an 
obligation to reflect on each with seriousness, and to make much of that 
which they alternately disclose and suggest. The American Revolution 
is a past event. The men of that day, our honored and beloved ancestors, 
are long since gone back to God, their work accomplished, their career 
complete. To keep them in memory; to study their work; to draw 
lessons for our guidance from their experience ; these are, of course, the 
things first proposed. We lay firm hold on that thrilling past, lest the 
recollection thereof should slip away from a treacherous memory and a 
soul absorbed in its own concerns: the study of the past of our country, 
in characters, events, principles asserted, results attained, is a primary 
design in associations such as this. But our society is not solely dedi- 
cated to such study ; it is not exclusively devoted to antiquarian research ; 
it is a living organism, it has aims which direct it towards the future also. 
It seeks in reverent devotion to the past, a courage, a force, a wisdom 
applicable to present trials, and conflicts yet to come. It has a mission ; 
it is forereaching and forecasting ; it has ambitions and a career. It has 
its old men and its young men. The young will soon grow old, the old 
will be here no more ; but our children are coming up, and we expect them 
to take our places and carry on our work. And so we stand between a 
venerable past and a hopeful and radiant future, and there is ample mate- 
rial for the dreams in one direction and the visions in the other. We 
dream a dream of noble men and noble deeds, whereof we reap good store 
of fruit; we also see a vision of good things to come, let me say of better 
things, whereunto, if God will, we would contribute in our turn, so that 
they who come after may rise up and thank us. Such seems to me the 
ethical meaning of your alliance as Sons of the Revolution, and this is 
the justification of the society's existence. 

And now let this be said, and with frankness: that there was sore need 
of the recent revival of the American spirit among us, and that we cannot 
be too thankful for what has been done on that line, and for whatever 
helps forward that salutary movement. Three stars of the first magnitude 
shine on the darkness of this world ; they are the Fear of God, Love of 
Home, and Loyalty to Country and Fatherland. Where these shine 
brightly, the night is clear; where these are obscured, the people walk 
uncertainly. And, not to speak particularly of the former two (the Fear 
of God and the Love of Home), let me refer to the latter, and congratu- 
late you on the efforts earnestly made of late and now in making, to revive 
the love of country in the hearts of the men of this day. It was high time. 
In the rapid growth of our population by accession from abroad, we have 






LOYALTY TO OUR COUNTRY, PAST AND FUTURE 267 

felt sometimes like men dazed and overpowered. Deluged by immigra- 
tion from the other side of the seas on either hand ; overslaughed by a 
mass >of foreign detritus, Americans seemed almost elbowed out by these 
new-comers ; in danger of losing their identity, their traditions, their 
principles, their honor and their name. As Ireland, and Germany, and 
France, and Italy encamp round about our habitation, we have been 
brought in peril of general loss, of forgetting our national history, of losing 
our rightful influence in civil and municipal affairs, of collapse under an 
invasion which seemed likely to end in the removal of the old landmarks, 
the upset of sacred memorials, the overturn of the system of American 
liberty and American institutions. That danger is not past, it is dimin- 
ished ; and chiefly by the revival of the spirit of patriotism and love of 
country, by the assertion of loyalty to our own ideas, principles, and spirit. 
And herein lies the first duty of this society: to help on the movement 
by keeping before the people what the Revolution meant, and what it 
accomplished. 

That Revolution in which our fathers were the actors, was no wild out- 
break of popular rage and lawless excitement; no " red fool-fury of the 
Seine ;" no affair of burning down public buildings, and setting up guillo- 
tines, and cutting off heads ; no war against law and order, no movement 
in quest of the impracticable and the impossible. It was a sober, grave, 
and earnest declaration of the right of every man to enjoy life, liberty, and 
goods under the protection of just and impartial statutes. It was the 
assertion of the principles of the Common Law of England, and the secur- 
ity of freemen in their personal and political right. It was a demand for 
exemption from arbitrary and capricious government, which kind of rule, 
being arbitrary and capricious, is therefore tyrannical; for the tyrant is not 
he who duly administers the law, but one who tries his hand at ruling 
without regard to law, as he thinks proper. The principles asserted in the 
American Revolution were the right to be governed by laws made by an 
intelligent and honest people ; to see the law strictly executed so long as 
it stands on the statute book, and to change it peacefully and deliberately 
if it works wrong ; the right to security in person and property against all 
aggressive and violent characters, fanatics, cranks, assassins ; the right to 
work and labor without interference, and to enjoy the fruits of one's labor 
in quiet and peace; immunity from petty, finikin meddlesomeness in 
government; from inquisition into our private and personal concerns; 
from unjust taxation and intolerable burdens; from oppression, civil or 
religious; the right to worship God according to the light of a pure 
conscience, without molestation or persecution. The movement was con- 



268 LOYALTY TO OUR COUNTRY, PAST AND FUTURE 

servative, and not destructive ; our fathers tried to build up rather than to 
pull down. It was no socialistic scheme, aiming to upset existing condi- 
tions ; no communistic assault on God, man, property, marriage, family, 
home, and whatever makes for stability and security and domestic and 
personal happiness. Those horrid shapes loom, now, like spectres, through 
the stormy air of the day on which we are fallen ; we go back to the revo- 
lutionary era for help, for guidance, for inspirations, for instruction in the 
wise and sound principles by which moral, mental and social dynamite 
may be rendered harmless, and its agents dealt with as they ought to be. 

And there, as we direct our eyes toward the past, we see them stand- 
ing, in their manly height and with their benignant faces towards ours; 
our fathers, whom we reverently salute, exponents of the system and the 
principles to which they pledged their life, their fortunes, and their 
sacred honor. How calmly they regard us, from the far horizon on 
which they move! From him, the father of his country, whose name 
is honored all the world round, down to the humblest in the line of those 
servants of the republic, those makers of the nation, how profitable the 
study of their lives! how inspiring the thought of them in their honesty, 
their hardy manhood, their patience in fulfilling their task! They were 
noted — those men of the past — if for anything else, for these things also, 
for reverence towards God, for devotion to home, for loyalty to native land. 
If you have read and studied, you know how the recognition of God runs 
all through their records ; how the sacred name appears in official docu- 
ments, in journals, in private letters ; how public actions were blessed by 
the invocation of the God of Nations, Jehovah of Hosts. Read the story 
of the ancient navigations; each ship has its chaplain ; religious services 
are held on Verrazano's ship, the Dolphin, while she rides at anchor, in 
1524, in our own bay; Ayllon's priest gives him the "housel," the conse- 
crated wafer, in the hour of death on the Carolina coast in 1528; Albert 
de Prato, a canon of St. Paul's cathedral, comes out with sturdy Iden Rut ; 
Frobisher has his minister, Master Wolfall, on his voyage in 1578; with 
Martin Penig comes Robert Salterne. Why speak of Jamestown, of Ply- 
mouth Rock, of New Amsterdam? Look where you will; you see men 
who believe in God and look to Him, with the prayer that their works 
may be begun, continued and ended in Him. Why speak of that solemn 
scene at the opening of the first continental congress; of Washington, 
taught religion and reverence at his mother's knee, communing in our 
old St. Paul's chapel in this city, praying with heavy heart but daunt- 
less spirit, for his poor suffering men at Valley Forge ? Why remind you 
that one of the first acts of the congress of the United States was to order 






LOYALTY TO OUR COUNTRY, PAST AND FUTURE 2 6g 

the printing of an edition of the Holy Bible, which came out under the 
order of the senate and representatives and the official seal of the secretary 
of state ? And then look at our fathers in their home life; how true to 
each other, how faithful to duty, how appreciative of the sanctity of mar- 
riage and the responsibilities of domestic life ! It has always seemed 
to me that few stories were more affecting than that of Richard and Janet 
Montgomery, in their love and their sorrow and that devotion that defied 
death. 

Married in 1773, she bade farewell, two short years after, to her soldier 
whom she was to see no more ; and on the morning of December 31, 1775, 
the brave Montgomery was lying dead under the walls of Quebec. 
Forty-three years afterward his body is brought home from Canada to be 
buried in St. Paul's chapel. It is to pass poor Janet Livingstone's house 
on the Hudson ; she asks to be left alone ; she sees from her window the 
boat which carries her husband's body ; and when they go to seek her 
they find her stretched insensible upon the floor. This after fifty years of 
faithful waiting for reunion with the lost. Is not this an instance of devo- 
tion and loyalty to touch our hearts? Where be the fribbles of our gay 
society? Where be they who say there can be no happiness in married 
life? Where be the fashionable women, who must have men to dally with 
in the absence of their husbands, and who, in the hour of marriage, reflect 
with pleasure that if things do not turn out to their mind, divorce will 
soon and easily set them free? Let these come and look at the pictures 
of Richard Montgomery and Janet Livingstone ; and if they have tears of 
repentance to shed, let those tears flow. Nor is this a single instance. As 
you enter Trinity churchyard by the southernmost gate, you see on your 
left, a monument, with cannon, and balls, and chains about it. There rest 
the bones of James Lawrence, who fought the Chesapeake till he fell, and 
died crying, " Don't give up the ship." 

He, too, died young; but thirty-one years of age. And beside him 
lies the body of his wife, Julia Montandevert, who, faithful to her dead, 
had her own grave prepared by his, and rested in it at the age of severity- 
seven — fifty-two years after the brave gentleman's death. Ah, no ; it is a 
slander and a lie, that there is no real devotion within the sacred tie of 
wedded life ; that men and women cannot find lasting happiness in loyalty 
to plighted word, in faithful love. The fault is in themselves, where it is 
not so; it marks the decadence of good living, and the corruption of mind, 
motive and heart. 

To illustrate the value of study of the past, one might do well to take 
some Kodak views of the present, and set the pictures side by side. The 



270 LOYALTY TO OUR COUNTRY, PAST AND FUTURE 

skepticism and indifference of the day ; the neglect of divine worship ; the 
popular admiration for everything that is radical and subversive of existing 
faiths and traditions ; the pleasure taken by people in having their names, 
their acts, and all they do made public through a sensational press ; the 
intense selfishness of the rich ; the tyrannical and overbearing conduct of 
labor unions ; the voluntary expatriation of Americans, their incessant 
flights abroad, ending in protracted residence in foreign capitals ; the apish 
imitation of the manners, dress, and habits of other races; the deteriora- 
tion of the womanly ideal; the passionate addiction of our people to 
pleasure, so that to amuse one's self becomes the business of life ; the 
palliation of laxity in morals, the growth of divorce, the breaking up of 
homes, and the dying out of domestic life; take your camera, and go the 
rounds, and see what a startling collection of photographs you can, with- 
no great effort, bring back. But I would not sadden you with these reflec- 
tions ; let me end with some brief words on a more hopeful theme. Let 
us refresh ourselves with that vision of the future which develops from the 
dreamland of the past, and at which the heart takes courage again. Come, 
young man, in thy strength, high resolve, and clear conscience; come, 
maiden, earnest and good, nor yet sullied and profaned by the world ; 
come, take the tiller and steer us where we elders can see the brightness 
in the skies, the shining of the years that are to follow. 

It is a vision full of hope. Under beneficent influences, under the 
never-failing providence of God, the world moves, advances, grows better. 
We must help it forward. Sons of the Revolution, your country has a 
future such as no nation ever had to this day. Woe be to us if we blight 
its promise! The spirit of the fathers must animate the children; in us 
they must live again. There are certain directions on which good work 
may be done; certain aims to keep ever before us; and the love of our 
country, and an affectionate concern for those who are to come after us, 
give the inspiration needed for success. First of all, let there be excluded 
from this organization that narrow party spirit which is the bane and 
curse of America; it must never become an instrument for advancing 
personal interests or aiding partisan schemes. Think of the conditions 
under which alone we can continue to enjoy our liberty and security; how 
they may be endangered by neglect and indifference, by reluctance to 
give them attention while pursuing our selfish plans or luxuriating in easy 
idleness and comfort. Popular education ; sound religious teaching and 
gospel influence; a pure ballot; disinterested statesmanship; the spirit of 
charity, that only power which can break down the barriers between the 
rich and poor; no fantastic idea of social equality, but a common and 



LOYALTY TO OUR COUNTRY, PAST AND FUTURE 2 J I 

mutual respect and regard, so that the rich shall no longer grind the face 
of the poor, nor the poor hate the rich and desire to blow up their houses 
and hang them to lamp-posts ; protection for overworked and half-starved 
laborers, and repression of tyrannical and arbitrary societies which keep 
boys from learning useful trades, and keep men from working who are 
willing and ready to work. Here are topics for study; things to be aimed 
at by those who desire the permanence of our own political system, and 
the future of a wise, understanding and Christian people. Young men, 
who have your life before you, to you let the vision come. See that ye 
spend your time not in chambering and wantonness, not in dawdling and 
ease ; but in the active service of God and the nation ; as men who will 
not be thrust back by the demagogue and the low politician, but intend to 
assert and make good their right to a voice in the conduct of public affairs ; 
as men who will not be satisfied with idling in the club, or wasting force 
on speculative theories, but will have a hand in delivering the nation from 
the foes who grow fat on public plunder, and suck the life blood from the 
veins of the industrious. There is not a field in which good men and true 
are more needed to-day than that of public affairs, nor one in which a brave, 
high spirited and patriotic youth could do better service ; a youth well 
grounded in the principles of political science, familiar with history, and 
endued with common sense. To such as these let it come : the vision of a 
land, where the name of Almighty God is duly honored and His pure 
worship kept up; where the home, the foundation of social order and 
strength, is guarded from attack, and restored to that old beauty and good- 
liness which makes it the dearest place in the world ; where the love of the 
country in which we lead our honest life, secure and at rest, may burn in 
every patriotic heart. Let us go hence with a new and awakened devotion 
to the duties devolving on us, each in that vocation to which God has 
called him ; animated by dear and precious memories, thoughtful in the 
sense of the responsibility of to-day ; cheerful and buoyant in our faith in 
the value of those principles which made us a nation, and, if maintained, 
shall keep us where we stand, in the front rank of the great powers of this 
earth. 



%tk^ 



THE EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES 

The celebrations of historical events oftentimes seem to be but empty 
pageants ; and rather the occasion of supplying the present generation 
with an opportunity to exploit itself, than to have any real bearing upon 
that which they are intended to commemorate. But while the celebra- 
tions are commonly without any very obvious fitness to their end, they 
yet revive interest in the event, and become the means of reawakening 
reflection upon the influence exerted by it. We are this year largely 
absorbed by the celebration of that great performance which called 
American history into being. But there are other notable events which 
have for their natal year the same symbols — 92 — and one, which is to be 
celebrated on June 1st of this year, was the signal of a scarcely less 
important development as far as our national history is concerned. This 
was the admission of Kentucky to the Union. 

While Kentucky was not the first state admitted to the Union, it was 
in a very real sense the first-born of the nation. The act which provided 
for its admission was passed by congress and became a law on February 
14, 1791, fourteen days prior to a similar act for the admission of Vermont. 
This act was an epoch-making event. It is easy to say that it only 
embodied the manifest destiny of the Union, and was really the first step 
in the inevitable evolution of the great west. And yet it was an act 
which had been long delayed, much clamored for, and which even at 
that time was regarded by not a few as of doubtful expediency. When 
we consider the arguments which were advanced by those who opposed 
the admission of Kentucky to the Union, we are introduced at once to a 
totally different school of political thought from any which could be im- 
agined to-day. The eighteenth century rises before us in a way in which 
mere facts have no power to conjure up the dead past. After all, it is not 
so much events as motives, it is not so much deeds as thought, which 
separate one age from another; and yet the views of the politicians of the 
first decade of our national life were conditioned by the situation of their 
times, and we shall see, even upon very superficial inquiry, that the condi- 
tions of the life of our Revolutionary period circumscribed, in what is 
to us a remarkable degree, the political outlook of the founders of the 
republic. 

The great Virginians, especially Washington and Henry, and perhaps 






THE EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES 273 

Jefferson should also be added to these foresighted statesmen, early 
grasped the two not necessarily inseparable ideas of the importance of the 
western country to the United States, and the development at no distant 
day of this rich and wide domain. The first of these propositions was 
sufficiently obvious, because it simply meant that England on the north- 
west and Spain on the southwest must be kept at arm's length. This 
view was held by those who were content to regard the position of this 
section as merely providing a barrier of mountain and wilderness against 
the encroachments of a foe. But the Virginians, with practical foresight, 
precipitated George Rogers Clark with his gallant western levies upon the 
British posts of the Illinois territory, and by his brilliant, almost unparal- 
leled campaign, secured to the continental congress the military possession 
of what was afterwards to be the Northwest Territory. The correspond- 
ence between Clark and Governor Henry indicates their appreciation of 
the ultimate value of the great west in both of the aspects which have 
been mentioned. But the Revolution was scarcely over before the great 
difficulty in the minds of those who were skeptical as to the development 
of the west, took shape in the very practical form of distrust and opposi- 
tion on the part of the western settlers to the governments in the east. 
The district of Kentucky, as that part of Virginia's territory beyond the 
mountains and south of the Ohio river was early called, began to complain 
of the lack of consideration on the part of the mother state. What was 
merely murmuring in Kentucky became open rebellion in the western dis- 
trict of North Carolina, and the future territory of Tennessee gave birth 
to the first rebellion against the new republic in the attempt of the settlers 
to establish the free state of Franklin. The discontent in both of these 
sections was fomented by the emissaries of the Spanish government at 
New Orleans, and for a time it looked as if there were serious probability, 
if not of an overt attempt to sever the ties with the seaboard states, at 
least of a dangerous conspiracy with this object in view. 

The national government at once had before it a problem which 
involved a general principle. Virginia with commendable moderation 
accepted the situation, and readily consented to a division of her territory, 
provided that congress would admit the dissevered territory as an inde- 
pendent state, and so presented the problem to the national government. 
But this was not an isolated case. Almost from its beginning congress 
had had upon its hands a somewhat similar problem. What was the 
status of Vermont was a difficult, and yet not exactly a dangerous, prob- 
lem. Vermont, in a sense, stood alone. Her citizens had refused so per- 
emptorily to listen to British suggestions of treason to the cause which 

Vol. XXVII.- No. 4.-18 



274 THE EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES 

they had so spontaneously accepted that there could be no fear lest she 
should become an enemy. She was obviously rather annoying as a bone 
of contention than dangerous as the entering wedge of an enemy. Still, 
the problem of Vermont was one which the congress was never coura- 
geous enough to solve; and from 1776, when she first sought admission as 
one of the confederate colonies, throughout the whole period of the old 
confederation she remained practically an independent republic. With 
Vermont knocking for admission from the north, with Virginia demanding 
the right to subdivide her territory and have the separated section admit- 
ted to equality in statehood, the problem plainly was, whether the fabric 
of the Union should be extended or whether the strait limits imposed by 
the Appalachian mountains should be permanently recognized as the 
measure of the territory of the nation. It seems to us to-day incredible 
that there should have been any doubt as to the manifest destiny of this 
great republic. But while the doctrinaires, even in that sober, wise, and 
well-informed convention which drafted the constitution solemnly dis- 
cussed and generally acquiesced in the view that republics are unstable, and 
large republics inevitably of short duration, the practical pioneers, at first, 
drove the question home by the obvious needs of local self-government ; 
and then, nearly proved the position of the opponents of expansion to be 
correct, by illustrating the difficulties of such a development. 

The logic of thought plays but a small part in problems of practical 
politics. The logic of events here rules with unquestioned sway. Loyalty 
must ofttimes yield to so prosaic a plea as an empty stomach, and the 
want of supplies and the impossibility of prompt and efficient commercial 
intercourse with the seaboard well-nigh ruined the prospects of a budding 
republic. Those statesmen who, putting aside all questions of sentiment, 
decided that the destiny of the eastern half of North America was plainly 
a division into three distinct governments, had all the logic of thought on 
their side. The St. Lawrence and its tributaries, including the territory 
of the great lakes, obviously formed one commercial system, the seaboard 
states of the new Union another, while the Gulf and the territory tributary 
to it upon the waters of the father of rivers was quite as obviously destined 
to be a distinct governmental unity. From the summit of their lofty 
philosophic point of view they waved a regretful but resigned farewell to 
the prairies of the northwest and to the fair valleys of Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee. But there is a tie which will sometimes conquer the temporary 
loss even of the necessities of life. The Kentuckians and Tennesseeans 
clung to their connection to the Union, and firmly believed that if they 
were given political autonomy they would be able to adjust the com- 



THE EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES 275 

mercial difficulties of their situation to their necessities. In view of this 
belief, temptations to disloyalty were not lacking. General James Wilkin- 
son brought them face to face with a commercial proposition from the 
Spanish intendant which offered them an assured solution of the difficulties 
of their situation. 

Among the chief products of the infant state of Kentucky tobacco was 
first. Tobacco was worth only two dollars and a half per hundred in an 
average season in Kentucky, while the transportation to Virginia could 
only be effected at a cost of from four to five dollars, making it hopeless to 
compete with the average price in the Virginia market of four and a half 
per hundred. Wilkinson successfully demonstrated that with the admission 
of tobacco to the Spanish market it could be sold in Kentucky at the rate 
of seven dollars per hundred, which would realize an enormous profit for 
the Kentucky producer; but this bait was resisted. Then came the ques- 
tion of the production of cereals. Neither wheat nor corn could be trans- 
ported beyond the mountains at a price which would not exceed the market 
price of the grains in the eastern cities. In other words, commercial 
relations between the new and the old states rested upon the same circum- 
stances which had ruined colonial trade before the Revolution. England 
had then by means of its legislation required the colonists to exist for her 
commercial benefit. A hard fate now required that the western country 
should buy its supplies of every sort in the east without being able to 
return anything but money in payment for them ; or, to state the problem 
in economic language, the west was forced to pay the transportation in 
both directions. This became an intolerable burden, and it might well be 
doubted whether it could ever be relieved. 

But the first congress at its second session boldly dealt with the diffi- 
culties which had been relegated to it by its predecessors, and in February, 
1791, passed acts admitting the two states then clamoring for admission, and 
so made its expansion a part of the permanent policy of the Union. In so 
doing it did not solve the problem; but, on the old theory that that which 
is well begun is half done, the conditions of the problem were never after- 
wards in doubt. At no distant day Tennessee was received, and Ohio 
followed early in the present century, completing the advance guard and 
establishing the general principle of alternate admission of northern and 
southern states. It was not long before the western part of Pennsylvania 
precipitated the natural question as to the subordination of the economic 
necessities of the trans-Appalachian country to the general policy of the 
Union. The whisky rebellion turned on the simple economic question of 
cost of transportation. Corn could not be carried to market at a profit over 



276 THE EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES 

the mountains by the bad roads then existing. But when the corn was 
distilled it could be carried in the form of whisky to profitable markets, 
provided it was untaxed. The result established, to the general satisfaction 
of the great bulk of the people, the superiority of a general national policy 
to the particular needs of a section. This principle, though questioned not 
infrequently, notably by South Carolina in 1829-31, and by the seceding 
states in 1861, has remained a principle of our national policy. 

But these new states which clamored for admission based their 
demands upon the necessity of geographical situation. It was obvious, 
from discussions which preceded their admission, if they were to be 
subordinated to the general principle of the best policy for the nation, 
that the nation was to consider not merely the advantage of a majority, 
but to act upon the principle that the well-being of any whole made up of 
unhomogeneous elements must always be determined by the individual 
well-being of the separate components. Thus it was recognized at the 
outset, and stoutly urged, that the navigation of the Mississippi river 
was inevitably associated with the admission of Kentucky to statehood. 
This proposition met with opposition and with qualification, but scarcely 
with denial ; and it is somewhat remarkable to trace the permanent 
stability of this principle of the well-being of the whole through the well- 
being of the sections, as illustrated in our national expansion. The 
contradictions to this position so early assumed have been rather superfi- 
cial and specious than real. Of course, the extension of slavery was 
eventually to condition the question of the expansion of the states, 
and the question as to the best limitation of this national curse was 
always dealt with from the point of view, first, of local necessity, 
and, secondly, of national welfare. The local necessity for it, sometimes 
judged of by others than those dwelling in the locality, was nevertheless 
treated from a just and equitable standpoint in the great majority of 
cases, and the eventual decision of the case was certainly in favor of the 
best good of the various localities which recognized this " peculiar 
institution." 

As we look back across the hundred years which we bridge to-day, it 
is impossible not to be struck with the peculiarly typical character of the 
example chosen to first illustrate the permanent problems connected with 
national expansion. Kentucky has been one of the most individualized 
of all the new states, and yet it has been a state with a history so typical 
of the various movements which have perplexed the nation that its 
history involves the discussion of almost every problem which the nation 
has had to deal with. It brought into the national councils at once the 



THE EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES 277 

great problem of the free navigation of the Mississippi ; by a contin- 
uation of the Spanish cabal it brought the question of national loyalty 
prominently before the people at the very outset of its career, and carried 
this same question to a higher pitch when it accepted in 1796 the four 
emissaries of citizen Genet, the French ambassador, and permitted George 
Rogers Clark, whose splendid powers had suffered the eclipse of approach- 
ing dotage, to accept a revolutionary commission for the purpose of 
levying war against Spain, as " lieutenant-general and commander-in- 
chief of the revolutionary armies of France in the United States." 
Iron-handed old Isaac Shelby no doubt thought that this harmless foible 
could safely be pardoned in the hero of Vincennes. In 1798, under the 
leadership of John Breckinridge, Kentucky threw down her gage in her 
famous resolutions of 1798, formulating and promulgating the unfortunate 
doctrine of state's rights, and bitterly reproaching the administration for 
endeavoring to precipitate a war with France. With equal confidence she 
pressed, through Clay, for a war with England, and when it was finally 
declared in 1812, she called her revolutionary soldier and first governor 
once more to the head of affairs, and supplied the greater part of the 
soldiery for the war in the northwest. Following the lead of her great 
commoner she pressed the claims of the development of America in every 
possible way during the next period of national history, clamoring for 
internal improvements, supporting the tariff, condemning South Carolina 
nullification, and struggling bravely, but in vain, against the horrid incubus 
of slavery. When at last Clay gave way to another less worthy, but no 
less loved, she was well-nigh swept over the brink of the chasm of secession. 
It was only a temporary aberration, and, successfully stemming the current, 
she became the battle ground of opposing forces, and sent her full quota 
of soldiers into the Union army, even while a nearly equal number 
deserting her standard and that of the Union, rallied to the standards of 
secession and slavery. Torn with the strife of hostile factions, distracted 
by the difficulties of the reconstruction period, harassed by the inevitable 
conflict of the two irreconcilable elements in her population, she has yet 
maintained the most conspicuous regularity in her own government, and 
the highest prominence in national affairs. 

Throughout this whole century of struggle Kentucky has produced 
men in every decade who have filled posts of honor and distinction, and 
has occupied upon the national theatre at all times a notable place. 
While no President has ever been elected who was, at the time of his 
election, a citizen of the state, Taylor and Lincoln were both born within 
her borders. Richard N. Johnson and John C. Breckinridge have repre- 



278 THE EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES 

sented her in the Vice-Presidency, while men like Clay, the four Breckin- 
ridges, Crittenden, Carlisle, and many others have been among the leading 
spirits in the senate and house of representatives. She has had her fair 
share, and more, of representation upon the supreme bench, and at foreign 
capitals. In the pulpit and at the bar she has occupied a conspicuous 
position. And this despite the unfortunate division of the state into two 
almost hostile sections, growing out of the inevitable difference in the 
population of the barren mountains, whose rich mineral wealth is just now 
being developed, and that of her fertile valleys. Her school system has 
long been upon the best basis, both financial and educational, south of 
Mason and Dixon's line, and throughout her history she has inspired all 
of those who claim her name as their birthright with peculiar devotion. 
Some have said that, like the great bulk of the southern states, the higher 
virtues of duty, obligation to law, self-sacrifice, and similar lofty motives 
have been subordinated to those principles of conduct such as generosity, 
hospitality, and love of personal honor, which are in themselves but second- 
class virtues and rather the fruitage of feudalism than of Christianity. It 
may be true in part that the gentler claims of life have been preferred to 
the more rugged which find a natural home upon the bleak coast of New 
England. It may even be true that the heart has in her citizens taken the 
place of the head ; it may be true that they have loved eloquence more 
than they have honored logic, and that they have been more careful to 
inquire what men are rather than what they have done. But there is a 
beauty and sweetness and a satisfaction about the life which her citizens 
have lived amid the rolling limestone hills of the blue-grass country which 
is in a sense a true reflection of the best of the old-fashioned life of the 
English country gentleman. The men have aimed too much to be strong, 
brave, and accomplished ; the women have valued beauty and the amenities 
of life beyond their due; the libraries have been filled with old books 
rather than with new, and they have been learned rather than read. But 
there is a flavor, though it be only a flavor of the soil, in this quasi- 
civilization, which has something of a charm even in this latest age of the 
republic. 

In tracing these particular qualities of this first recognized common- 
wealth, do we not seem to be still following the line of expansion out be- 
yond the prairies of the Mississippi valley, over the uplands of the central 
west, and beyond the loftiest summits of the Rocky mountains even to 
the Golden Gate of the great western ocean ? In all the somewhat varied 
wanderings of the spirit of civilization, here or there is still to be found in 
this little commonwealth the lingering spirit of the backwoodsman, but 



THE EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES 279 

ever in close juxtaposition with the finest fruitage of the expanding na- 
tion. As Arthur's horn is said still to echo through the valleys of Cornwall, 
so the crack of the rifle of Daniel Boone may be heard among the rugged 
mountains of Kentucky. Among the foothills of these mountains there 
is a little stream known as Lulbegrud creek, and the story is told in an old 
pioneer's diary of how a little band of pioneers camped one'day upon this 
stream and in the evening gathered round the camp fire, when old Daniel 
Boone took out of his pocket a little book, which was The Travels of 
one Gulliver, and read to them about the town of Lulbegrud, and they 
gave this name to the stream upon whose banks they had lighted their 
camp fire. That old copy of Gulliver is to-day, with its much-worn and 
dog-leaved pages, in the possession of a friend of mine in the beautiful city 
of Louisville, in a house possessing all the beauty and convenience of the 
present day, being one of the principal ornaments of one of the richest 
collections of Americana in existence. Its owner is a Kentuckian of the 
Kentuckians, representing many things which Kentuckians love and 
honor, and representing also the catholicity of its people, born in the 
state but educated in the extreme north, loving the country as a whole, 
loving Kentucky better than all else; courteous, learned, wise, but content 
in the borders of his native commonwealth, and publishing important 
memoirs of her history in sumptuous form for circulation among the 
favored few of his immediate neighborhood. 

Catholicity is always a virtue. It may be somewhat doubted whether 
cosmopolitanism is so great a virtue as we have been led to believe. The 
catholic mind passes readily into the patriotic ; the cosmopolitan is more 
apt to degenerate into the cosmopolite. And it will be a misfortune 
when it really becomes true, as it is often said to be, that the typical 
American will prefer to direct his ambition toward an ideal life beyond the 
eastern sea rather than to a life of generous struggle beyond the western 
mountains. The expansion of America should bring with it the deepen- 
ing of Americanism, and in this point of view the provincialism which is 
yet the pride of the average Kentuckian rises out of the category of a 
vice to be something better than a foible ; to be, if not a virtue, at least 
the inducement to the highest of all virtues in a citizen — love of country. 



&^AUA. 




Lafayette College. 



EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTHWEST 

BEGINNINGS AND VICISSITUDES OF AN INDIANA LIBRARY 

The year 1787 inaugurated an era in the progress of civilization in 
America, and in the world. 

In that year was produced the Constitution of the United States, 
which marked the birth of, and gave to the maps of the world a new 
nation, one founded on the rights of man, and to be sustained only upon 
the theory of his intelligence and ability to govern himself. 

Nation building upon such a foundation was but an experiment. The 
wilds of North America furnished no data upon which the success of the 
experiment might with safety be predicted. The few denizens of the old 
world who read of the explorations into the western wilderness, did so, 
much as we now read of explorations into the heart of the " Dark Con- 
tinent," and with no greater facility for guessing the future of America 
than we have of foreseeing the development of Africa. 

In the flood of emigration which the last century saw thrown upon the 
shores of the new world, not all were seekers of a refuge from the yoke of 
kings. 

There were those who sought the gains of conquest, and the power 
which accompanies conquest. There were those who sought wealth, and 
looked to the sands expecting to find them golden. There were adven- 
turers of every sort. Vicious classes, drawn from lazar-house and prison, 
stood side by side with the Puritan and seeker for freedom to worship 
God according to the dictates of conscience. 

Colonies were planted which had little in common one with the other, 
and rivalries grew almost into hostility. What could bring together, in 
fraternal bonds, in national unity, the Puritan of Massachusetts Bay, the 
Quaker of Rhode Island, the Protestant Dutch of New York, the Swede 
of New Jersey, the Catholic of Maryland, the High Churchman of 
Virginia, and the stern followers of John Knox, who pervaded all the 
colonies ? These colonies naturally, and from force of habit, yielded 
obedience to that European power from which they sprang. Even when 
galled by oppression, few were the minds so broad or the hearts so patri- 
otic as to harbor the thought of building a great nation by consolidating 
these discordant elements into one homogeneous whole. 



EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTHWEST 28 1 

But the time came when a common oppression linked them together, 
and the fires of war fused the links until they became inseparable, The 
" league of friendship " they entered into in the beginning, for the com- 
mon welfare and mutual defense, grew into the Articles of Confederation 
which were the groundwork of the Constitution, which in due time fol- 
lowed, and was in itself the epitome of the best thoughts of liberty-loving 
rebels against the tyrannies of monarchical governments, crystallized under 
the heat of wrong and oppression into that great fundamental law which 
well deserves the encomium once passed upon it by Gladstone, as "the 
most wonderful work ever struck off at a given time by the brain and 
purpose of man." 

One of the necessities of nation building upon such a plan was the 
education of the masses of the people in a manner to best fit them for self- 
government, and the problem how to accomplish this result was one of 
the most important and vexatious which confronted the founders of the 
republic. It was the lesson of stern necessity which welded the colonies 
together, and by the same law the confederation of 1776 was fused into 
the nation of 1787. It was compelled by a power beyond the will of man. 

All human cabals, political dogmas, and partisan aspirations were 
obliged to submit to the law of necessity, and to that law we owe the 
conception and birth of the Union secured by the Constitution of 1787= 
In the shadow of great events, lesser ones, no matter how important in 
themselves, are often dwarfed and sometimes lost sight of. 

There was another instrument contemporary with the Constitution, 
conceived from the same ideas and fraught with elements calculated to 
produce the most important results to the people of the whole country, 
whose far-reaching importance is much too often lost sight of. This was 
the " Ordinance of 1787," which established " the territory of the United 
States northwest of the river Ohio," covering what now comprises the states 
of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and that part of Minnesota 
lying east of the Mississippi, embracing some fourteen counties.* This 
broad domain was claimed by Virginia as one of its counties— the county 
of Illinois ; but England, France, and Spain were each asserting claims to its 
ownership, and a generation was yet to pass away before these conflicting 
claims were to be extinguished, and the title of the United States con- 
firmed. 

At that period the vast country west of the Alleghanies was almost a 
trackless wilderness, inhabited by roving tribes of savages, containing but 

* The counties of Anoka, Aitken, Benton, Chicago, Carlton, Crow Wing, Isanti, Kannabee, 
Lake. Mille Lac, Morrison, Pine, Sherbourne, St. Louis, and Washington. 



282 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTHWEST 

a few scattered settlements of whites and a few semi-military trading 
posts. Civilization had only sent out its " avant-couriers " into this un- 
known region, as it sends them to-day into the heart of Africa; and there 
was no form of constitution or of law in that portion of the continent 
until the promulgation of the Ordinance of 1787. 

When the first census of the United States was taken, in 1790, this ter- 
ritory had no place in its returns. The total population of the thirteen 
United States was 3,929,214, less than five per cent, of which was west of 
the Alleghanies. 

In the winter of 1795-96, Governor Arthur St. Clair, who with Judge 
Turner had visited the scattered settlements, estimated the white popu- 
lation at 15,000. The Indian was estimated at 65,000. By the census of 
1800 its white population was found to be 51,000. In the nine decades 
which have since followed, that population has swelled to more than 
13,500,000 souls ; and to-day, two of the states carved from it have each 
nearly as great a population as had the nation in the first year of this, the 
nineteenth century.* 

A question of no minor importance was that presented to the con- 
gressmen of the day : How should this great domain be opened to 
settlement, and the settlers protected by some form of government? The 
law of necessity again exerted its controlling influence, and to the neces- 
sities of the hour, combined with the inflexible laws of trade, we owe more 
than we do to sentiment for the beneficent results which have flowed 
from the happy settlement of that great question. It was unsafe for 
individual settlers to invade a wilderness claimed as their hunting grounds 
by 65,000 savages, out of whose composition the quality of mercy had been 
successfully strained, and something was necessary to induce them to band 
together and colonize in numbers, else the government could not sell its 
lands to speculators, and speculators would be compelled to deal largely 
in " futures." 

There was no lack of material for empire building, and that of the 
best, for the veterans of the revolution were experiencing what their 
descendants, the disbanded veterans of 1865, were also to experience. 
They found their places filled by those who had staid at home, and their 
eyes were cast toward the land of promise which lay over the mountains, 
toward the setting sun. Fortunately, too, the New England idea was 
predominant in this movement. The Puritan and the presbyter took the 
lead in the struggle for education for the people. 

* The states in 1890 have population 13,471,840 ; the Minnesota counties, 151,572 ; total, 
13,623,412. 



EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTHWEST 283 

A brief study of this struggle reveals the fact that we do not owe to 
Jefferson, as has been so strenuously claimed for him, the educational 
provisions embodied in that great ordinance. Great as Jefferson was, he 
was not great enough or thoughtful enough to see the wonderful advan- 
tages to be derived from such a system. Perhaps it was because he was not 
born and bred in a moral atmosphere where every respiration is free and 
every aspiration high. To Colonel Timothy Pickering, Rev. Manasseh 
Cutter, General Rufus Putnam, of New England, and to their associates, 
must the credit be given for that grand system of free common schools, 
and state universities, which we are now enjoying, and of whose fruits we 
are so proud. 

As early as 1783, Colonel Pickering wrote to Mr. Hodgdon in regard to 
propositions made to congress for forming a new state, northwest of the 
Ohio, by such officers and soldiers of the federal army as should associate 
themselves for that purpose, and one of the propositions he urged was, 
"that all the surplus lands shall be the property of the state, and disposed 
of for the common good; as for laying out roads, building bridges, erect- 
ing public buildings, establishing schools and academies." 

In a letter to Washington, dated June 16, 1783, General Putnam urged 
him to assist in furthering the objects of the association, and suggested 
the division of the lands into townships, six miles square, with reservations 
for schools and the ministry. The subject was referred by congress to a 
committee consisting of Jefferson of Virginia, Chase of Maryland, and 
Howell of Rhode Island ; and on the 1st of March, 1784, Jefferson 
reported to congress an ordinance for the government of the western 
territory. In it there was no reference to education and no provisions for 
school reservations, but it provided that the territory should be divided 
into ten subdivisions, to be called, respectively: Sylvania, Michigania, 
Cheronesus, Assenissipia, Metropotamia, Illinoia, Saratoga, Washington, 
Polypotamia, and Pelisipia. Is it not true that the wisdom of one age is 
the folly of the next? 

This ordinance became the law of the land, and so remained until 1787, 
but Colonel Pickering, on the 8th day of March, 1784, attacked it in a 
letter to Rufus King, a member of the congressional committee then in 
charge of the matter, and complained that there was " no provision made 
for ministers of the gospel, nor even for schools and academies" and said 
"the latter, at least, might have been brought into view." 

About the 12th of April, 1785, the committee reported a new ordinance, 
apparently supplemental to that of 1784, which contained this clause: 
"There shall be reserved the central section of every township for the 



284 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTHWEST 

maintenance of public schools, and the section immediately adjoining for 
the support of religion." Mr. Grayson, a member of this committee, in a 
letter to Washington written after the report was submitted, says : " The 
idea of a township with the temptation of* a support for religion and 
education holds forth an inducement for neighborhoods of the same 
religious sentiments to confederate for the purpose of purchasing and 
settling together." 

After vigorous debate, the clause relating to religion was stricken out, 
and on the 20th of May, 1785, the ordinance, after numerous amendments 
had been made, was adopted. The clause relating to education finally 
stood: "There shall be reserved from sale the Lot No. 16 of every town- 
ship for the maintenance of public schools within the said township." 

This ordinance proved to be but temporary, as it failed to meet the 
expectations and demands of the association, which reorganized in 1786 
under the name of the Ohio Company, and in March, 1787, chose as its 
directors Samuel Holden Parsons, Manasseh Cutler, and Rufus Putnam. 
In May they presented to congress a memorial, which was at once 
referred to a committee, consisting of Mr. Johnson of Connecticut, 
Pinckney of South Carolina, Smith of New York, Nathan Dane of Massa- 
chusetts, and Henry of Maryland. This committee almost immediately 
reported a new ordinance, which on the 10th of May was ordered to a 
third reading, but, proving still unsatisfactory, it was on the 9th of July 
referred back to the committee, then consisting of Carrington of Virginia, 
Dane of Massachusetts, Lee of Virginia, Keen of South Carolina, and 
Smith of New York. This committee added the " bill of rights " and 
the provisions for education, and on the nth reported it back to the 
house. It was read a second time on the 12th, when Mr. Dane offered 
the amendment forever forbidding slavery within the territory, which was 
adopted. 

On the 13th day of July, 1787, this famous and ever-memorable 
ordinance for the government of the Northwest territory was read a 
third time, and unanimously adopted by the eight states then represented 
in congress.* Ten days later, in deference to the wishes of the Ohio 
Company, which was still dissatisfied, congress passed an act which gave 
section 16 in each township for the use of public schools, section 20 to the 
purposes of religion, and " not more than two complete townships to be 
given perpetually for the purposes of a university." This was reported 

* Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
and Georgia ; New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, not 
present. 



EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTHWEST 285 

to the directors a month later by Dr. Cutler, and fully ratified and ap- 
proved. 

Soon after, a pamphlet explanatory of, and calling attention to the 
character and advantages of the Northwest territory was published by 
Dr. Cutler, in which he says : " The provision that is made for schools and 
the endowment of a university looks with a most favorable aspect upon 
the settlement, and furnishes the presentiment that, by a proper attention 
to the subject of education, under these advantages, the field of science 
may be greatly enlarged, and the acquisition of useful knowledge placed 
upon a more respectable footing here than in any other part of the world. 
Besides the opportunity of opening a new and unexplored region for the 
range of natural history, botany, and the medical science, there will be 
one advantage no other part of the earth can boast, and which will 
probably never again occur — that in order to begin right, there will be no 
wrong habits to combat, and no inveterate systems to overturn, there is no 
rubbish to remove before you can lay the foundation." 

So much for human wisdom and foresight. Little did the learned and 
reverend gentleman think, when he penned that paragraph, that a century 
later we should be combating wrong habits, overturning inveterate systems, 
and removing vast rubbish heaps in order to begin right to lay founda- 
tions anew. Think you, will our successors a hundred years hence have so 
much of our rubbish to remove ? 

This great ordinance was the keystone to the whole fabric of our 
common schools, and the stepping-stone to a system of higher education. 

The statesman of that day was the friend of education, not only in the 
common branches, but in what pertains to the highest grades in science 
and literature, and we even find in Washington's address to congress, in 
1790, the suggestion of a national university. The act of congress of 
March 26, 1804, establishing land offices at Vincennes, Detroit, and 
Kaskaskia, reserved a section in each township for the support of schools, 
and an entire township in each district for the use of a seminary of 
learning ; and another township for the same purpose was provided in the 
Enabling Act of 1816 for the admission of Indiana as a state. 

So far, we have only traced the action of the general government. It 
now remains to be seen in what manner the new state beyond the moun- 
tains supplemented the work so well begun, and how the designs of the 
founders have been carried out. The legislature of the Northwest territory, 
by act approved January 9, 1802, established a university in the town of 
Athens, under the name and style of " the American Western University," 
later the Ohio University. In the same year Ohio became a state, and 



286 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTHWEST 

Indiana territory was organized. The former at once established another, 
under the name of the " Miami University," and the latter provided for a 
university at Vincennes for the education of the aborigines as well as the 
settlers. 

Strangely enough, it provided for procuring a library and philosophical 
apparatus by means of a lottery, something that is to-day a statutory 
offense in both our state and nation, and under the ban in nearly every 
state of the Union, and in all classes of society except church fairs and 
progressive euchre parties. Thus do the virtues of one age become the 
vices of another. 

In passing, it is of interest to note that the first agricultural college 
was established in Indiana territory, a fact seemingly overlooked by all 
who have written upon the subject of education. At the beginning of the 
century, on the request of Little Turtle, principal chief of the Miamis, 
agricultural implements had been furnished by the society of Friends, in 
the vain hope of educating the Indians as tillers of the soil. In 1804 the 
Baltimore conference of Friends sent a delegation to Fort Wayne, and a 
general council of the Indian tribes was called to meet them on the 10th of 
April, the subject of the means of teaching agricultural arts to the Indians 
being the principal theme of discussion. Little Turtle expressed his 
regret that his people had not accepted the idea of cultivating their lands, 
much as he had tried to convince them of the necessity of so doing, and 
his hope that the words of the Friends might turn their minds. He was 
evidently far from sanguine that the experiment would prove successful. 

Phillip Dennis, one of the Friends, offered to remain and become their 
teacher in practical farming. In accepting his services, Little Turtle 
explained that the other chiefs and himself had agreed that he should not 
locate in any of their villages, "lest," as he said, "our younger brothers 
should be jealous of our taking him to ourselves ;" adding, " we have deter- 
mined to place him on the Wabash, where some of our families will follow 
him, where, I hope, our young men will follow them, and where he will 
be able to instruct them as he wishes." The point thus selected was "the 
Boatyard," so called because General Wilkinson had there built flat-boats 
to transport his baggage and stores down the river. Dennis found by 
experience that the chief's misgivings in regard to the industrious and 
studious qualities of his young men were but too well founded. 

He reports that, after inclosing the farm, only one or at most two of the 
red men showed any disposition to labor. They would sit on the fence, or 
in the trees near by, and watch him plow and hoe, but without evincing any 
desire to lend a helping hand. He left in the fall, discouraged, and so 



EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTHWEST 287 

ended the first attempt to teach the " gentle savage " the arts of peace 
and the delights of rural felicity on a farm. The first agricultural college 
closed without even an essay on the potato-bug. It was a failure. 

When Indiana became a state, in J 816, it adopted a constitution 
greater in conception, broader in scope, and richer in patriotic thought 
and progressive sentiment than the one which displaced it in 1852. It 
declared it to be "the duty of the general assembly, as soon as circum- 
stances would permit, to provide by law for a general system of education, 
ascending in regular gradation from township schools to a state univer- 
sity, wherein tuition shall be gratis, and equally open to all." 

Circumstances seem not to have permitted the general assembly to 
take any action in regard to its thus declared duty until January 20, 1820, 
when the act establishing the state seminary at Bloomington was ap- 
proved, and from that, through the " college " established in 1828, came the 
university of ten years later — the university of to-day. It may be said that, 
while the state has made it no munificent donations, it has generally re- 
sponded with fairness to the demands for its necessities, and of late years 
those demands have been met by the lawmakers of the state in an ever- 
increasing spirit of liberality which we may hope will increase as the bene- 
fits it confers on the state become more and more apparent and more 
fully appreciated. The first seekers for knowledge whose steps were 
turned toward the Indiana seminary were doubtless clad in buckskin or 
the coarsest homespun, and their homes were the log-cabins which have 
almost become a part of the prehistoric age, but they were of the Ameri- 
can nobility, and, judging by their works, would seem the peers of their 
successors of to-day. 

From those humble cabins of the scattered groups of pioneers came 
the youth who were to be the builders of the state ; and who can doubt, 
when we survey the structure for which they laid the foundation, that they 
made the most of their opportunities, and deserve that their share in state 
building shall be remembered, and recorded by a grateful posterity? 

No elegant college buildings were theirs ; no wealth of philosophical 
apparatus, and no large libraries in which to delve. But the man of cul- 
ture was there to teach, and the youth with brains and good organs for 
the digestion of mental as well as physical food was there to receive. 
Note well the results, and ask yourselves, whence comes, and where is to 
be found except in better appliances, our educational superiority over the 
student of the beginning of the century? As a college library is one of 
its most important adjuncts, it is of interest to know from what books the 
pioneer students of Indiana University drew their stores of knowledge, and 



288 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTHWEST 

it would be interesting to trace, step by step, the history of such a library, 
were it possible, in view of the destruction of books and records in two dis- 
astrous fires, leaving but the record of the university from its organization 
in 1838 for a period of a score of years. 

From the ashes some interesting items have been gleaned ; as, for 
instance, that the library of 1829 consisted of two hundred and thirty-five 
volumes, estimated, in a report made to the legislature in 1830, to be of 
the value of six hundred dollars, and it is boastingly added that " it has 
not cost the state a solitary cent," being donated by generous people, 
among whom is named Arthur Tappan, of New York, as a donor to the 
amount of one hundred dollars. The list of titles is extant, and candor 
compels the expression of an opinion that more than half of the vol- 
umes would be accounted of little or no value to the student of to-day. 

The first library committee appointed on the organization of the uni- 
versity in 1838 was a notable one. It consisted of Robert Dale Owen, 
philosopher, statesman, and scientist ; Richard M. Thompson, statesman 
and silver tongued orator ; and James Blair. This committee reported that, 
" while they were pleased to find in the library many interesting and useful, 
and some rare and curious works, they regretted to perceive that many 
others of a standard character, and some especially useful to us as American 
citizens, were still deficient." In 1840 the library was estimated at two 
thousand five hundred dollars in value, and in the address of the trustees 
to the people of Indiana, published in that year, it is said : "The university 
library has been recently augmented by a purchase of about two thousand 
dollars' worth of books, some of them rare and valuable." In scanning the 
old catalogue of these books, a bibliophile would shed tears over the rare 
first editions and folios lost to posterity, but the literary iconoclast would 
raise his hands to heaven and devoutly thank God that He sometimes 
sends conflagrations. The only volume then listed which now survives to 
adorn the library shelves was saved from two successive holocausts which 
destroyed all its companions, by being borrowed by a reverend gentleman, 
who was an excellent bookkeeper, for he kept the volume for some thirty 
years, and thus saved it to the world. It has this title : " Georgii Wasli- 
ingtonii, America Septcntrionalis Ctiitatem, foederatum Prcesidis prima 
Vita. Fraticisco Gloss A .M. Ohioensi, literas Latinas conscripta. New York, 
1835," which, being somewhat freely rendered, may read that Francis 
Gloss made a litter of his Latin in writing a life of Washington, which no 
one will ever read. 

In 1853 the library committee was worried because the books were 
exposed to damage from the rains, and asked for a larger and safer room ; 



EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTHWEST 289 

but in April following the books were saved from damage by rain by 
being totally destroyed by fire in the conflagration of that date. When the 
board met in December, 1855, the generous offer of H. W. Derby, the 
Cincinnati publisher, to donate books to be selected from his catalogue 
to the amount of two thousand dollars, was gratefully accepted. The 
faculty had already thanked the donor, caused his letter to be read in 
chapel, and now asked the board to provide an alcove in the library for 
them, over which, as a perpetual memorial of the generosity of the donor, 
there should be inscribed the words: "The gift of Henry W. Derby, 
Esquire, of Cincinnati." In 1857 the library was removed to the new 
building, where it remained, and had a slow growth until again totally de- 
stroyed by fire in 1883. From the time of its removal to that building we 
have no information concerning its accretions, the records and catalogue 
being consumed with the books; but in 1876 it was reported to have six 
thousand volumes, seven hundred of which pertained to the law depart- 
ment. In the fire of 1883, some twelve thousand volumes were consumed. 
The new year of 1891 saw this library replaced by some thirteen thou- 
sand volumes carefully selected from the best productions in every depart- 
ment of thought, and inclosed in a beautiful fireproof structure, which it 
is hoped will become a centre of attraction for searchers after knowledge 
and book lovers of centuries unborn, a veritable literary shrine adorned 
with the radiant gems of thought of all the ages, and in which shall rest, 
not as in a darksome tomb but in a chamber of light the beautified bodies 
of prose and poetry, wedded in death as in life and from which shall 
ceaselessly emanate old thoughts reborn, the glorified fruit of an ever- 
recurring resurrection morning. 






/Q* S. /&-t£z^£^ 



Fort Wayne, Indiana. 



Vol. XXVII.-No. 4.-19 



THE LONDON TIMES 

A PERSONAL REMINISCENCE 

" Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have great- 
ness thrust upon them." In my own case I certainly did not inherit any 
claims to the honorable distinction of a newspaper correspondent, and it 
is equally certain that on the one and only occasion when I attempted to 
fulfil the duties of that position — as I shall show — I " achieved " a lament- 
able failure. I did not seek the appointment ; it was "thrust " upon me. 

Soon after the inauguration of President Lincoln, I was visited one 
day by a friend in New York — a gentleman distinguished for his legal 
and literary abilities, and who in subsequent years has occupied high 
judicial and diplomatic posts under the government — who made what 
appeared to me a very singular request. It was that I would succeed him 
as the American correspondent of the London Times. He explained that 
he had filled that post for some time past, but that now, owing to ill 
health he was compelled to go abroad, and had sent in his resignation. 
The manager of the Times had requested him to appoint his own 
successor. Would I, he asked, accept the position? 

I respectfully declined the honor. In the first place, I did not desire 
the post. In the second place, I had had no experience of the kind and 
felt myself inadequate to discharge the duties of a position which requires 
unusual investigation and special ability. It was true that I occasionally 
contributed anonymous articles to the newspapers on public events — 
some of which my friend had read — but I had never written for pay, or 
"under orders," preferring to preserve my independence of judgment. 

Notwithstanding these cogent reasons, my friend pressed me to accept, 
at least for a time, as a personal favor to himself. I had but to try the 
experiment, he thought, to like the occupation, and a weekly letter, surely, 
might be scratched off by me without any great inconvenience. I 
reminded him that the existing state of political affairs — the civil war 
was on the eve of breaking out — would require more than an ordinary 
correspondent's letter. Was he aware that the London Times was already 
showing signs of friendly recognition of the secessionists, and that any 
observations in my letters distinctly favorable to Union sentiments would 
in all probability be distasteful to that journal, and perhaps rejected ? 



THE LONDON TIMES 291 

In one point of view, namely, to assist the direction of public opinion in 
England toward a correct estimate of the political position, it would be to 
me a most gratifying task, and I would gladly undertake it, but I doubted 
whether they would print all I should feel myself compelled to express. 

My friend was clearly of opinion that these scruples were baseless; 
that anything I wrote would be accepted, and that what I probably would 
write would be " just what was wanted " to correct the misapprehensions in 
England as to the causes of the rebellion, and the purposes contemplated 
by the slave-holding states. Under these persuasive arguments I yielded, 
and a few days after the interview I sent to the editor of The Times my 
letter number one. I endeavored to make it a calm, clear, and unprejudiced 
statement of the then position of affairs, and in that letter, as in subsequent 
ones, I expressed the unequivocal opinion that, be the war long or short, or 
however disastrous in life and treasure, the Union sentiment throughout the 
north and west would not be affected by party considerations. Upon 
this the English public might depend, as recent manifestations made it 
next to certain that aid from the western states would not be realized. 

Having dispatched this letter, I proceeded to put myself into com- 
munication with such individuals of both parties as I considered to be in 
positions to afford reliable information upon the state of public opinion, 
from time to time, as affected by the occurrence of events. At Washing- 
ton, among others, I conferred with Secretary Seward, Secretary Stanton, 
General Dix, and others, not to echo their opinions, but to obtain early 
information of such facts and movements as they might be disposed to 
afford for publication in England by the time my letters would arrive. 
Neither of the two secretaries appeared to respect the opinion of The 
Times upon passing events in the United States, but they agreed that it 
was important to avert the distortion or misrepresentation of facts, and 
promised the fullest information practicable. 

I soon discovered that an occupation which I had undertaken as a 
diversion, as well as from a sense of duty, was not a bed of roses. As I 
had anticipated, the famous leader and exponent of public opinion in 
England did not find it convenient to publish the views of a correspondent 
which were diametrically opposed to those expressed in the editorial 
columns. At all events, neither the first nor succeeding letters were pub- 
lished, but certain extracts from them relating to the decline in values 
of public securities in the United States, ct cetera, were inserted. 

I soon received a courteous letter from the manager of The Times 
suggesting that "a less partisan spirit" in my communications would 
make them more acceptable. I should have sat down at once to resign 



292 THE LONDON TIMES 

the unwelcome task, had I not received by the same post a letter from 
my predecessor — who chanced to be in London at the time — dated from 
the office of The Times. He wrote that the manager had shown him my 
rejected letters and he had carefully read them. He entirely approved of 
the sentiments expressed therein, and begged that I would continue to 
write and forward letters — even if they were not published — until form- 
ally requested by the manager to discontinue them. Recognizing the 
point he had in view, I complied with the request, taking no notice what- 
ever of the manager's caution. But the latter were not printed. 

At last, and to my great relief, for I was growing tired of wasting 
time, labor, pen and ink, the expected communication from the manager 
arrived. It was as courteously expressed as the first, thanked me warmly 
for my services, and stated that the managers of The Times had come to 
the opinion that " no man owning allegiance to the federal government " 
was, under existing circumstances, in a position to afford a dispassionate 
opinion upon American public affairs. The managers had therefore de- 
cided to send out an Englishman as their general correspondent — Dr, W. 
H. Russell, their special war correspondent, being already in the field. 

My successor, if a person who did not succeed may be said to have a 
successor, was Dr. Charles Mackay, the well-known popular writer and the 
author of several patriotic songs much in vogue in his day. For a while, 
this gentleman's contributions to The Times seemed fully to justify his 
appointment, for they went far enough to satisfy the most ardent advocates 
of secession. Perhaps they went too far to establish that perfect confi- 
dence in dispassionate opinions which the chiefs in London seemed so 
anxious to obtain. What the management expected from a correspondent 
with English blood in his veins, who must form or at least express opin- 
ions as events transpired, it is difficult to say. Dr. Mackay went to the 
length of his tether, and ought to have satisfied the requirements of his 
masters ; but he did not, and the eminent man was recalled. After these 
unfortunate experiments " the powers " in London appeared to think 
that neither an American nor an English brain could meet the require- 
ments of the position, and that the blood must be changed. They accord- 
ingly appointed an Italian, one Signor Antonio Gallenga, a gentleman I 
had subsequently the pleasure of knowing personally in Europe, and of 
discussing with him, over the cheerful cigar, our respective failures, for he 
too was recalled, or recalled himself, after a few months of servitude in 
behalf of the great London journal. Gallenga was a man of high talents 
and had been for many years on the staff of The Times. His field of 
operations, however, had been chiefly in Italy, where he had achieved con- 



THE LONDON TIMES 293 

siderable notoriety as an ardent patriot during the Italian struggle for inde- 
pendence. Certainly, his efforts in that noble cause were not calculated, 
one would suppose, to render him a dispassionate observer of a rebellion 
against an established government, not for freedom, but for the perpetu- 
ation and extension of human slavery. One would have also supposed 
that such a man, who had struggled for the unity of his own country, 
would have sympathized with the efforts of the federal government to 
restore and preserve the unity of the United States — not, like Italy, 
threatened by foreign invaders, but by a section clamorous for the de- 
struction of their own commonwealth. Alas ! that newspaper correspond- 
ents should feel compelled to change their principles with change of 
locality. Gallenga maintained that the greatness and the unity of Italy 
were its glory, but he thought greatness and unity of the United States 
a menace to the world. 

Let him speak for himself. In a volume of Personal Reminiscences 
published after his retirement from The Times, he thus discourses of his 
predecessor and of his own difficulties when writing under orders: " On 
my arrival in New York I found Dr. Mackay almost exclusively sur- 
rounded by ' copperheads,' as northern sympathizers with the south were 
styled, and I went with them as a supporter through thick and thin. I, 
myself, wished that peace should be made on the terms of a friendly but 
enduring separation of the contending parties, and, in so far, I was an out 
and out secessionist. The Yankees, as a nation, had become a danger to 
Europe." Notwithstanding this avowal of disunion sentiments, he claimed 
to be " a clear and impartial exponent of the condition and prospects of 
affairs," and he thought it rather hard that he could not obtain a pass 
to the headquarters of the federal army, although the Italian minister at 
Washington and Lord Lyons pleaded for him. " No man from Printing 
House Square shall ever come within sight of the stars and stripes banner 
on the battle field," were the words of Secretary Seward, according to 
Gallenga, and so the poor man returned to Printing House Square, " with 
the bitter conviction that his American mission was a failure." 

Before Gallenga returned to England he satisfied his mind fully upon 
public opinion in the free states, and honestly declared in print that, 
"having visited all the great cities of the west— the north and the west 
were stanch Unionists, and that Mackay's belief in the success of seces- 
sion, with which he had managed to inoculate the London journal, and 
with it public opinion, was a fallacy." 

Who succeeded Mr. Gallenga I do not know, for I never inquired. Let 
us hope that the result of the war justified his opinions, and that, whatever 



294 THE LONDON TIMES 

was his nationality, he did credit to the eminent journal he represented. 
As to that journal, I felt no ill-will at the rejection of my own correspond- 
ence. Its title indicates its character, which naturally veers about with 
the — sometimes incomprehensible — phases of public opinion. When "The 
Times is out of joint," it generally manages to regain its normal condition 
with a specious plausibility which it has ever at command. But even 
.when wrong in its conclusions, it is often a correct exponent of the then 
popular ideas. As such, The Times was right when it alluded in irony to 
the " Dis-United States," willfully forgetful of the old taunts flung at the 
republic for boasting of free institutions while holding four millions of 
negroes in servitude; and in joining in the cry of, "let the wayward sisters 
go," " separate in peace," and so on. It was right in declaring that 
John Bright's independent and eloquent appeal in behalf of the American 
Union was " a voice without an echo " in England. It was right, so far as 
popular ideas there went, in the prophecy that, should the north succeed 
in crushing the rebellion, the United States would thenceforth be a 
"military despotism;" and it was right, when the " Lost Cause" brought 
clearer notions and juster conclusions to England, in thundering its 
applause at the spectacle of a people who could be voluntary soldiers for 
successive years in defense of their institutions, and yet silently dissolve 
and return to their respective avocations when the end was accomplished. 

Where The Times was signally wrong was in permitting and fostering 
the idea, in very large and very honest-minded circles in England, that, so 
far as the federal government was concerned, it was fighting, not slavery, 
but disunion. " If," said the voice of these classes, " the freedom of the 
slave was the purpose of the war we should be heart and hand with you ; but 
as your government distinctly avows that the war is waged for the preserva- 
tion of the Union — slavery or no slavery — we cannot sympathize with it. 
The southern states want to be independent, and as the new confederacy 
proposes to establish free-trade principles, to the immense commercial 
advantage of England and her manufactures, we consult our own interests 
in wishing for the success of the secessionists." 

Had The Times, and other journals in England which profess to be 
independent and honest exponents of facts, frankly avowed, or permitted 
their correspondents to avow the real state of the case, the delusion with 
respect to slavery would have been removed and right-minded Englishmen 
would have perceived that " the war for the Union " distinctly involved 
the question of the perpetuation or the extinction of slavery in the states. 
The uninformed classes had only to be told that the federal government 
possessed no constitutional right to wage war against a recognized 



THE LONDON TIMES 295 

domestic institution in a state or states. The southern states attempted 
to secede from the Union for the purpose of maintaining slavery, then 
dangerously threatened by adverse public opinion in the free states. In 
a social point of view the slave-holders maintained that slavery, inherited 
from their forefathers and ingrafted in their institutions, was a blessing 
to the slave and a necessity to the master. Morally, they quoted the 
Old Testament to justify the system. They brought forward no tangible 
charge against the union of the states, beyond this, worthy of serious 
consideration. Jefferson Davis himself recognized the existing political 
condition when, during the canvass before the presidential election, he 
"took the stump" in the northern states for the purpose of advocat- 
ing his own claims as the national candidate for that office. Under 
these circumstances, every word uttered by the English press in support 
of the secessionists; every "hurrah" at their victories in the field; every 
vessel dispatched from an English port to injure American commerce or 
to run the blockade — carrying supplies to the southern states — were so 
many additional rivets in the bonds of the slave. 

The Englishman now says: "We did not understand all this at the 
time of the civil war, and dissociated slavery with the contest." Why 
did he not understand it ? Had he not his English newspaper, that " guide 
and index of the times," to enlighten him? If the public journals hood- 
winked and played upon his credulity, surely there is scarcely a term strong 
enough in condemnation of those oracles of the press who had it in their 
power to hold up before their readers the mirror of unvarnished facts. 

But there were men of discernment, scattered here and there among the 
upper classes in England, who, unhampered by pecuniary considerations 
or the greed for popularity, denounced the prophecies of The Times with 
regard to the rebellion. Such men, for instance, as the late Lord Vere 
Hobart, who wrote, September 26, 1863 : " I thought The Times would have 
veered round on American affairs, but instead of that they write more lies 
and more abuse of the north than ever. . . . They will see the matter 
in a different light in a few months when the south won't have a leg to 
stand upon." Ten months after this prophecy, which was laughed at when 
made as the vaporings of an enthusiast, Hobart wrote again: "The Times 
has really done all it can to gull the nation as to American affairs." 

Trop de zele is as injurious in journalism as in diplomacy, and the eager- 
ness, amounting to malignity, with which The Times, at periods of political 
controversy, pursues its opponent, often serves to awaken in the public mind 
strong doubts as to the purity and patriotism of its invective. A notable 
instance, in recent years, is its studied attacks upon Mr. Gladstone, who, 



296 THE LONDON TIMES 

whatever may be the opinion of partisans upon his political views, cer- 
tainly deserves, as the oldest and most famous of living English politicians 
and whose record is one of high and lifelong statesmanship, the most 
respectful and decorous treatment on the part of his political adversaries. 
Unwittingly, the neglect of this principle by the great London journal has 
won for the " grand old man " an acknowledgment, in quarters least ex- 
pected, that this political sobriquet is not so wholly undeserved. Who 
shall say that, if Mr. Gladstone's life and work are continued for a few 
years longer, The Times will not be brought again into as humiliating an 
attitude with respect to the leader of the liberal party as it was in the case 
of the civil war in the United States, and in the more recent instance of 
the celebrated Pigott case? This last humiliation was the more signifi- 
cant, from the fact that The Times went out of its way and exhibited a 
photographic copy of the letter attributed to Mr. Parnell — subsequently 
proved to be a forgery — enlarged to a half-page of that journal ! 

Since these notable signs of editorial fallibility, The Times has not 
attracted that attention or produced that awe upon the public mind which 
was formerly the case. Other and more largely circulated journals, con- 
ducted on less dogmatical and more generous principles, are obtaining an 
increased share of public confidence among English readers. Neverthe- 
less, for " the classes," in distinction to " the masses," that journal will 
always claim the most respectful consideration for the ability of its 
admirable corps of " trained wordsmen " and its generally high toned 
exposition of public affairs. To the uninitiated reader it is simply marvel- 
ous that, as is often the case, men can sit down in the small hours of the 
morning and from a telegram, that moment received, announcing a public 
event totally unexpected and unprepared for, write off with the velocity 
of thought a newspaper leader for that particular day's journal, admirable 
in condensation, comment, and phraseology, which in those respects could 
not be improved had hours instead of minutes been devoted to the task. 

In such achievements and in its freedom from sensationalism and buf- 
foonery, maintaining respectability without dullness, and a high intellectual 
tone without, as a rule, arrogant assumption, The Times stands as a 
model for the habitual journalist, however much its readers may disagree 
with the political sentiments expressed in its columns. 



CS^GASCC^ m/1Z. 




Florence, Italy. 



OLD TRINITY CHIMES 

Up above the dust and roar 

Hang the holy bells on high. 
O'er the city evermore, 

Hour by hour, their voices cry ; 

Teaching how to live and die, 
While the ages onward roll. 

List the hymn, O passer-by ! 
Jesus, lover of my soul. 

When the hands are tired of toil, 
When the weary feet would rest, 

When the strife and mad turmoil 
Make existence seem a jest : 
Welcome, music, heavenly guest ! 

Wafting down from out the sky 
Cadence of that sweet request — 

Let me to thy bosom fly. 

Sound the footsteps fast and loud 

Where the throng for riches lust, 
While they trample — foolish crowd — 

Golden moments into dust ! 

Shall we let them fade and rust, 
Quickly loosed from our control ? 

Give us first a patient trust, 
While the billoius round me roll. 

Hang the holy bells on high, 
Far above the dust and heat ; 

Though we pass them, heedless, by, 
Faithfully they still repeat 
Many an admonition sweet 

From their station near the sky, 

Chanting of a rest complete 
While the te)npest still is high. 



&y^&^%^z 



Springdale, Conn. 



THE TERRITORY WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 

The most interesting history of the country west of the Mississippi 
river, is that of its discovery and occupation by the Spaniards and French, 
as well as of the treaties, grants and concessions made by them in regard 
to it. The first to penetrate the vast region lying west of the great river, 
all at one time known as Louisiana, were the Spaniards from opposite 
points Florida and Mexico. 

Juan Ponce de Leon, a native of Leon, in Spain, and a companion to 
Columbus on his second voyage of discovery, had risen by perilous and 
successful adventures to the governorship of Porto Rico, an island near 
Hayti. Having accumulated considerable wealth from the mines of the 
island, beguiled by the stories of natives of a fabulous country away to the 
north, teeming with gold and delights, and having in its boundaries a river, 
or fountain, whose waters restored the strength, vigor and beauty of youth, 
he fitted out three ships, and on November 3, 1512, sailed northward to dis- 
cover as he believed, a third world richer and more beautiful than either 
of those known, " a paradise of boundless wealth and perennial youth." 

He landed at 30 8' latitude, April 2, where an attempt to penetrate 
the heavy forests to the interior was met by the resistance of hostile and 
determined savages and an inhospitable climate. The country being 
covered with masses of verdure and flowers exceeding anything the 
Spaniards had ever beheld, they appropriately named it Florida ; per- 
petuated in the name of our beautiful peninsular state. Discouraged by 
the fierce opposition of the Indians, and failure to discover gold, the 
expedition returned in June, 1 5 12, to Porto Rico, having discovered the 
Dry Tortugas, and other islands. The fountain of youth, regarding which 
the Indians aroused the curiosity of the Spanish governor, was, no doubt, 
the Hot Springs of Arkansas. 

Florida was visited by the Spaniards several times in 1520, 1523, 1524, 
and in 1528. Narvaez attempted with a strong force to reach the interior 
but was lost by shipwreck and only ten of his company ever reached Spain 
again; although it is claimed that five white men, and one negro (probably 
the first of that race on this continent), of his unfortunate expedition, after 
five or six years of wandering, and being passed from tribe to tribe of 
Indians, reached Mexico and told stories of the wondrous Indian city of 
Quivira whose streets and buildings, they claimed, glittered with gold and 



THE TERRITORY WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 299 

were adorned with precious stones, but none of them possessed a sufficient 
education to give an intelligent account of their travels. These men must 
have crossed the Mississippi river, and were undoubtedly its first white 
discoverers, but left no record which could be the foundation for a claim. 

In 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, a companion of Pizarro in Peru, landed a 
force of six hundred men in Florida, and, traveling in a northwesterly 
course, reached the Mississippi near Memphis, crossed it and followed up 
the west bank to the St. Francis river and up the latter across the Ozark 
mountains to Newton county, Missouri, where he passed the winter of 
1 540-1 541 in smelting lead, which he and his followers had mistaken for 
silver. While there they hunted game upon what is now called the 
"Cherokee Strip," only recently ceded by the Indians to the United 
States, and will be perhaps a part of the last territory admitted, although 
one of the first west of the Mississippi visited by white men. Dis- 
appointed in the discovery that they had not found precious metals ; 
De Soto, and his companions, in the spring of 1741, went south across the 
Boston mountains, visited the Hot Springs, now in Arkansas, passed on 
south-east and across the Mississippi river, near Natchez, where De Soto 
died and was buried in 1542, it is said, with the pomp of chivalry and the 
honors of war, in the bosom of the great river below Natchez. His suc- 
cessor in command,. Louis de Mascoso, returned north, recrossed the 
Ozark mountains, and traveled west to the great plains. 

We recognize in their account of the Indians they met the Osage, 
Kansas and Pawnee tribes. The same year, 1542, a gallant Spanish 
knight, Coronado, entering from Old Mexico, in search of the kingdom 
of Quivira,* a gorgeous description of which he had received from the 
remnants of Narvaez's expedition, must have come near meeting the band 
under Mascoso on the great prairies, like two ships in mid ocean ; but 
neither party heard of the other, although both parties met the same 
roving bands of Indians, until after their return to Europe. In 1540, 
Coronado left Mexico and passed through Sonoro to the Little Colorado 
river, and came upon the cities of Cibola, where he found large four story 
buildings erected without lime or cement, with ladders for stairs. There 
were seven cities called the kingdom of Cibola, but no gold or precious 
stones were found. These ruins are on the Colorado river. 

From here, Coronado turned eastward, still in search of Quivira, and 
reaching the great plains traveled according to his account " through 
many days of buffalo country," and as the buffaloes were never known to 

* Quivira — A Suggestion. By Dr. Cyrus Thomas, in Magazine of American History of Decem- 
ber, 1883 [x. 490-496]. 



300 THE TERRITORY WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 

range west of the Raton mountains, or but little west of the eastern 
boundary of New Mexico, these many days of travel must have been 
between the points named and the Missouri river. His account says he 
traveled three hundred leagues east from the "great river"; meaning the 
Rio Grande, never going north to the fourth parallel — the line between 
Kansas and Nebraska; these three hundred leagues must have brought 
him to the Missouri river near Fort Leavenworth, or at the mouth of the 
Kansas river where Kansas city now stands. The latter point is the 
more probable, as he likely reached the Kansas river where Topeka now 
stands, and followed it to the confluence with the Missouri. He may even 
have stood on the bluffs at Kansas city and have been the first white 
European who ever viewed the turbulent waves of the majestic Missouri, 
as they coursed, sixteen hundred leagues, from the summit of the Rocky 
mountains to the gulf in latitude forty-six degrees. 

Coronado failed to find Quivira, as located by De Vaca and others, 
and finally concluded it must have been the cities of the Pueblos that 
were visited by De Vaca, and the ruins of some of which were visited by 
General Doniphan, during his campaign in the Navajo's country, in 
November and December 1846.* One of the ruins is thus described by 
General Doniphan : " On the head waters of the Piscas, and high up in 
the mountains, we came to the ruins of an ancient Pueblan city. Tradi- 
tion said it had been built centuries before, and for more than a century 
had been deserted on account of earthquakes. It was built entirely of 
stone. Near the ruins was an immense bed of vitreous deposit and black- 
ened sconia, presenting, in the valleys, the appearance of great molten 
lakes and other volcanic remains, with chasms opening down through the 

* The Doniphans are descended from an officer in the Moorish wars under Philip II., Don 
Alphonse Iphan, a Spaniard, one of whose sons came with John Smith to Jamestown in 1607. 
After some years in the new world he returned to Scotland, where his family had been left, and 
brought them to Virginia in 1645. One of his sons married a Scottish lady, named Mott, whose 
family had been driven from Scotland on account of their loyalty to Charles I., and to whom 
Charles II., his son, granted a large body of land in Northern Virginia, now a part of Farquier 
county. Here the family name was Americanized to " Doniphan " and has so remained. " Extra " 
Billy Smith, twice governor of Virginia, was of same family, his mother being a Doniphan, and 
did much to collect and preserve the family history. Joseph Doniphan, the father of General 
A. \V. Doniphan, of Mexican war fame, and the grandfather of Colonel John Doniphan, of 
St. Joseph, Missouri, was born and reared upon the old land grant in Virginia ; he was of the 
same age and a class mate of Chief Justice John Marshall, under whose captainship he served as a 
soldier in the Revolutionary war. The author is indebted for much of the material for this paper 
to Colonel John Doniphan, who has made the history of the country west of the Mississippi, a life 
study, and who has for reference a large quantity of unpublished manuscripts, some of which were 
written by General A. W. Doniphan. 



THE TERRITORY WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 3OI 

strata of lava to unknown depths. The figure of the city was an exact 
square, setting north and south and encircled by double stone walls four- 
teen feet apart. The walls were three stories high, two entire stories 
being above ground ; the other partly above and partly below the surface. 
The space between these walls was divided into rooms about fourteen 
feet wide, and all the openings were into the interior. The remainder of 
the city seemed to have been built along streets parallel to these walls. 
In the centre was a large square, or plaza, used, perhaps, for parade 
grounds and for corraling stock at night. In this room were large quanti- 
ties of red cedar wood, of convenient length for fire-places, in a state of 
entire preservation which had doubtless been stored there for more than a 
century. They used it, probably, to make their camp-fires." Later 
explorations of the Spaniards fix the city of Quivira a long distance to 
the north-west, and, probably, on the Big Platte riven 

In 1 581, Santa Fe was founded. In 1599 a Spanish adventurer named 
Onate, started with a company of soldiers in search of the fabulous city, 
Quivira. They traveled seven or eight hundred miles to a populous 
Indian city, several leagues in extent. The sight of its size and the 
savage character of its inhabitants aroused the terror of the soldiers to 
such an extent as to cause a retreat without gaining any valuable informa- 
tion. The obscurity of the account is such as to prevent any reasonable 
conjectures as to his route, or where he found the city, but as the details 
speak of prairies, lakes and rivers, it is probable he reached a Pawnee 
village on the Republican or Platte river. There are vague accounts of 
two other expeditions of priests and Jesuits, one of which is supposed to 
have reached the Indians of Dakota, but, as the details are almost exclu- 
sively confined to the religious exercises, nothing can be determined as to 
the geographical aspect of the country or route pursued. 

The recent discovery of a manuscript, at Madrid, written by Father 
Nicolas Freyas, recounts that Don Deigo, Count of Penalosa, born at 
Lima, in Peru, in 1624, had settled in Mexico, where he was raised to the 
position of governor of the province of Santa Fe. In 1662, he started in 
search of Quivira, with a thousand Indians, armed with bows and arrows ; 
eighty Spanish knights in complete mail ; thirty-six wagons, and six can- 
non ; eight hundred horses, and three hundred mules. For three months 
he lead his forces northeastwardly through a prairie so pleasant that 
Father Freyas says : " Not in the Indies, in Peru, in New Spain, nor in 
Europe, has such another land been seen, so delightful and pleasant." 
After traveling in a northeasterly direction for nearly three hundred 
leagues, crossing many beautiful streams and passing through luxurious 



302 THE TERRITORY WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 

forests, they reached a rapid river, which, though more than a mile in 
breadth, could be forded. Here they met three thousand Indians named 
Escanzaques from the south, who were on a war expedition against the 
cities of Quivira, but left the Penalosa party unmolested. They forded 
the river some distance until they reached a, point where another river 
emptied in from the north. A city was situated on both banks of this 
river, which the Spaniards believed to be one of the cities of Quivira. 
For two leagues it extended along the river and contained thousands of 
wooden houses, two, three, and four stories in height, with thatched roofs. 
They were met by seventy chiefs, splendidly attired in furs, who made 
them presents of pumpkins, beans, bread, wild game, etc. The story of 
Spanish cruelty was repeated, as the Indian allies, assisted, probably, by 
the troops of Penalosa, crossed the river at night, murdered the inhabi- 
tants, and burned much of the fair city. All who survived the outrages 
fled. The Count of Penalosa disclaimed responsibility for the treachery 
and cruelty displayed here by his allies and followers. 

Finding no gold or precious stones, Penalosa, with little honor, and 
less wealth, retired to Santa Fe. The late Judge James W. Savage of 
Omaha, a distinguished antiquarian and learned historian, advanced the 
theory that this city was on the south bank of the Big Platte, and sup- 
ported his position with most plausable reasons drawn from descriptions 
of the surrounding country. A few years later this grand Count of Pena- 
losa fell a victim to the Inquisition, and died in Paris. 

On the 17th of June, 1763, Joliet and Marquette entered the Missis- 
sippi river from the Wisconsin and passed down to the mouth of the 
Arkansas. In 1680, La Salle and Hennepin visited the Falls of St. Anthony. 
In 1682, La Salle descended the great river to its mouth, naming it St. 
Louis ; the Missouri he named St. Philip ; and the tributary country 
Louisiana. In 1685, the first French settlement in Louisiana was made 
at Montagorda bay, one hundred and twenty miles west of the mouth of 
the river. This settlement was abandoned by La Salle, who, while on his 
return to Canada, was murdered on the lower Mississippi by his friends, 
his own brother, the abbe, if not participating in it at least conniving 
with those who did. In 1697 several colonies formed along the Missis- 
sippi. Thus, by the right of discovery and occupation, the French claimed 
title to all the country watered by the great river. The wars of Louis 
XIV. with Spain, England and Germany, rendered these possessions 
precarious, so that in 1712. he made a grant to Anthony Cruzat of the 
entire country watered by the Mississippi. For five years Cruzat held 
the grant and expended large sums of money in the settlement of colonies 






THE TERRITORY WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 303 

and expeditions in search of gold, when he gave it up. Soon after the 
surrender of the grant to the crown, it was regranted to " The John Lewis 
Mississippi Company." New Orleans was founded in 1717, and Lamatte 
in 1720 commenced mining lead on the Meramec. In this year, 1720, a 
Spanish expedition was fitted out at Santa Fe to capture the valley and 
dispossess the French. They reached the Missouri, near the Osage river, 
where they fell into an ambush of the Missouri Indians, allies of the 
French, and were all massacred, save one man who was a priest. 

John Lewis surrendered his claim in 1732, and all subjects of France 
were permitted to settle in the province of Louisiana. Indigo, silk, 
cotton and rice had been cultivated and the mines worked to a consider- 
able extent when, in 1762, all the country west of the Mississippi was 
ceded to Spain by France. On the 15th of February, 1764, St. Louis 
was founded by Lindquist Laclede and Augusta Choteau, his lieutenant. 
The cession to Spain was to prevent the conquest of Louisiana by the 
English, but such was the prejudice of the French against the transfer 
that possession was not obtained by the Spanish until 1789, and then by 
violent means of a force under Count O'Reilly. The Spanish governed 
the country during the remainder of the century. 

October 1, 1800, by the treaty of Saint Ildefanso, Spain retroceded 
Louisiana to France. This was a secret clause of the treaty, and not 
until November 30, 1802, was the Spanish flag lowered and the French 
lilies hoisted. But few Spaniards had settled there ; the inhabitants were 
mostly French. In 1803, Napoleon sold the territory to President Jeffer- 
son, for sixty million francs, and the payment of French claims, to prevent 
its falling into the hands of the English. It is rather curious that the 
French twice parted with this magnificent domain to keep it from falling 
into English hands. A wise providence shaped these events so this grand 
empire might become "the land of the free and the home of the brave." 
This purchase is the most important event in the history of the Union. 

In 1804, Congress passed an act dividing the territory of Orleans and 
the District of Louisiana, or upper Louisiana, which extended from the 
southern boundary of Missouri to the Pacific Ocean west, and an indefi- 
nite distance north, and in March, 1804, it was placed under the jurisdic- 
tion of General William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana, and the 
grandfather of President Benjamin Harrison. John Cohen of Kentucky 
was appointed the first federal judge, but of his history little is known. 
By the French the boundaries were indefinite, being just as obtained 
from Spain in 1762. The province of Texas was in dispute, being 
claimed by Spain, from several settlements made and abandoned by the 



304 THE TERRITORY WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 

Jesuit fathers, as well as by discovery ; and by the French by the settle- 
ments of La Salle, in 1685. By a military arrangement made in 1806, by 
the commanders of the Spanish troops, and the United States officers, in 
the field, the Saline river was agreed upon as the boundary and so re- 
mained until 1845, when we acquired Texas by annexation. 

The treaty of peace of 1783, at the end of the Revolutionary war, had 
fixed the northern boundary of the United States at a line drawn from 
the north-western part of the Lake of the Woods, west to the Mississippi, 
so it was agreed by the treaty of 1794 to survey a line and regulate it 
according to justice and convenience; thus the northern boundary was 
left indefinite until the Ashburton treaty, made by Daniel Webster, as 
secretary of state, under President Tyler, and ratified in 1844, at 45 , after 
a most exciting debate in the senate in which discussion was heard the 
famous declaration " Fifty Four Forty, or fight." The good sense of the 
majority of the senators decided that a war with England if successful 
would cost more than the territory to be gained. The wisdom of this was 
seen within two years, for had the treaty failed, England instead of the 
United States would have occupied and owned California, in 1846. 

In 1670, King Charles II. granted the Hudson Bay Company the sole 
right to trade in and around Hudson Bay and northern Canada. Under 
this charter it extended its forts and trappers into Oregon, Montana and 
Idaho, and retained possession of the forts therein until within the last 
fifty years. Fort Hall, in southern Idaho, floated both the Union Jack 
and the flag of the Hudson Bay Company until 1849. 

Neither the treaties of 1794 nor of 1815 attracted the attention as to 
boundary, and it is suggestive that the Hudson Bay Company's posses- 
sions of forts and large establishments, for many years exercising all the 
attributes of local sovereignty for six or eight degrees of latitude, south 
of our admitted line of territory, had much to do with the British negotia- 
tions. Thus matters stood until the first American emigrants reached 
Oregon in the early forties and found the Hudson Bay Company in full 
possession Their protests and the sending of Governor Gilpin to Wash- 
ington, as the delegate from a public meeting, in Oregon, aroused a fury of 
patriotic utterances in congress, nearly producing bloodshed and disaster. 



Kingston, Missouri. 




THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



I. Alabama. 




One of the " Gulf States. " Area, 51,- 
540 square miles. Latitude, 30 10' — 35 
N.; longitude, 84 53'— 88° 30' W. Pop- 
ulation in 1890, 1,513,017. The name 
was borne by a warlike Indian tribe resi- 
dent along the Alabama river in 1540. 
Its alleged English meaning is " Here 
we rest," the state motto. Nickname, 
" The Cotton State " or " The Cotton 
Plantation State." 

Prior to 1540 the history of this sec- 
tion is from vague Indian tradition point- 
ing to settlement by warlike tribes from 
Mexico who exterminated the earlier 
inhabitants. 

1540, July 2. Hernando de Soto, 
with about 600 Spanish cavaliers and 
soldiers, arrives at Costa, an Indian town 
near the headwaters of the Coosa river 
in what is now Cherokee county. His 
line of march to this point had been 
through Florida and Georgia. 

Vol. XXVII.-No. 4.-20 



July 9. Soto leaves Costa, marches 
down the east bank of the Coosa river, 
and enters the rich native province along 
its shores. 

July 26. Soto arrives at Coosa, the 
native capital, a town of 500 houses 
situated on the east bank of the river 
near the mouth of Talladega creek, and 
is cordially received by the youthful 
chief. 

August 20. Taking the friendly chief 
with him as a hostage, Soto marches to 
Ytana, probably on the Talasehatchee 
river, and camps for six days. 

September 18. He reaches Talisse, a 
large fortified native town, probably on 
the Tallapoosa river above its junction 
with the Coosa. Here he remains twenty 
days. 

October 18. Soto reaches Mauvila, 
a walled town on the Alabama not far 
from its junction with the Tombigbee, 
and is nearly defeated by the natives un- 
der their chief Tuskaloosa — Black War- 
rior. In this engagement eighty-two 
Spaniards and forty-five horses were 
slain. The invaders lost nearly all 
their stores, and it was a month before 
they were able to move forward. The 
Indians were utterly defeated and sev- 
eral thousand of them killed, according 
to the Spanish narrative. 

November 18. Marching to the north 
and west Soto crosses with difficulty 
two large rivers, probably the Black War- 
rior and Tombigbee, the natives gallant- 
ly contesting his passage, and passes be- 



3o6 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



yond the western boundary of the state 
before going into winter quarters at 
Chicaca (Chickasaw), within the boun- 
daries of Mississippi. He had thus 
crossed the state east to west, carrying 
fire and sword in the name of Christ into 
native tribes that were well-nigh half civ- 
ilized. On April 25, 1541, he resumed his 
march, discovered the Mississippi, and 
perished with all but three of his men. 

1 541 to about 1620. The Alabama 
Indians slowly recover from the Span- 
ish conquest, but are finally driven out 
and scattered by their traditional foes 
the Muscogees. 

1607. Narrative of three survivors of 
Soto's expedition. By Inca Garcilasso 
de la Vega. Lisbon. 

1609. Hakluyt's English translation 
of the foregoing. London. 

1620-1668. The Muscogees push 
their conquests to the south and east, 
forming alliances with local tribes and at 
length merging into the powerful Creek 
nation. 

1669, January 31. Pierre LeMoyne 
d'Iberville anchors in Mobile bay with a 
fleet of four vessels. No permanent 
settlement made. 

1682, April 9. Robert Cavelier La 
Salle, commissioned by Louis XIV., de- 
scends the Mississippi from Canada (New 
France) and takes formal possession of 
territory, including the present state, 
naming it Louisiana in honor of the king. 

1702, January 16. Jean Baptiste Le 
Moyne Bienville establishes Fort St. 
Louis de la Mobile, " Spanish Fort," near 
the mouth of Dog river. Its ruins were 
seen by Bartram in 1777 (see 1865). 

1703-4, December 22 to January n. 
Bienville makes war against the Alabama 



Indians, defeats them, and captures a 
supply of corn. About this time Perdido 
river, the present boundary of Alabama 
and Florida, is recognized as the divid- 
ing line between the French and Spanish 
possessions. 

1704. "His majesty, Louis XV. of 
France, sends twenty-three" industrious 
girls, " who have received a pious and 
virtuous education," to be married to 
the colonists. Twenty-three weddings 
took place within a few days. 

1706. Revolt of the French women 
against Indian corn as an article of diet 
— known as " the petticoat insurrection." 

1 71 1, March. For security against 
floods, Bienville removes the colony to 
the site of the present city of Mobile. 

17 1 2, September 14. Antoine Crozat, 
a rich Parisian merchant, receives a royal 
grant of Louisiana (including Alabama), 
pledging himself to promote colonization. 
The population at this time numbered 
324 souls, in six settlements, three of 
which — Mobile, Fort St. Louis, and 
Dauphin Island— were within the pres- 
ent boundaries. 

1713, May 17. Lamotte Cadillac, 
Crozat's new governor, succeeds Bien- 
ville, bringing with him a staff of officers. 

17 14, June 22. English incursions 
from the Carolinas lead Bienville, under 
Cadillac's orders, to establish Fort Tou- 
louse, about four miles above the junc- 
tion of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers. 

17 17, March 9. M. de L'Epinay 
with fifty colonists arrives in three of 
Crozat's ships, assumes the governorship, 
and makes his headquarters in or near 
Mobile. 

September 6. Charter of the Western 
Company (Compagnie d'Occident), giving 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



307 



over the control of Louisiana for a pe- 
riod of twenty-five years from January 1, 
1818. 

October. Crozat surrenders his char- 
ter, and Bienville is reinstated as gover- 
nor. Population about 700. 

May 14. Bienville takes Pensacola 
with its Spanish garrison. 

1 7 19, August 17-26. The Spaniards 
having retaken Pensacola make a de- 
scent upon Dauphin Island and Mobile, 
but are driven off. 

September 2. Three French ships 
of the line under Champsmelin reach 
Dauphin Island. 

September 17. Bienville and Champs- 
melin capture Pensacola and the whole 
Spanish squadron. About this time 
1,000 African slaves are brought to the 
colony, and their labor inaugurates an 
era of agricultural prosperity. 

1720, Estimated population about 
8,000. 

June 8. News reaches the colony 
that peace has been concluded with 
Spain. 

172 1, September 27. Louisiana is 
divided into nine provinces, of which 
Alabama is one, approximately on its 
present lines. 

1722, August. Mutiny of the garri- 
son at Fort Toulouse (see 1714) insti- 
gated by British traders. Two officers 
escape, and collecting a force of Indians 
slay nearly all the mutineers near the 
present Macon county line. 

1723, Seat of general government 
removed to New Orleans. In ecclesias- 
tical matters Alabama is given in charge 
to the order of Barefooted Carmelites. 

January 1. Pensacola restored to Spain 
under orders from France. 



1724. Bienville promulgates the 
"Black Code" (Code Noir), banishing 
Jews, prescribing the Roman Catholic 
faith, and defining many laws regarding 
negro slavery. Its influence is still 
found in existing codes of the Gulf 
States. 

February 16. Bienville is recalled to 
France and deprived of the governor- 
ship, through the machinations of his 
enemies, after twenty-five years of service 
in the wilderness. 

1726, August 9. M. de Perrier ap- 
pointed governor vice Bienville re- 
called. 

1 7 26-1 73 2. Wars with the Natchez 
Indians of Mississippi, involving the 
Alabama settlements. The French 
under Perrier terminate the struggle by 
a conclusive victory at Black River, 20th 
January, 1732. 

1733, March. Bienville reinstated at 
Mobile as governor of Louisiana. 

1735. Lachlan McGillivray, a Scot- 
tish lad from Dummaglas, begins opera- 
tions as a trader under English auspices, 
marries Sehoy Marchand, a beautiful 
French-Indian maiden, and founds one 
of the influential families of the time. 

1735, July 16. An English smug- 
gler anchors in Mobile bay, and the 
French attempt her capture. They are 
beaten off with a loss of seventeen 
men. 

1736, April 1. Bienville ascends Mo- 
bile river with a large flotilla to invade 
the Chickasaw country, expecting to be 
reinforced by Diron d'Artagnette with 
a detachment from the French posts on 
the Ohio. 

May 4-22. Bienville marches from 
Fort Tombeche (now Jones Bluff) to 



3 o8 



THE UNITED STATES IN PARAGRAPHS 



Ackia, the enemy's stronghold in Missis- 
sippi near Columbus. 

May 20. Artagnette marching to join 
Bienville is annihilated by the Chicka- 
saws and their English allies who display 
the British flag. 

May 26. Battle of Ackia. The 
French and their Choctaw allies suffer 
a disastrous repulse, and retreat leaving 
a garrison in Fort Tombeche, and arriv- 
ing at Mobile early in June. 

1 736-1 739. As a result of the defeat 
at Ackia, the Chickasaws and the Eng- 
lish traders became more aggressive. 

1739, August 1. Governor Ogle- 
thorpe, representing the English crown 
in Georgia and the Carolinas, opens nego- 
tiations with the Creeks at Coweta in 
what is now Russell county. The treaty 
bears date August 21, and defines the 
boundaries of the Creek nation. 

1740, March. Under orders from 
Bienville Capitaine de Celeron advances 
against the Chickasaws, .and through 
good luck and audacity frightens them 
into expelling the English traders. 

1742, March 26. Bienville in a dig- 
nified letter admitting his recent failures 
asks to be recalled. 

1743, May 10. The Marquis de Vau- 
dreuil becomes governor, and Bienville 
returns to France (see 1768). 

1 743—1 75 2. Owing largely to Bien- 
ville's wise administration, seconded by 
that of Vaudreuil, peace and prosperity 
prevail until the Anglo-French war of 



1752, when renewed hostilities break 
out in the Chickasaw country. 

1752. Vaudreuil ascends the Mobile 
river and attempts to storm the Chicka- 
saw strongholds as had Bienville before 
him, but is beaten by those invincible 
warriors, and retreats to Mobile with the 
remnant of his army. 

Louis Billouart de Kerlerec becomes 
governor vice the Marquis de Vaudreuil 
transferred to New France (Canada). 

1757. Mutiny of a detachment of 
Swiss mercenaries on Cat Island. They 
kill their tyrannical commander, and 
many of them escape to the English col- 
onies. Four mutineers with their guides 
are executed with unspeakable brutality 
at Mobile. 

1759, April. Captain Bossu, of the 
Marines, leads an expedition to Fort 
Toulouse (see 1768). 

1763, February 18. War ended by the 
treaty of Paris ; France surrendering to 
Great Britain nearly all her North 
American possessions east of the Mis- 
sissippi. 

October 20. Mobile delivered to 
Major Robert Farmer, commissary of 
his Britannic majesty and first English 
governor of Alabama. 

November 23. Fort Tombeche deliv- 
ered to Captain Thomas Ford. About 
the same time, no British officers having 
appeared, the Chevalier Lavnoue, com- 
manding Toulouse, spikes his guns, dis- 
mantles his post, and leaves it to its fate. 



Z%^>^<^ 



(To be continued) 



MINOR TOPICS 

DESCRIPTION OF MONTICELLO 

When Pickering and his companions were about to begin their journey east- 
ward, from one triumphant reception to another, Jefferson mounted his horse and 
made his way through snow and sleet to his beloved Monticello. Of all the houses 
yet built by man none surely was so much a part of its owner. What the shell is 
to the tortoise, all that was Monticello to Jefferson. The structure had grown 
with his growth, and bore all over it the marks of his individuality and curious 
inventive genius. The plan, the strange mixture of styles and orders, the bricks 

that formed the walls, the nails that held down the floors, much of the furniture 

? 

was the work of his own brain, or the manufacture of his own slaves. It was in 
the fittings and furnishings of his home, however, that the mechanical bent of 
his mind found free play, and carried him close to the bounds of eccentricity. On 
the top of the house was a weather-vane, which marked the direction of the wind 
on a dial placed beneath the roof of the porch. Over the main doorway hung a 
great clock, with one face for the porch and another for the hall. Cannon-balls 
were its weights, and one of them, as it passed down the wall, turned over each 
morning a metal plate inscribed with the day of the week. Not a sleeping-room 
contained a bedstead. Deep alcoves in the walls, with wooden frames for the mat- 
tresses, did duty instead. His own apartment was separated from that of his wife 
by two partitions, wide apart. Through these was cut an archway, taken up with 
the frame which supported the bed. One side of the bed was thus in the room of 
Mrs. Jefferson, and the other in the room of her husband. Above this archway 
was a closet, where in winter were stored the summer clothes and in summer the 
winter clothes of the entire family. In this library were his "whirligig chair," his 
tables with revolving tops, and one with extension legs, to be used for writing in 
any position, sitting or standing. 

John Bach McMaster, 
Extract from History of the People of the United States. Vol. III. 



COMMODORE MACDONOUGH AND THE GOLD BOX 

In the excellent volume recently published by the New York Historical 
Society, the following account of the presentation of the freedom of the city in 
1 815, appears : 



3IO MINOR TOPICS 

"At a Common Council held the 6th day of January, 1815. The Honorable 
De Witt Clinton, Mayor, president. His Honor the Mayor stated that having 
received information that Commodore Macdonough had arrived in this city, and 
was to take immediate departure for Lake Champlain, he had presumed it would 
be agreeable to the Common Council to avail themselves of this opportunity of the 
Commodore's presence in the city to confer upon him those municipal honors 
which had been voted to him, and he had therefore summoned them togethei. 

The Common Council having been informed that Commodore Macdonough was 
in waiting, a committee consisting of Alderman Napes and Mr. Brown were 
appointed to introduce him to the Common Council. Upon the Commodore's 
being presented to the Mayor he addressed him as follows : 

' When our northern frontier was invaded by a powerful army — when the heroes 
who have immortalized themselves on the Niagara were pressed by a superior 
force, when the capital of the United States was overrun by hostile bands — when 
the most important city of the South was attacked by the enemy, and when he 
threatened to lay waste our maritime towns with fire and sword — at a period so 
inauspicious and gloomy, when all but those who fully understood and duly 
appreciate the firmness and resources of the American character, began to despair 
of the republic, you were the first who changed the fortune of our arms and who 
dispelled the dark cloud that hung over our country. With a force greatly inferior 
you met the enemy vaunting of his superior strength and confident of victory, you 
crushed his proud expectations — you conquered him ; and the embattled hosts, 
which were ready to penetrate into the heart of our country, fled in dismay and 
confusion. In discharging the great duties which you owed to America, you did 
not forget in that trying hour, the source of all power and all good ; you appealed 
to that Being, in whose hands are the issues of life and the fate of nations, and you 
complete the glory of the patriot by exhibiting the Christian hero. As long as 
illustrious events shall be embodied in history, so long will the victory on Lake 
Champlain, obtained under your auspices, command the respect of mankind ; and 
when you and all who hear me shall be numbered among the dead, those who suc- 
ceed us to the most extended line of remote posterity will cherish with exaltation 
those great achievements which are indissolubly connected with the prosperity and 
glory of America.' 

The Mayor then administered to him the freeman's oath, and presented the 
certificate of freedom, elegantly ornamented with suitable devices, and a golden 
box with an appropriate inscription engraved upon it. The Commodore replied 
as follows : 

' Sir, with mingled feelings of gratitude and pleasure I received the honors you 
have been pleased to confer on me. The title of a freeman of this city distin- 
guished as much for its high national character as for its commercial eminence 
will be borne with peculiar pride and satisfaction.' 

The Commodore then withdrew." 



MINOR TOPICS 311 

USE OF THE IMAGINATION IN HISTORY 

A seed looks very little like a beautiful rose-bush burning with a hundred 
crimson blossoms, yet the bush with its wealth of bloom is in the seed. It is so 
with historical facts. You tell me that the battle of Bunker Hill was fought on the 
17th of June, 1775. Very well, but give me the details. My imagination cannot 
"make bricks without straw." What did the eyes see? Fifteen hundred Ameri- 
cans entrenched upon the hill. Colonel Prescott, General Putnam, and General 
Warren are in command. But how are these Americans dressed and equipped ? 
Like what do these entrenchments appear ? What is the expression on the faces 
of commanders and soldiers ? Show me portraits of Prescott and Putnam and 
Warren. Show me the Pine-tree banner that fluttered fearlessly in the smoke of 
battle ? Show me the three thousand red-coats. I must see General Howe's 
portrait. I must note the waving of banners. Show me those three assaults, 
those repulses, the clouds of smoke, the desperate fight with the butts of muskets, 
the hill-side red with the fallen foe. Come, painter, how looked Boston and burn- 
ing Charlestown, the waters between, the war-ships, the blue New England sky ? 

What was heard ? The roar of artillery, the rattle of musketry, the " heavy 
tread of the grenadiers," the words of command, " Don't fire till you see the white 
of their eyes," the shrieks and groans of the dying and the wounded, the crackling 
flames of burning Charlestown. Tell me, philosopher, what you make of all these 
facts ? Merely facts, some will say. But what is the use of facts except so far as 
you develop and verify them by the spirit of the poet and the wisdom of the 
philosopher ? The imagination of the earnest student aided by the painter, the 
sculptor, the architect, the historian, the poet, the musician, the philosopher, will 
bring the glorious rose-bush from the plain seed, and will keep leaves and blossoms 
forever beautiful and young. 

Frederic Allison Tupper 

Shelburne Falls, Massachusetts. 



EUROPEAN IDEAS CONCERNING NEW ORLEANS IN 1761 

EXTRACT FROM THE " UNIVL ISAL MAGAZINE," LONDON, OF FEBRUARY, 1761 

The French settlement on the Mississipi remains still untouched from the 
ravages of the present war : What an immense, extensive trade will New Orleans 
have ! which is the sea-port to all that extensive country, capable of producing 
every thing, sugar, wine, &c, if civilized, cultivated and peopled, as it may proba- 
bly be in a few centuries. 

The Crown of England has a right, by discovery and taking possession, to all 



312 • MINOR TOPICS 

this country ; and King Charles- II. granted it to the ancestors of the late Doctor 
Cox ; but they neglected to settle and people it ; and Sir Francis Drake took 
possession on the west side of it, as far north as latitude 42, and a great way south 
of that, for Queen Elizabeth ; but, the English neglecting to settle it, the French 
came and built the city of New Orleans, fifty leagues up the river, and a fort or 
two about sixty miles below that city. This city, and the forts, might have been 
easily taken the last winter, or this, as the winter is the best time to take them in, 
by reason of the warmth of the weather. If we had sent 2 or 3000 men down the 
river, Ohio, into the Mississipi, and thither, in large boats, as there is timber 
enough on its banks to build them with, the English might have been in possession 
of all North America, except Cape Florida and the north part of Mexico, which 
belongs to Spain ; and our King would then have been in possession of both the 
north and south passages to all that fine country, and to Canada also : and no way 
left for the French to come at either of them. The French, there, now are, and 
ever will be, enemies to the English ; and have lately stirred up the Cherokees, and 
other Indian nations, to fall upon the remote western parts of Virginia, Carolina, 
and Georgia, and commit many barbarous and cruel murders. 

This country is of much greater importance to England, than Canada is. 
Canada is of much greater importance to the French than to us, and, conse- 
quently, the loss will be greater to them, because it supplies them with masts, 
yards, and other timber for building ships, which they cannot get elsewhere, but 
at a great expence. But either Mississipi or Canada is of much greater importance 
to England, than both Martinico and Guadaloupe, and all the neutral islands. 

Guadaloupe, except its being ready cultivated, is not of so much value as the 
three neutral islands, Dominica, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent ; which are now, and 
have been, contrary to treaties, possessed by the French. The first is near as large 
and as good an island as Barbadoes, and they have built forts, and have now near 
4000 inhabitants in the first ; and forts, and near 2000 inhabitants, in the second ; 
and some in St. Vincent, but the Indians will not permit them to build any forts. 
The French had begun to settle in Tobago also, which is indisputably a British 
island ; but Governor Grenville sent two men of war, and carried all the French 
inhabitants out of it, at the conclusion of the last war. 

Three thousand men sent down the Ohio, and two good ships to the mouth of 
the Mississipi, will take New Orleans and all that country. Guadaloupe is not of 
that importance or value our news-papers would make it : It may be exchanged at a 
piece for some other place, which may then be in the hands of the French ; and, 
if we can get the neutral islands also ceded to us, those three islands and Tobago, 
when cultivated, will produce more than twice as much sugar as Guadaloupe can : 
And North America, when New Orleans and Mississipi are all taken, will be little 
enough to indemnify England for this expensive war, which was begun by the 
unjust incroachments and depredations made by the French and their Indians, 
whom they instigated to it. 



NOTES 



313 



NOTES 



Historical collections in iowa — 
It is rarely the good fortune of any one 
sovereign state to have within its bor- 
ders such an important collection of 
manuscripts as that of the Aldrich col- 
lection in the state library of Iowa, and 
since it has been so largely a gift to the 
people of that young and enterprising 
state, it is a pleasure to note the movement 
for establishing a permanent fund for its 
fostering care and increase. There is a 
bill in the Iowa legislature, introduced by 
Senator Gatch, and warmly approved by 
every lover of his native land, " to pro- 
. mote historical collections in the capital 
of Iowa," its main feature being " to ap- 
point a curator " at the expense of the 
state, who shall " proceed to collect 
and arrange books, maps, charts, public 
documents, manuscripts, and other pa- 
pers and materials illustrative of the his- 
tory of Iowa and of the west generally." 
This is a noble example for all the 
other states to follow. 



Profain swairing and its penal- 
ty in 1765 — "At a justice's court held 
in Lyme in New London county this 
24th day of June a. d. 1765, Presi- 
dent Samuel Seldon a justice of the 
peace for said New London county, 
an action upon complaint given in by 
Seth Ely one of his Majestie's grand 
jury men for the county of New Lon- 
don, against Hannah Renolds of Lyme 
in N. L. C. for the breach of peace, 
and for Profain Swairing as per com- 
plaint dated the 8th day of June a. t>. 
1765, on file may fuller appear. And 
now the said Hannah Renolds ap- 



peared in this court and pleaded gilty of 
the matters and facts complained of. 
This court gives judgement that the said 
Hannah Renolds pay a fine for Profain 
Swairing of six shillings lawful money, 
to the treasurer of the town of Lyme, or 
sit in the stocks two hours ; and pay 
the costs and stand committed till said 
judgment be settled, and also that the 
said Hannah Renolds pay a fine of four 
shillings lawful money for breach of 
peace, and for want of whereof to satisfy 
said judgment to be confined in prison, 
and to stand committed till the judg- 
ment be satisfied and pay the costs, 
taxed at one shilling lawful money. 
Lyme, spt 28 a. d. 1765 
Dec 17th a. r>. 1767. paid deacon 
Zachariah Marvin, town treasurer, 10 
shillings in full of the above fine. 

President Samuel Seldon Justice." 
— From Book of Records of Samuel Sel- 
don. 



Origin of envelopes — The institu- 
tion of payment for the carriage of let- 
ters and envelopes dates, so far as can 
be gathered, from the reign of Louis 
XIV., says the Bulletin de V Imprimerie, 
when a certain Sieur de Valfyer insti- 
tuted a service of private post ; with the 
royal consent he placed boxes at the 
corners of the streets for the reception 
of the letters. These letters were en- 
closed in envelopes bought at special 
offices therefor. In 1653, M. de Valfyer 
had also " note-forms," or formules de 
billets, for the despatch of ordinary busi- 
ness communications for the inhabit- 
ants of the larger towns. Among the 



3i4 



NOTES 



archives of the British empire there is a 
letter addressed May 16, 1696, to the 
secretary of state, the Right Honorable 
Sir William Trumball, by Sir James 
Ogilvie. This letter is 4-^x3 inches, al- 
most the same as our modern envelopes. 
In the Egerton collection of manuscript 
at the British Museum there is an envel- 
ope resembling our present envelopes, 
which contains a letter from Mme. de 
Pompadour to the Duchesse d'Aiguillon, 
in the year 1760. There is also a letter 
addressed by Frederick the Great to an 
English general in his service. It is 
dated Potsdam, July 28, 1776, and has 
for cover an envelope of coarse paper 
similar to those in use in England at the 
present time. The difference between 
the two is, that the one is open at both 
ends, while at the present time they are 
opened at the top. — The American Book- 
seller. 



South Carolina colonial records 
— At the recent session of the General 
Assembly of South Carolina, an act was 
passed creating a commission, to obtain 
from the Public Record offices in Eng- 
land, transcripts of the documentary his- 
tory of that colony, from the date of the 
first grant of Charles I., to Sir Robert 
Heath, August 4, 1631 ; to the end of 
the Royal government, when " Governor 
Campbell (on September 16, 1775) fled 
to the shelter of the Tamer, carrying 
with him the great seal of the province, 
and so ended the long line of proprietary 
and royal governors, who had resided in 
Charleston one hundred and five years." 

There is a concurrence of opinion that 
this thoughtful action of the state govern- 



ment of South Carolina will add to the 
history of the Union one of its brightest 
and most interesting chapters, and that 
the benefits will not be circumscribed to 
the limits of that state. We have pre- 
viously referred to the intelligent and 
energetic action of the committee of the 
South Carolina Historical Society, which, 
in the latter half of last year, organized 
to arouse public attention to this great 
state work ; the whole state was can- 
vassed, and petitions in favor of it were 
presented to the legislature from thirty- 
two out of thirty-five counties, which 
resulted, in December, in an appro- 
priation of four thousand dollars — to 
initiate the work. The committee re- 
ferred to consisted of ex-Mayor Cour- 
tenay ; ex-Attorney General C. R. Miles; 
Mr. I. L. Weber, author of the new 
school history of South Carolina ; Messrs. 
T. D. Jervey, Jr., and W. G. Hinson, 
who despite public indifference and 
other disabilities, went steadily forward 
until success was secured. Governor 
Tillman has expressed his approval of 
the measure in a very significant way 
i.e., in the high character and fitness of 
the commissioners. By the terms of the 
bill, the secretary of state is ex-officio 
chairman of the commission. The ap- 
pointments are : Chief Justice Henry Mc- 
Iver,of the Supreme Court ; Hon. Wm. A. 
Courtenay ; Professor R. Means Davis, 
of South Carolina college ; and Mr. W. 
C. Benel. These public-spirited citizens 
have accepted the service and been 
commissioned, " until the completion 
of the work," which will take several 
years. They serve without compen- 
sation. 



QUERIES — REPLIES 
QUERIES 



315 



Fair women — Will some of the 
readers of your magazine give us the 
names of some of the characters referred 
to in Tennyson's "Dream of Fair 
Women," as the poet did not introduce 
them by name, but by some leading 
event in the life of each ? 

Three High School Teachers 



The writer of telemaque — Editor 
of Magazine of American History : I 
desire information as to who wrote 
Telemaque, and what became of the 
author. Kindly answer me through 
your pages. 

Lewis Maynard 

Minneapolis, Minnesota. 



REPLIES 



Harry croswell's libel on jeffer- 
sox [xxv, 320 ; xxvii, 234] — In reply to 
Mr. Horatio King's query, permit me to 
say that Croswell, the editor of the 
Wasp, indicted and convicted in 1803 
for libeling Thomas Jefferson, made 
through his counsel, Alexander Hamil- 
ton, the usual motion in arrest of judg- 
ment. This motion was virtually an 
appeal to the Supreme Court in banc. 
The court in banc was equally divided, 
Justices Kent and Thompson being for 
a new trial, and Justice Livingston with 
the Chief Justice Lewis for a denial 
of the motion. This division entitled 
the attorney-general to move for judg- 
ment on the verdict of the jury. But 
in view of some technical reason no such 
motion was ever made. 

Robert Ludlow Fowles 



Why study genealogy [xxvii, 147] 
— Max Muller in his Cambridge lecture, 
1882, says : " Why do we want to know 



history ? . . . Simply because all of 
us and every one of us ought to know 
how we have come to be what we are, 
so that each generation need not start 
again from the same standpoint and toil 
over the same ground, but profiting by 
the experience of those who came before, 
may advance toward higher points and 
nobler aims. As a child when growing 
up might ask his father or grandfather 
who had built the house they lived in, 
or cleared the fields that yielded them 
their food, so we ask the historian 
whence we came and how we came 
into possession of what we call our own. 
History may tell us afterward many 
useful and amusing things, gossip such 
as a child might like to learn from his 
mother or grandmother ; but what his- 
tory has to teach us before all and every- 
thing is our own antecedents, our own 
ancestry, our own descent." 

H. E. H. 

WlLKESBARRE, PENNSYLVANIA. 



316 



SOCIETIES 

SOCIETIES 



The new york historical society 
held its stated meeting March ist, the 
president Hon. John A. King, in the 
chair. The librarian announced a very 
valuable addition to the history of Colo- 
nial New York, consisting of a manu- 
script survey on vellum, of the Hudson 
river, eighty-two inches by twelve, drawn 
by William Bond, 1721. This is probably 
the earliest survey of the Hudson river. 
Mr. John A. Weekes, on behalf of the 
trustees of the " Durer Gallery Fund," 
presented to the gallery of the society 
an original portrait of Dr. Benjamin 
Franklin, painted by J. S. Duplessis, at 
Paris. 

The paper of the evening, entitled 
" Historical Notes on Original Portraits 
of Benjamin Franklin," illustrated by 
stereopticon views, was read by Clarence 
Winthrop Bowen, Ph.D., in which some 
sixty-five portraits of the great patriot 
and philosopher were shown, and brief 
descriptions of the artists who painted 
them given, as well as the history of the 
paintings themselves. The paper em- 
bodied a vast amount of research and 
greatly interested an attentive audience. 



THE ROCHESTER HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

at its late March meeting, which was of 
unusual interest, was presented with the 
journals, and the scrap-books of local 
history, kept by Edwin Scranton from 
1837 to 1879, together with a paper by 
his daughter, Mrs. Pool, giving a sketch 
of her father's life. "Henry Clay's first 
visit to Rochester " was amusingly told 
by Mr. J. L. Otis. " Reminiscences of 
Mary B. Allen King," in her ninety- 



third year, and for many years the head 
of the Allen Seminary, added much to 
the interest of the meeting. The papers 
called out the reminiscences of many 
present ; among them a good story by 
the president, Dr. Strong, of the visit 
Miss Allen paid to the " Fox girls " 
when their " knockings " were the sensa- 
tion of Rochester. Katie Fox had been 
a pupil in Miss Allen's school. Miss 
Allen called up her grandmother, and 
asked her to spell scissors — " because 
she used to spell it in a way of her 
own." She would like to see what change 
had been wrought in the old lady's 
orthography. Katie called up the grand- 
mother, who straightway began spelling 
the word — "s-i-s-o-r-s." "Ah!" said 
Miss Allen with a significant smile, 
" that's the very way Katie Fox always 
spelled it." 



THE RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCI- 
ETY held its seventieth annual meeting 
on January 13, President Horatio Rog- 
ers in the chair. After the transaction 
of routine business the president de- 
livered his annual address. During the 
past year three resident members have 
been removed by death, John Pitman, 
Mumford, Henry Lippitt, a former gov- 
ernor of the state, and John Larkin 
Lincoln, senior professor of Brown Uni- 
versity. The treasurer's report showed 
the receipts for the past year to have 
been $9,991.85 ; expenses, $2,500.04. 
Treasurer Richmond P. Everett was 
presented with a certificate of life mem- 
bership in recognition of his twenty-five 



SOCIETIES 



317 



years of faithful service as treasurer of 
the society by the president, and the 
membership fee of $50 was paid into the 
treasury by the members. 

The librarian's report showed that 
1,666 volumes had been received during 
the past year. John O. Austin, who has 
presented the society with three volumes 
of portraits, was allowed $50 and given 
a life membership in the society. The 
following officers were elected for the 
ensuing year : President, Kon. Horatio 
Rogers ; vice-presidents, E. Benjamin 
Andrews and Hon. George M. Carpen- 
ter ; secretary, Hon. Amos Perry ; treas- 
urer, Richmond P. Everett ; standing 
committee, Albert B. Jencks, James E. 
Cranston and Edward I. Nickerson ; on 
lectures, Amos Perry, Amasa M. Eaton 
and Reuben A. Guild ; on building and 
grounds, Royal C. Taft, I. C. Bates and 
Isaac Southwick ; on library, William D. 
Ely, William B. Weeden and Howard W. 
Preston ; on publication, E. Benjamin 
Andrews, W. F. B. Jackson and James 
G. Vose ; on genealogical researches, 
Henry C. Turner, John O. Austin and 
George T. Hart ; on finance, Robert H. 
I. Goddard, Charles H. Smith and Rich- 
mond P. Everett ; auditing committee, 
Lewis J. Chase, Edwin Barrows and 
James Burdick. 

A resolution asking the society to take 
into consideration the advisability of 
responding to a request for contributions 
to a historical collection to be made at 
the Columbian exposition in Chicago, 
was acted favorably upon, and a commit- 
tee will be appointed at a future meeting. 



The new york genealogical and 
biographical society held its usual 
monthly meeting on the 12th of Febru- 
ary, at its room, No. 23 West 44th street. 
The secretary, Mr. Thomas Grier Evans, 
being absent, Mr. Philip Randall Voor- 
his acted as secretary pro tem. After 
the usual routine business, and the elec- 
tion of F. W. Vanderbilt and Eugene 
Lawrence as resident members, and 
Hon. T. F. Bayard an honorary member 
of the society, the president introduced 
the speaker of the evening, Hon. Wil- 
liam Paterson of Perth Amboy, New 
Jersey, who delivered a very eloquent 
and interesting address upon the life and 
public services of his grandfather, Wil- 
liam Paterson, governor of New Jersey 
and a justice of the supreme court of 
the United States. The address was 
listened to with great interest and at its 
conclusion the thanks of the audience 
were tendered to Mr. Paterson, and a 
copy was requested for publication in 
the " Genealogical and Biographical 
Record." At the meeting held March 
11, Mr. Eugene Lawrence read a 
very interesting paper on " Governor 
Cosby of New York and the Freedom 
of the Press, 1 730-1 743." Mr. Law- 
rence gave short biographical sketches 
of many of the men who figured 
prominently in city and provincial af- 
fairs during Governor Cosby 's adminis- 
tration, and closed with a brilliant de- 
scription of the Zenger trial in which 
Andrew Hamilton, the great Philadelphia 
lawyer, did so much for the cause of 
American liberty. 



3'8 



BOOK NOTICES 



BOOK NOTICES 



THE BURGHERS OF NEW AMSTER- 
DAM, AND THE FREEMEN OF NEW 
YORK, 1675-18S6. Collections of the New 
York Historical Society, 1885. [Publication 
Fund series] 8vo, pp. 678. Published by the 
Society. 

This volume is one of great value. It con- 
tains all the official Dutch and English records 
that exist in relation to its subject, arranged in 
four heads : first, ' ' The Burgher Right ;" second, 
" The Roll of Freemen ;" third, " Appendix to 
the Roll of Freemen ;" fourth, " Indentures of 
Apprenticeship, 1694-1708." In Holland and 
in Great Britain in former times the "freedom 
of a city" or other corporation was a most de- 
sirable and important privilege and monopoly. 
In Holland it was styled " burgher right," and 
was of two classes, great and small. When the 
English succeeded the Dutch in New York the 
English form was adopted. The documents 
and official papers of the burgomasters and 
schepens of Dutch New York, establishing the 
great and small burgher rights in the little city, 
with all their respective privileges, powers, and 
duties, may be found in the first thirty-five 
pages of the volume, and it is a most informing 
study. Then follows the " Roll of Freemen, ' 
under New York's English charters from 1675- 
1776, giving names, occupations, and employ- 
ments, with the dates, and the mayoralties under 
which they were respectively made ' freemen." 
It is veritably an authentic, authoritative, official 
directory of New York and New Yorkers during 
the century preceding the Revolution, and throws 
a strong, clear light upon the social and business 
standing of many whose descendants are among 
the citizens of New York at this day. 

In the Appendix, under the third head, are 
printed in full the names of all persons, officials, 
and others, who were " voted the freedom of the 
city" for any reason, between the years 1675 
and 1776. These names are also of the greatest 
interest to such readers as desire a correct under- 
standing of New York history under colonial 
rule. This list commences with page 447, and 
ends with page 564. The honor was often 
accorded in acknowledgment of some particular 
services, and then again as a municipal compli- 
ment. We turn the page at random and find 
that under the mayoralty of Paul Richard, in 
1735, it was ordered in Common Council that 
Andrew Hamilton, Esq., of Philadelphia, bar- 
rister at law, be presented with the freedom of 
this corporation. And that Alderman Bayard, 
Alderman Johnson and Alderman Fell, be a 
committee to bring in draught thereof, and a 
few days later the draught was adopted, with 
the further report that sundry members of the 



corporation and gentlemen of the city had volun- 
tarily contributed money for a gold box to enclose 
the same. This is only one of innumerable in- 
stances of similar character. From 1784 to 1816, 
when the creation of freemen under the charter 
ceased, without any formal action, the roll is 
continued as before. But from that date onward 
the elections of freemen were purely special and 
complimentary, and are inserted in this work 
on their respective dates, with the full proceed- 
ings in each case. The last one was that of 
President Andrew Johnson in 1866. 

Closely connected with the freemen under the 
charter were their apprentices, and the system 
of binding them out then in vogue, as every 
apprentice upon duly attaining the end of his 
apprenticeship was entitled to, and did become 
a freeman, without the payment of any fees, and 
he was able to practice his trade or occupation 
in the city, and vote, and be eligible to any office 
therein. Registers of all such indentures were 
required by law to be kept ; the only one of 
these which can be found is printed in this vol- 
ume under the fourth head, covering the period 
from 1694 to 1708. The publication committee 
who have so ably prepared this incomparable 
record, after much painstaking and research, are 
Edward F. de Lancey, Dr. George H. Moore of 
the Lenox Library, and William Libbey. It is 
a volume of reference that will aid the genea- 
logical student immensely, as well as all histori- 
cal scholars and writers. 



SKETCHES OF WAR HISTORY 1861- 
1865. Papers prepared for the Ohio Com- 
mandery of the Military Order of the Loyal 
Legion of the United States. Edited by 
Captain Robert Hunter. Published by 
the Commandery. 8vo, pp. 471. Cincinnati : 
Robert Clark & Co. 

Unless we are mistaken it was the Ohio com- 
mandery that set the example of collecting in 
book form the personal reminiscences that have 
from time to time been read or simply " told" 
at the stated meetings of the order. If so, it is 
to this commandery that we owe the appropriate 
form in which the volumes are issued. The 
present is the third in the series. The New 
York commandery has followed suit in the hand- 
some volume noticed in the March number of 
this Magazine, and before many years have 
passed there should be a very creditable library 
of these attractive blue and gold octavos with 
the insignia of the order emblazoned on the 
cover. It is eminently appropriate that these 
publications, issued as they are by different 
branches of one association, should be uniform 



BOOK NOTICES 



319 



in color and binding. It is fitting, too, that these 
ranks of books should wear in effect the same 
uniform that their authors wore in the days when 
powder was burned in earnest. 

The present volume contains an even score of 
papers, among whose authors we note the names 
of General J. Warren Keifer, Captain Frank 
H. Mason. Lieutenant Thomas Speed, General 
David S. Stanley, Major William H. Chamber- 
lin, General William P. Carlin, General C. C. 
Doolittle, Colonel R. M. Kelly, General R. R. 
Dawes, Colonel William E. Merrill, General 
John Beatty and others. The titles are nearly 
all warlike and attractive in themselves, as 
*' With the Sixth Wisconsin at Gettysburg," " A 
Brush with Pillow." "The Last Ditch," "The 
Defence of Decatur. Alabama," " The Battle of 
Sailor's Creek," "The Battle of Franklin," 
" The Cruise of the Black Terror," " Atlanta," 
" Bentonville," " Antietam, ' and many others, 
some of them illustrated, and all of living in- 
terest for those who remember the sustained 
excitement of those four disastrous years. The 
"recorder," for such is the commandery title 
of the officer upon whom devolves the editorial 
responsibility, must needs find himself in a state 
of perplexity almost equal to that endured by 
the editors of the Century during the publication 
of their famous war articles. He has been 
judicious in his selections, and the work in its 
completed form is well worthy of a place beside 
the other members of this martial group. 



who became a general, down to the junior drum- 
mer boy, may well be provd. 



THE 159TH REGIMENT INFANTRY, NEW 
YORK STATE VOLUNTEERS, IN THE 
WAR OF THE REBELLION. Compiled 
and published by Major William F. Tiernan. 
8vo, pp. 18S. Brooklyn, New York. 1891. 
Major Tiernan, with excellent judgment, has 
held closely to his text. His book, handsomely 
bound and printed, is neither more nor less than 
it professes to be — a history of " Molineaux's 
Bears." Other regiments are mentioned only 
in passing when such mention seems necessary. 
This is quite as it should be, for a regimental 
historian should be very cautious about saying 
anything in praise or blame of any associate 
battalions. The regiment gained the sobriquet 
cited above from its colonel and a pet bear 
picked up somewhere in Louisiana, and carried 
through various arduous campaigns till he met 
an inglorious death in a fire at Savannah. The 
159th affords a good example of a marching regi- 
ment. It was mustered in 1,027 strong in 1S62, 
and mustered out 346 strong in 1865. It 
marched near 1,500 miles in Louisiana, Missis- 
sippi, Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, and 
Georgia, and bore itself everywhere as a loyal 
volunteer regiment should. Its history forms a 
record of which every man, from the colonel 



INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF 
INTERNATIONAL LAW. Designed as 
an aid in teaching, and in historical studies. 
By Theodore Dwight Woolsey. i2mo, 
pp. 527. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 
1891. 

The present edition — the sixth — of Woolsey's 
International Law, is revised and enlarged by 
Theodore Salisbury Woolsey, a son of the late 
distinguished president of Yale. The fifth 
and last preceding edition was published in 
1879. Since that time few noteworthy events 
of world-wide significance have occurred to af- 
fect the general principles of law. and the pres- 
ent edition is called for only because of the fer- 
vor with which the work has been received. It 
embraces a new bibliography and aims to supply 
certain omissioni which experience has sug- 
gested as desirable in the changing relations of 
civil governments. 



BUTLER'S BOOK. AUTOBIOGRAPHY 
AND PERSONAL REMINISCENCES OF 
MAJOR-GENERAL BENJAMIN F. BUT- 
LER. A review of his legal, political and 
military career. By Benjamin F. Butler. 
Illustrated with 125 engravings, maps, photo- 
graphs, etc. 8vo. pp. 1154. Boston : A. 
M. Thayer & Co. 

There are many of the present generation 
whose ideas about General Butler are dependent 
upon the remarks of veterans in war and states- 
manship or chance passages in newspapers, who, 
if asked to diagnose his reputation, would be at 
a complete loss for statistics. His autobiogra- 
phy, which has been long promised by the pub- 
lishers, is now before the reader, and any analy- 
sis of it in this notice would fail to do it justice. 
It treats of everything in connection with the war 
and with the leading men of the period. It is 
overflowing with graphic descriptions and bold- 
ly expressed personalities and opinions. Gen- 
eral Butler makes no secret of his dislikes, and 
his language is direct to the point in every in- 
stance. This book is a notable publication, and 
one that must be intelligently read to be com- 
prehended. General Butler says that in speak- 
ing of events he has as far as possible put them 
in juxtaposition, and with such bearings upon 
each other that they shall consist of items ot 
history to aid others in reaching the truth. But 
in regard to his personal opinions, which he has 
expressed as such, he frankly states that their 
correctness or propriety are open to the fullest 
criticism. He tells an incident about West Point 



320 



BOOK NOTICES 



which is suggestive. "Sometimes it was dis- 
cussed before me how superior all West Pointers 
were to volunteer officers. I thought I would 
put a stop to that, so I invited some of the offi- 
cers to a dinner party at my headquarters with 
some of my personal staff who were volunteers. 
I believed that at that dinner party such dis- 
cussion might be renewed, so I called Captain 
Haggerty, a very bright young lawyer, and told 
him to go to the library and read the descrip- 
tions of one or two of Napoleon's famous bat- 
tles, naming Marengo, and to ascertain the piv- 
otal point or movement upon which the battles 
turned so as to be able clearly to tell me what it 
was when I asked him. We all came to dinner 
in a very pleasant mood, but between one or 
two of the officers, regulars and volunteers, the 
discussion broke out and became quite ani- 
mated, and I feared it would go so far that it 
might become necessary for the general to take 
notice of it. The claim was very loudly made 
that nobody could be fit to command troops 
who had not been to West Point. I said : 
'You gentlemen of the regulars can doubtless 
give me, a volunteer general, some information 
by answering a question. Can any of you tell 
me the movement of Napoleon at the battle of 
Marengo, which was the one upon which he 
wholly relied for his success in that famous bat- 
tle?" They looked one to the other and the 
other to the one, but nobody replied. I then 
turned to Captain Haggerty. who sat well down 
the table, and said: 'Captain, can you answer 
that question?" 'Yes, general, I think I can.' 
'Then explain to us what that battle was.' 
Haggerty gave a very exact account of it and I 
said : 'I am very much obliged to you, captain. 
You see, gentlemen, it will be convenient dur- 
ing this war to have some volunteer officers 
along with us, so that if we get into a like pre- 
dicament with Napoleon we shall have some- 
body who knows what was done under like 
circumstances.' " Speaking of Grant's career 
at West Point, Butler adds: "Grant evidently 
did not get enough of West Point into him to 
hurt him any : he was less like a West Point man 
than any officer I ever knew. The less West 
Point a man has the more successful he will be. 
We see how little Grant had. All of the 
very successful generals of our war stood at the 
lower end of their classes at West Point. As 
examples, take Grant, Sheridan and Sherman. 
All the graduates in the higher ranks in their 
classes never came to any thing as leaders of 
armies in the war. The whole thing puts me 
in mind of an advertisement I saw in a news- 
paper in my youth. It contained a recipe for 
making Graham bread out of coarse unbolted 
flour mixed with sawdust. The recipe ended 
as follows : ' N. B. — The less sawdust the bet- 
ter.'" 



KING'S HANDBOOK OF THE UNITED 
STATES. By M. F. Sweetser. 8vo, pp. 
944. Buffalo. Moses King Co. 
Condensation is one of the watchwords of the 
day, and it is destined to bear a still more con- 
spicuous part as libraries multiply and the hope- 
lessness of reading everything more and more 
forces itself upon humanity. The idea of this 
admirable handbook is credited on the title pacre 
to the publisher, Mr. Moses King, who is re- 
sponsible for the general makeup. More than 
two thousand six hundred illustrations are scat- 
tered through the pages serving to punctuate 
the context with views of scenery, buildings, 
famous persons, and the like. The colored 
maps, fifty-one in number, are, with the excep- 
tion of two general maps of the United .States, 
grouped in the middle of the volume, a device 
which will be appreciated by bookmakers, how- 
ever it may strike the average reader. These 
maps are all clear, excellently printed and on a 
scale large enough to be really useful. The con- 
text, as we have already intimated, is a model of 
condensation, and we may without undue flattery 
add, a monument of industry. The author has 
spent a great part of his life in compilation, 
condensation and arrangement, and his experi- 
enced hand shows itself in every page. His 
book is not a history in the sense that Bancroft's 
or Parkman's works are history, and yet he con- 
trives most happily to lend a touch of interest 
even to the driest statements. So far as we have 
been able to verify dates, figures, etc., we have 
found them correct, and it is safe to say that 
barring the errors that must of necessity creep 
into all elaborate human work, the book may be 
accepted as a trustworthy work of reference. 
The arrangement is by states, each forming a 
chapter by itself, the whole preceded by a brief 
historical sketch of the United States. 

THE FIFTEEN DECISIVE BATTLES OF 
THE WORLD. From Marathon to Water- 
loo. By Sir Edward Creasy, M.A. i6mo, 
pp. 425. New York : Harper & Brother. 1892. 
The first edition of Creasy's " decisive bat- 
tles " was published in London as early as 1854, 
and shortly afterward republished in this coun- 
try, at once attaining a deserved recognition as 
a text book. Since that time it has commanded 
a regular sale and has made its appearance 
periodically in new editions. It is perhaps 
worth while for the publishers to consider the 
policy of adding an appendix to some future 
issue including the decisive battles since Water- 
loo. In the eyes of the present generation this 
would seem a desirable feature and would cer- 
tainly add to the historical completeness of the 
book. 







[From Joseph Andrews* engraving of the Portrait painted by G. P. A. Heaty.\ 




<^ 






MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 

Vol. XXVII MAY, 1892 No. 5 



THE INGHAM PORTRAIT OF DE WITT CLINTON 

IT will interest art lovers as well as the historical and general public 
to learn that the original portrait exists in the city of New York, 
which Charles C. Ingham painted, from life sittings, of the celebrated 
De Witt Clinton, the portrait which is so well known through copies 
and engravings. Ingham was an artist of distinction, whose life ex- 
tended over the period from 1797 to 1863. He was of Irish birth 
and education, and coming to this country, settled in New York about 
1817. He painted the portrait in question for Mr. Philip Boyer, at the 
time De Witt Clinton was the most conspicuous man on the American 
continent through the successful building of the Erie Canal, and it was 
soon purchased by Philip Hone, the popular New York mayor. 

A fine copy of this painting hangs in the State Library at Albany, 
being purchased in 1871 of De Witt Clinton's daughter, Mrs. David S. 
Jones, for the sum of five thousand dollars. By many it is supposed to be 
the original work of Ingham, but the history of the painting owned by 
Mr. Hone is very clear and well-authenticated, as it has remained in the 
city of New York ever since Mr. Hone's death. The copy in Albany was 
made by Henry Inman, an exceedingly versatile and skillful artist, whose 
life extended over the period from 1801 to 1846. For this information we 
have the authority of the well-known General Thomas S. Cummings, who 
studied the art of miniature portrait painting with Henry Inman, and is 
now the oldest surviving member of the original society of the National 
Academy of Design. Another of Inman's students of art, from 1837 to 
1 839, was Mr. Frederick W. Herring, who writes that in Mr. Inman's studio, 
during those two years, " two copies were made by Edwin Mooney, a 
student of Inman's, of the original portrait of Governor De Witt Clinton, 
painted by Charles C. Ingham, an engraving of which I have, engraved by 
Preudhomme. This picture was also engraved by the late A. B. Durand 
for the National Portrait Gallery." 

The brother and sister of Charles C. Ingham related a few years ago 
some incidents of much interest in connection with this valuable his- 

Vol. XXVII.-No. 5.-2X 



322 THE INGHAM PORTRAIT OF DE WITT CLINTON ' 

toric painting. They said the portrait was painted on a home-made 
canvas, that is, the stretcher was made at home, and the brother remem- 
bered having assisted in the making of it, and also the sittings given by 
De Witt Clinton. The curious mistake in drawing the right hand — that 
of putting Ln five fingers instead of four — caused great merriment in the 
family, " over which circumstance they often laughed at the artist after- 
wards." They also remembered that two copies of this portrait were made 
in the studio of Henry Inman. 

The character and public services of the subject of this painting will 
always have an interest for intelligent Americans. He was not the orig- 
inator or the projector of the Erie Canal, but he was the master-spirit 
that carried the greatest work of internal improvement the world had 
then known to successful completion. De Witt Clinton's belief in the 
practicability of constructing a water highway from the Atlantic Ocean to 
the lakes was like an inspiration. There had been nothing visionary in the 
hardship and cost of conveying fighting materials from Albany to the lakes 
during the war of 1812. Thus, when the crude scheme of the canal first took 
possession of his active brain his judgment of its practical value was instan- 
taneous. He entered heart and soul into the enterprise, and gave to it 
shape, substance, life, and animation. He was void of timidity, earnest 
even to asperity, prompt, energetic, and never disheartened by opposition. 
Late in the autumn of 1815, Judge Jonas Piatt was in New York, hold- 
ing court. De Witt Clinton was mayor of the city, and having just 
returned from his country seat on Long Island, was residing in the Roose- 
velt house, in Pearl street. Judge Piatt dined with him, and the canal 
subject formed the staple of conversation. Thomas Eddy, a few days later, 
invited the mayor and the judge to dinner; John Pintard was also a guest. 
It was determined on this occasion to issue some one hundred cards of 
invitation to influential gentlemen of the city, to meet at the City Hotel 
in consultation concerning the much-desired canal. At the time appointed 
the assemblage gathered ; William Bayard was appointed chairman, and 
John Pintard secretary. Addresses were made by Judge Piatt, Mayor Clin- 
ton, and others, and a committee appointed to prepare a memorial to the 
legislature. This celebrated production was from the pen of Mayor De Witt 
Clinton, and its style of expression and sagacious reasoning, together with 
its immense amount of condensed information concerning the topography 
of the state, rendered it most effective. Hitherto, the New York mind 
had been flooded with an immense amount of loose material concerning 
the utility of inland navigation, but this able memorial gave definite 
direction to thought as well as action. Hundreds were converted from 



THE INGHAM PORTRAIT OF DE WITT CLINTON 



323 




{From the original painting By Charles C. Ingham.'] 

rank skepticism as to its practicability. The prophecy with which Mayor 
Clinton concluded his address is worth repeating: 

"If the project of a canal was intended to advance the views of individ- 
uals, or to foment the divisions of party; if it promoted the interests of a 
few at the expense of the prosperity of the many ; if its benefits were 
limited as to place or fugitive as to duration ; then, indeed, it might be 
received with cold indifference, or treated with cold neglect ; but the 
overflowing blessings from this great fountain of public good and national 
abundance will be as extensive as our country, and as durable as time. It 
may be confidently asserted that this canal, as to the extent of its route, 



324 THE INGHAM PORTRAIT OF DE WITT CLINTON 

as to the countries which it connects, and as to the consequences which it 
will produce, is without a parallel in the history of mankind. It remains 
for a free state to create a new era in history, and to erect a work more 
stupendous, more magnificent, and more beneficial than has hitherto been 
achieved by the human race." 

The Erie Canal was completed on October 26, 1825. Thus the longest 
canal in the world had been constructed within a period of eight and one- 
third years. The manual labor had not ceased for a day since July 4, 
1817. On the occasion of the magnificent celebration of this great event 
in history, Philip Hone was one of New York's representatives to meet the 
city's guests at Albany as they arrived there on the Seneca Chief horn 
Buffalo ; and in behalf of the city of New York he made an elegant con- 
gratulatory address, and invited the corporation of Albany to accompany 
the party down the Hudson and accept the hospitalities of the metropolis. 
Philip Hone was a personal friend and great admirer of Clinton. His home 
at that time was a great, roomy, cheerful dwelling in Broadway, opposite 
City Hall Park, which contained a well-chosen and costly library, and many 
valuable works of art. He must have greatly prized this excellent por- 
trait by Ingham, which he subsequently placed in his collection. 

De Witt Clinton was exceptionally dignified in personal appearance, tall, 
exceeding six feet in height, with a large, well-proportioned figure. His 
movements were deliberate, and in general society constrained, as if not 
perfectly at ease, which his political opponents ascribed to arrogance and 
a sense of superiority. His head, finely shaped and admirably poised, was 
distinguished for the great height and breadth of his forehead ; he had 
beautiful curly chestnut hair, clear hazel eyes, a Grecian nose, and com- 
plexion as fair as a woman's. His tastes were literary ; he had collected a 
large library, and was perfectly familiar with the contents of every volume 
from Homer, Virgil, and Dryden, down to Irving's Salmagundi of his 
own generation. He was well read in theology, he loved poetry, and he 
was captivated by science. He was indeed a man so wedded to the pur- 
suit of knowledge, that the wonder is that he ever embarked upon the 
stormy sea of politics, unless it was through his perception of the need of 
power to give effect to his efforts for the recognition of religion, and the 
advancement of education, art, science, and morals. He lacked many of 
the requisites for a successful politician. His doctrines, objects, and pub- 
lic policy were open. He had no gifts for strategy, no disposition to drill 
men into mere machines or employ unusual weapons, ambushes, or sur- 
prises, to crush an adversary. The severer the scrutiny into his charac- 
ter, conduct, and career, the brighter becomes his fame. 



COLONIAL MEMORIES AND THEIR LESSON 

In every lifetime there comes a period when we love to turn the pages 
of our own history and take a retrospective view of the past, as it con- 
cerns ourselves, in our progenitors. The love of genealogy is often an 
inherited taste, although it may be one of cultivation, but at some stage 
of our existence, amid the full current of events that unceasingly flows 
around us, we may drop with the ebb tide to gather the shells along the 
shore of the past, or bring up from its hidden depths rich treasure from 
the lives of the wise and good whose names we honor through the cen- 
turies. Some one has said, " Great men exist that there may be greater 
men." That seed thought has borne fruit in our own day and generation, 
and we have seen the veritable sons of our Revolution again sacrificing lift 
for a principle, to preserve what was given to us in trust by our patriot 
forefathers — our Union in all its glory and strength. We believe in our 
ancestors. We call our children by their names, and take an interest in 
tracing family characteristics or the features of grand old portraits in 
the present generation. That they were strong men with strong convic- 
tions, mountain-climbers thinking mountain thoughts, that we do know, 
self-sacrificing and duty-loving; and the high aims born in them have 
inspired others to overcome obstacles as they mount still higher. How 
many of us were made familiar in our earlier years with the old French 
motto Noblesse oblige, to live up to our position in life, honoring the race 
from which we sprung, which may have served as a vigorous incentive to 
spur ambition, or acted as a salutary check in time of need ; but I never 
thoroughly appreciated all it embodied until a French teacher — a veri- 
table gentlewoman of Huguenot descent — translated it for me, and gave 
it a higher meaning and dignity : " Unto whom much is given, much 
shall be required," and the sweet sense of its worth gathers new strength 
as the years roll on. 

The present is ever unfolding the past. Mistakes made in one genera- 
tion are followed by their results in the next. If parents eat sour grapes 
their children's teeth are set on edge, or from the toil and struggle and 
self-denial of the past the present reaps the golden grain. It is from 
those who served their generation well that we enjoy the privileges of 
to-day, and as we review the past, all who took a leading part in it 
share in its triumphs. The statesman and soldier, as well as the private 



326 COLONIAL MEMORIES AND THEIR LESSON 

citizen and the " embattled farmer," have their representatives in every 
state, as we gather up the broken links of that long chain of patriots, 
cemented together by the love of country and liberty, to add to the honor 
of the past. It is they who set the keynote of our onward march in every 
direction toward an unclouded horizon, and in the swelling host who have 
joined us from every nation and clime we do not wish to forget these 
pioneers of principle, nor all they achieved in the small beginnings of our 
great republic ; and now each one of us comes forward to lay a wreath of 
evergreen upon the grave of some ancestor who founded a colony, estab- 
lished the laws, and resisted unto death, to give us a free and independent 
country. Thus we revive their names and noble deeds in grateful remem- 
brance as a legacy for those who are to follow us. Such is the origin, as 
I understand it, of our " Society of Colonial Dames of America," in its 
true meaning. The thought is full of poetic sentiment, if given its right 
direction, and should not degenerate into any ostentatious love of display, 
or unbecoming and misdirected pride, to weaken its influence. 

The last century gathers together records of interest for all patriots, for 
the charm of ancient story enriches our past. The battles for freedom 
fought and won, and the principles bequeathed from dying fathers to 
sons, live not only in the heart of every true American but in the old flint- 
lock muskets, rapiers, cocked hats, and epaulets, that have descended with 
the years, and we can imagine our sturdy forefathers echoing some such 
sentiment as this : 

" Never let it be said 
That we truckled unto Thrones ; 
But ye, our children's children ! think how we 
Showed what things were, before the world was free ! " 

The footprints of those early days are fast being obliterated by the 
advancing conqueror progress, who develops great undertakings, con- 
trols greater forces, levels all obstacles, and climbs over impassable barriers 
with increasing knowledge that only a few years ago seemed insurmount- 
able, plunging into untried paths with the confidence that only a success- 
ful past can give. Everything well started grows apace, like the giant 
trees of our forests, sending out strength and vigor in every direction 
still mounting upward — -the result of centuries, they have their roots 
hidden in the past. We often associate our ancestors with the formal 
drawing-rooms of the last century, and as dressed in maroon velvet coats 
trimmed with rich lace, silken hose, knee-breeches, and powdered wigs ; 



COLONIAL MEMORIES AND THEIR LESSON 



327 




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FACSIMILE OF BILL OF EXCHANGE IN I761. 

[In possession of the author^ 

but those costly " small-clothes " covered very big men — men who resolved 
and did, cost them what it might ; men stung to the quick by a sense of 
injustice and oppression. Are we not indebted to them for the " free 
press " of our country, who did not hesitate to expose the wrong, advo- 
cate the right, and put their journals into deep mourning the day before 
the memorable stamp act was to take place ? Their pluck, too, in consign- 
ing the valuable and probably much longed-for tea to a watery grave, for 
principle, will ever be the delight of schoolboys. 



The cargo came, and who could blame 

If Indians seized the tea, 
And chest by chest let down the same 

Into the laughing sea ! 
For what avail the plow, or sail, 
Or land, or life, if Freedom fail ! " 



328 



COLONIAL MEMORIES AND THEIR LESSON 



The chivalry and adventure of those early- 
days have filled many a volume. Homes were 
at the mercy of the red man more than of the 
British, and the long cruel winters were still 
another formidable enemy to resist. But the 
peaceful side of the picture shows the simple 
domestic life — the circles around the log-fires, 
where classic lore, Horace and Homer, were 
made familiar to the boys, and bespeak the 
savor of home-rule and paternity, as the well- 
worn volumes on our library shelves testify. 
We read, too, of their cellars, well filled with 
old wine, pledged by those incorrigible patriots 
to drive the aggressive red-coats out of Massa- 
chusetts bay. It would have been better, per- 
haps, for their descendants, if their wine had 
shared the fate of the tea in Boston harbor, as 
that invincible enemy — the gout — whom they 
did not conquer has invaded the country ever 
since. It may, however, temper its piquancy 
to the innocent sufferers to remember that " its 
descent was from some aristocratic branch of 
their family tree," and I believe there are 
many to whom that thought has a soothing 
effect. Their provincial simplicity must al- 
ways have a charm for us who have advanced 
so far in luxury and worldly wisdom. We 
cannot forbear a good-natured smile at those 
dear simple folk of "ye olden time," in their 
consternation, expressed in such practical wis- 
dom, when their round-tipped knife-blades 
went out of fashion (they were only familiar 
with the two-pronged silver fork), as to how 
they were ever going to eat their peas ! Their 
bills of exchange, and the quaint form of invi- 
tation, so different from those of to-day, we 
{in possession of the author. \ preserve as relics. Then the lives of colonial 

grandmothers enhance our own with a halo of romance. We read their 
long, closely written letters and journals, now yellowed by time, with a 
pathetic tenderness, wherein they recorded their heart stirrings, their bud- 




OLD KNIFE AND TWO-PRONGED FORK 
OF SILVER. 



COLONIAL MEMORIES AND THEIR LESSON 



329 



ding hopes and passions. Sweet-faced miniatures of 1709 look again 
into our eyes. We wear their rings, reset their jewels, use their silver, 
read their Bibles — the only ones that tell us of " Susannah and the 
Elders," and " Bel and the Dragon." We even bear their names and 
the beauty of their lives attuned to ours, and keep up the harmony of the 
rolling years in our families. What pretty love-letters they wrote ! In look- 
ing over such letters, I opened one enclosing a rose — all ashes now, yet 
reverently I folded it again, and tied it up in its faded ribbon. A soft 




A SLIPPER OF COLORED SILK WORN BY MRS. GOVERNOR SHIRLEY, BOSTON, 1645. 

[/« possession of the author.} 

ring of hair was enfolded in another with a verse of tender sentiment, 
and a baby slipper drifted up to me from the long ago, worn and dimpled 
by a little foot. It was labeled, " My darling's first shoe," and the date 
marked upon the sole — far down the centuries; no name, as though that 
was quite enough for that loving mother to distinguish her darling by 
through the ages. It would have been interesting to have followed the 
little footsteps, to know whither they led, and if they had made " their 
footprints on the sands of time." The slippers, too, of colored silks, to 
match the jupons of colonial dames, recall the stately minuet in statelier 



330 



COLONIAL MEMORIES AND THEIR LESSON 



drawing-rooms, where their high jeweled combs and spangled fans 
twinkled in the soft light of wax candles. 

I have sometimes pictured them in their shady old manor-houses, 
living their sweet, wholesome lives, going through their simple round of 



m^^^^^m^^HS^^^>K^^^^S?^^^«^?8^^^ 



7he Minifler of France 

m pre) ems his compliments to 

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^'^ ifbaM- on €^P^ next, § 



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si 

3a 

FAC-SIMILE OF AN INVITATION IN THE OLDEN TIME. 

[Original in possession of the author .] 



home duties, de- 
signing their own 
embroidery and 
worsted work, even 
dyeing the different 
^ shades of color they 
used with the herbs 
and roots out of 
their own woods 
and meadows. Be- 
fore Miss Burney's 
new departure into 
sensational novels, 
they probably read 
The Faerie Queen, 
and later Young's Night Thoughts, for pastime, doubtless building as 
attractive castles and bridges of their own sweet fancy, with perhaps more 
enduring foundations than the airy structures reared by our dazzled 
imaginations of to-day. There was a deeper sentiment given to the yellow 
rose than we give to the burning red of the "jacqueminot." In one 
manor-house the garden walks, hidden behind hedges of box, were kept 
exclusive and private for their own use, for the garden gate was locked, 
and the key had its proper place assigned to it in the grand old hall. 
There was a nice distinction drawn in these quiet homes, and maintained 
by a becoming reserve and dignity that was equal to themselves and to 
the times in which they lived. It might almost be called an " unassuming 
superiority," without any assertion or attempt on their part to insure it. 

After the Revolution many of the leading families discarded their 
liveries on principle, so careful were they not to establish any undue 
class distinction in a republic. 

In turning the pages of history, there are lessons to be learned, high 
questions to be solved and answered by the thoughtful, and out of 
them grows the sweet, sound wisdom that makes the world adaptable to 
all conditions of life. Character is strengthened and deepened by the 
steadfastness, the example, and practice of the noble lives that have 
passed onward. If they do not touch our own lives, they color our 



COLONIAL MEMORIES AND THEIR LESSON 



331 




FAN OF MRS. SHIRLEY (1745), WIFE OF THE FAMOUS COLONIAL GOVERNOR OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

{In possession 0/ the author.'] 
[From a photograph by Miss Catharine Weed Barnes.] 



33 2 COLONIAL MEMORIES AND THEIR LESSON 

thoughts and actions, and prove that the world is made better by those 
who have had the courage to live up to their highest convictions. One 
of our own Colonial Dames made a remark to me the other day, to this 
effect : " How few of the bona-fide old ladies of the past we see around 
us!" It may be that in our high-pressure way of living there is no time 
in which to grow old ; or is it that the boundary line of old age has grown 
obscure, not so readily found? Unfortunately, the beautiful autumn of 
life may be associated with the sere and yellow leaf only, unmindful of 
the mature fruitfulness and gathered sheaves that it alone can bring. 
Be that as it may, those dear old ladies, with smooth silvered hair, and 
soft lace caps, have gone out of fashion. Are we to revive the fading 
pictures ourselves again, when our lengthened autumns settle into the 
glow of winter's fireside? 

Two sketches have come to me across the centuries. One is a ghost 
story and the other is a love story, although both are shaded with love. 
I found the ghost story in the pretty quaint hamlet of Stratford, Connecti- 
cut, last summer, when visiting a kinswoman of my own, whose home is 
in a dignified colonial house built about one hundred and fifty years ago 
to replace an older family mansion close by. It was built by the first 
president of Columbia college — then known as King's college. Members 
of the same colonial family still occupy it. The house itself is a fine 
study, filled with interesting and valuable relics. It doubtless boasted of 
its "modern improvements" in that olden day — one being a spacious 
linen closet built in one of the huge chimneys, so as to keep the linen 
warm during the bitter cold winters. Secret doors and panels in the 
wainscoting lead into darkened closets and vaults of concealment. The 
grounds are laid out in straight walks and shrubbery. 

The heroine of my story was the beautiful Sally Johnson, the acknowl- 
edged belle and beauty of the period in that part of the country, and her 
position and loveliness attracted the admiration of a young British officer. 
Her father was a stanch patriot, and was deeply grieved at the discovery 
of a sincere attachment between the young people. The English family 
were equally indignant at a possible union with a " rebel family," whom 
they always alluded to with a capital D prefixed, by way of being more 
emphatic, and the recreant young officer was summarily ordered home in 
disgrace. Filial obedience was as stringent in those days as military laws, 
and the unfortunate lover saw no alternative before him but death, and 
ended his life with a bullet at the feet of his betrothed. The American 
house was dishonored by the tragedy, a blot cast upon its proud name, 
and the disconsolate maiden was only allowed to remain under her father's 




THE ORIGINAL CARVED IVORY FAN OF MARIE ANTOINETTE, I789. 

[Recently /or some three years in custody of the editor] 



334 COLONIAL MEMORIES AND THEIR LESSON 

roof upon one condition, that her sorrow should never again be referred to. 
Robed in a black silken gown, she wandered aimlessly about the house, 
the only relief to her feelings being her long-drawn sighs. Gradually she 
fell into a decline, and soon followed the spirit of her departed lover. 
These sighs and the rustle of her trailing gown are still heard in. the 
present generation. " And have you heard them yourself? " I asked my 
hostess. " I assure you I have," she answered. I must, however, explain 
that the tragedy occurred in the original house on the grounds, that stood 
unoccupied for many, many years, for its reputation was tarnished at a very 
early date, as being haunted. It passed into decay slowly, and the evening 
that the last timbers of it were removed, my hostess told me that she 
was sitting up very late in her library reading, her dog lying on the hearth 
beside her, when distinctly she heard, as she supposed, some one sweeping 
past the door. Her dog sprang up with bristling ears, and excited, short 
barks, and " I arose," she said, " and opened the door, fully expecting to 
meet some one in the hall, but heard only a deep sigh passing up the stair- 
case." " Were you not alarmed ? " I asked. " The feeling was so strong 
with me," she answered, " that some one had entered the house, that I 
immediately called the servants together, and we searched every available 
place, to find that I had been deceived. Then remembering the family 
legend as being the only solution to the mystery, I looked up into the fine 
old shade-trees that encircled the house, and readily imagined how their 
great boughs, heavy with foliage, brushing against the soft shingles, might 
produce the effect of a trailing gown, and nature's wind-harp in the top- 
most branches might strike a sighing note, in certain conditions, around 
the sharp corners of the building." " But why spoil the poetry of a ghost 
story with the prose of logic? " I asked. 

The love story I found in an old sole-leather trunk of family letters, 
and I finished it myself from an original portrait. Pages of finely written 
letters, yellow with age, fell into my hands from this receptacle, and in 
arranging their dates I became much interested in the young girl who 
wrote them from an old manor far up the Hudson. Her brother had 
recently married, I inferred from them, and had taken his bride to Europe 
to spend the winter. These letters were written to her new sister-in-law. 
They were bright and clever, full of girlish enthusiasm, envying their 
brilliant surroundings in contrast to her snow-bound winter, cut off so 
pitilessly from the outside world. I stood upon the porch of her lovely 
colonial home last winter, and contemplated the isolation of the scene of 
the last century. The double lawn swept down in its magnificence to the 
river unchanged, but the ice-boats of to-day skimmed over its surface like 



Tins irttie Day before the ncysr-to-be-torg ttea. STAMP-ACT was to takePJace in America- 

New-Hampjhire "^^^ GAZETTE> 



A NX? 

Historical 



Tb&Hay Q&oberjr, 1765. 



. fkf ^hat avail S^ vtJub£rifaf Suw T 

ffiktjfftiii Gifts that Red* mdEjtrih i&Utri t 

• /SSS^W ftmirk^Ue Djy.'ybicbj**p! : '*' uj «- 

• %■ © • ed to be as fatal (o qlmoft- all that 

r© ^ ©# bSawto'ta net* &n of Wjrct> 

*t^ ©• wwejfftllet>ift?yfO«^flT-, orasthe 

rJQQWf D««noL*bte ^/?* if November had 
• 6 © » © i : t- 10 ha-7C prov'J 10 the Lives. Li-, 
berftvind Property of ihe honcft People of England- 
— .R Dhy en,wbjcb oar-§lOTery js to commence 
by ^D^erceTOGos-foess*. tosiudmnj aUCircurfu 
ftarjOW, tbo^raew profroiirrced in the fatnotffl 
ftj/» Qvr&tr j *n Ordinance by whictr we Jni 
eot^ooly toberedireed'toBegjjary kj iTAX w« 
-car'- never-pay, but are made btav.ej.far oar Di£- 
oSsWa«d ire to be plupgediato » deeper io»* 
dag<£fe»« fiJcbffgkig of u, iftt were in our Power, 
An^ M A 15 is determined by thofe from wbbirf 
iy cur CwineSion and Relation, we had the 
greatefirfieafoti to <^pe£k Defence, Prctefitiotjaix} 
aH the F«*ur *aa Bleffin^s, that a dutiful Child 
OoVd expect, frtnij-9 tfip-d., tender Patent. For 
*mo«e ether jufe Qroentb C^-ficfr Bowr, titir 
ftettauaa ftr Ape* paft, efttco'd it ihcir Glory, 

• it was tttetr D^igbEfc -t* dufufc HappineB 
among all to whom their influence extended. 
And more efpecbdlyto tranfmUto fhaiiuc-i^cs. 

tktmrclves eojoy'd, and tfrmaght worth defeOrt»g 
and preferring at any Rite. A yety flighty £c* 
jjuaintance with Enjfffh tfmWy, wtll'injorm any 
one, Ignorant of it. With what mighty Struggles 
*ti& cameft Contention, thry have maintained 
ih&Tretoral Rrgnr, againft. rhe united Force t>( 
Tyrants in vartousForms, and all their Sycophants 
fed adulating Adherents. And that they cou'd 
ntrer be prrvaifd uponj by all the Hopes and, 
Allurements' defpotlc Power and arbitrary Mifrule 
fcou'd furnifli, or the World give in Exchaoge, to 
part with their own Freedom ot intail Varfalage 
Oh their Softer ity : ' As without Liberty they 
ioftjy thought elf the Enjoyments of Life to z 
generous Nfind, a Perfon freeborn, WOu'd be in- 
fipid, vapid and taftlefs. 

Ok Liberty, thou Goddefc teav'nly brrghr, 
Profufe of Blu% and pregnant with Delight » 
Eternal Pleaiures in thy Prefehce reign, 
Andfmiling Plenty leads ttiy w^won Train; 
Ea;'d of her Load SdhjecVion grows more light, 
Xnd Poverty loots chewful in thy Sight , 
Th'iu malt'ft the gloomy F;ce of Nature gay, 
Giv'il Beauty to the Sun U I J lcafuTcto the Pa,y. 
^eeC^ddef*, thee L.ntarmia'i Iflc adores . 
f?ow &u fte oft exhauited-aH rper^wrej, ~ - 
IJow oft in Fields of Death thy-Prcftnce fought, 
ty&t thiftki the mighty Pjriie too dearly bought. 

Thefc, and fuck-as. tbefe, were the Sentiments 
orthofe ioPoweT.jn.formerTrmes. They knew 
Aat Liberty, wastheuartral Right of -Mankind : 
And that it was ibe greatcft Injury even to curtail 
or dcpn*e tbem U Ut •" *"y Degree, any 
further than by <heir owaConfeot they exchange 
Pan of it, for oihtr bJeffings, and the Prefer- 
«atron of -what remains. They u/ete (■> fir -from 
aDifpofition to rob-Mcn of ibis gaiu.-al Right', 
■ that on the onturvlbey were .for eoUrging, -and 
etteodinz of uto-at! theWoild that wou'd «ce.i« 
re izd Taapora Mutaniur £57.— -who that hai 
w»d rt.af(tr«Jg meuphorical Exclamauon, -Ho* 
u *he GoU become dim, and the" molt fine Gold 
Cia^ed L can *void ttmktrg of ifc — it fremi to 
viwtte. *tletf on tfaU Occafiau.— ^^ 




Whai araAttiSlfuJ Cbjuige of PohcluHU/^iPaiicjr 
and. "Temper* i —0**Anaa:d-tbtfiJt J jj jreanjjjtCii^ 
Verriji '^ f« JB [i V? fiWlflrfi i^ m ae-nu^ 
pnuoalWh»i .*lf-0 j.. ^ppeajeimilrli.— th*' 
there eduy.be- Cj>. _\>, UtWjTuJnS f>l;rcv frotn; 

Cy^Jil- IH^pTV.-.^l-^TUIIg, - J»*«BPiy evSrf 
hnnei\" iaJwricrus M«l **a? ehcou.'^lged, b^ 
£)Jijpncc^aijie,d'.bim RiDWft'if-n as well as Sub 
finance, ^iw © pe praended the Cafe ii the, 
|iaie» >vhen- Go ffifO, may iuy or fdi lut he ilua 
receives $-Madci: — a Bao^e of his S4wcry, an 
Evidence 'of the LfmiUrtlom of Property and the 
Lofs ofLibertv.^l5honeft fnduflry e.KoiirageJ, 
when ilie molt Induftrious pay die more for cx- 
f eU»Hg, and arc- fubje^ted roa e xnan 01 hers to the- 
iaipt-u.iij; Mj: >if :. ; :■:■<.)*$._, oj infulliog lt;ut- 
iag ovetbeaiing OfRcets ?— r- 
- Was there anyThing more grrevouj and en/lav- 
i'ugiO (be Scheme to introduce a general Exci/e, 
pwpo^'d about thirty Years ago to the People in 
G— B ■ ■—-,, than 7/w> u to us ? -*-^^nd thl 
Pni&i Mr— r of tfca* Time who' bro't in * fucb 
i\ Bjiitk-it -was fitd cou'd have ccrrird VJriSBrough 
/fuchis the^oiagtc Powei attending jrevrtam high 
QfiiceJ yet what was thciEvent I the.«»ner3J Dif- 
guft itgave, rheOppofiQcn t'ojt, the Tcople drf 
povcr'd wiriusut Doers put-aoEnd to the Project. 
t— (Anil hadrrpaAioro an AQ, as was deftgn'd, ir 
woxr'd pa/a rrave-icenexrcuted^j6utAt ihc Head 
of afiand^g Armv---.*spd'oa3.aaui-deteft*ble aa 
this Sxfbesa.wes, .HiemMiere notwithitaodtbg a 
great, roany Advocarei ^bl it, ryoaip'ed hy f ht; 
Tt-iiraW.^wm/? b^ldb - \i,d au -£jl<ci hire- thvt 
once |dfl.by the King of i.'^?/, relative- to Male 
ntnfdtrrr bo nicrtrotcd-Ml £hc fernc^anocj^ tiiert 
wotridno tfoubt br-iotrriQ a Majmiry for it wuii- 
in ceru'ia Walls, if it- (elated only to the Colo- 
nies.*— And indeed wnhjTfpeit to the prefe-ntGe- 
Deration, fuch an Edicl wou'd not be fo fevefe 
as theEdict nowagainfl e?.— And ftall wecaltn- 
ly and quietly yield our Secies to the Vbke?^- 
We have been told bv -fontc merc<nary Scriblers, 
that the Right of pjfIio£ ujch a Law £a?tnot be 
difputed,that ourRftneo u by humble Supplica- 
tion, &c. and by this W«y of Reafoning one may 
prove -that whatever is tfvnc by fuperior Force is 
right, and fo Robbery of any kind may beprov- 
ed to be right, becauie Abac was Power to per- 
form the Action — and ax to Petitioning and Rc- 
-mcofizariog,— ^-Wifaat bedame of the harribre Pe- 
titions prefenred, while this Matter was undei 
Co nGdeta tion, were they «ot fpurn'd and frowh'd 
osit were imo Vaults. — .They Vhat reprefent us 
ought to hear us by their ownPrinciples — but the 
fame firft Mover remaircc?, we have Reafon to 
think no Remonfhanect. will tver be heard, no 
Reafons prevail for out. Relief in that Way.— 
iGuccwn Ref<Kutions no to hold our Foreheads 

-topwch&fe our own iioodpge from private -felfifh 
Viewa for fear of looting a particular Iotereft, 
b the rnoft probable Mewa of having'the Dif- 
ficulty removed, — and can any Thing follow 
from that wcrfc than wi!| follow from Compli- 
ance ?_Will »ot thisfuOjea us to Ac fameCon- 
dition of the Subject of the Grand Mmsreh.— 
Wril-not he who feeks to favea petty Inteieft by 
fuch Meafures, become a Slave by his own Con- 
fent ? — Doe* he not in effort agree to give up his 
Uirth-Righr, for a M'jt of Pottage? — As ihofe 
who were to have t . ■ - (lie Drrtributors of our 
Chains have gcneratVy difJauied fuch an invideous 
Office, he will well defer/e. Chains and every o- 
thef iMari «f Slavery who fhaU hunt after the 
Musi of the Btojl.oi fiuS as. it were after Shorit* 
■ — Lift any one confidtfr wharOiaractcr be is lite 
toatxiuirc-who fhoold fneaJcm private after what 
fcewill be a&amcd openly ro avow. ..Who to 
jayt a paJny tnfijntficant Propetty, vohmtarily 



laid abwn.l'ijrNrx^c- atid V>ofe ofl thO T tee- of ; 
perpetoaiiiondage, M a, Titnc whe^hai Trtwirt 
tnen, tiis CbvnufuiQj, and a whok Corrunai 
pjfiEred arsi ^v'dracmMvesJro&iRurn.rtie Itf of 
Cile/U itfjl fbnAnty Cafl-aiTHr^liLiii* Abitf* 
wiwioa K ik hwwi ' il«ei-hin>'lirai ^onutsveonr.- 
der, wbciher it is lawful Tor any T^umbers" o£ 
Men to fell another Number as free-as themfelvc: 
for SUves ? Let themprove 'bar, tbb&tit*/ '}^/fer 
into Vs£>?kV»3s'uwfu!, ^nd then l^hcy may 'doubt 
orr— LetthcrR.dct:rmlnewhethrr, if aMagiftiate, 
whofeAucbority they acknowledge within his Jq- 
rifJiction, fhou d, bocaufe he has affiftance, order 
them where they were liable to a Moderate Fine, 
to Be pilloried, whip*, and finally imprifbned foi 
Ufe.they (ho'u'J think, themfclves obliged paflrfteiy. 
to fubrrut: If they do, let fuch -Fiiehdsto Pt$VM 
Ci/^M£Aiufferihejuft Conlequence-of thtitown 
Principles', till they receive Cornictiorr. ; 



The LAMENTATION 

Of the 
NEW.HAMPSHIRE-GAZETT.fi, 

in particular, aod me PRESS in general, 
Oaai^^^f lofag their LlfilRTY, 

Can fanl ttebjs prep&q 1 ** f<miliarti et efaia, 



fit. 

flgag/Ba pas- tmm ^uuer-Morua *ffturtT JFit 
fit jtnfyiu ur t n rtf jim rrgiowi Cicero. 

RgRftUtfl XJiI.GiE.AJ, THE l\i»P.TAKT DAY, 

Big with the Fate, ot CATO. a^d of ROME. 

Jddifin* 



MM«#HAT» hard Cafe is it, that a/w 

• ••••• this Day's Appeaianct upon the 

• • •• Stag^ of Ailion, I muft £h>, ox 
OO W «« fubooit to that which uw^yithan 
•*__** Death, bt StfntftL and Jofe my 
£••*•• Freedom— Will all the goodDeeds 
•••*•• Ihavcdo/ie fignify nothing f-K 
the wh,ole Kingdom of England would fave my 
Life, lam unable to live «»</<•/- this Burden ; there- 
fore jLfflirfr. -Die J — O unhappy that 1 am— It is 
M'-*3 -Jjtfts Uka *he Harmony in Mnflc, is Com- 
pofed of the Contrarieties of feverat Notes fweet 
and harlh, fharp and flat, fpnghrjy and foleftn; 
'lis chequer'd .with variety ofCu'camftances ; fome- 
t lines it fwellfi with a profperous Forrune ; at 
otbers it ebbs, into the low»fi Degree of Ad- 
vcttty i and tcldom admits ofConftancy and Du- 
rability— It is true, oiy Life i.i thefc Pam have 
baca but fan, iuvuvg this Day co ou>-v"-t. 
Years and ftv* ll'eth — Fjleedcm i> To naiiraj^ 
and S*,Av<t.nY fo contrary to my Nature, theti' 
choil * vottuuaty Death, in '-Hopes of cfesping this 
Servitude — Should I once firbmu to have my Li- 
beMy.mfring'dt- «! could never ma Ire that Appeat- 
antTe 'ia theWrorld 1 have, therefore an honorable 
Death is to be prefcr'd before an ignananhui Life 
—1 Was refolv'd to live well - t and be. as ufcnd 

I could,' without being conccrn'd 
Length or Sbortntft of my Duration — But befo 



1 1 make my Exi 



•Vlll 



r fome ot" the 



lany good Deeds 1 have done, and how irfeful l 
[ 1 have'icen, and ftill may be, provided my Life f] 

tould be fpat'dj or I might hereafter reviv 
I" v'Hi, altho' it may not feem fo proper to found | 
myownPraife. Without this Art ofcommuni 
aog to tbe Public, how dull and melancholy muft J 
| «ll tbe intelligent Part of Mankind appear ? — It] 
[ may with grcatVetacity bcaffirm'd t ihat there f 
I Art, Science or Profeflion in theVVorld.but what I 
I paves its O;igio, ar ac Icalt its Progrefs and ptft-j 
falj 



IN ^fOURNING FOR THE STAMP ACT. 

\_Fac-simile of copy in possession of the author. \ 



336 COLONIAL MEMORIES AND THEIR LESSON 

great white-winged birds, and the whistling trains echoed through the 
deep ravines, uniting every lonely hamlet to the great centres of activity. 
Alas! never for her. She described her life, the books she read, a piece 
of needle-work she was designing, and begged for fashion plates and a 
careful description of French bonnets to be sent to her. She sighed for a 
French maid ! She loved the language, so associated in her mind with 
courts and salons, and was enjoying the study of it. Very little of incident 
occurred in that ice-bound winter with the exception of the arrival of dis- 
tinguished foreigners with letters of introduction to her father, and she 
had met several British officers. But the spring opened a vista of pleasure 
to her, for she had been included in a select ball to be given by some 
prominent officers at West Point. She arranged her own gown herself. 
It was of "white tulle trimmed with rouleaus of blue satin ribbon," which 
she described by making rolls, or wads, of cotton, and covering them 
tightly with the ribbon. 

Here the letters ended, nor could I find a clue to any other corre- 
spondence, although I hoped I might still learn something more of her. 
Years passed, and the letters were forgotten, when one day in visiting a 
friend I was attracted by an unfinished portrait of an old lady, upon an 
easel. She had blue eyes and white hair, with a fall of lace around the face. 
The blue eyes seemed to look straight into mine with a sweet intelligence, 
and twice I asked the name of the lady of the portrait. It was, however, 
an unfamiliar name, and conveyed no meaning to me. She was some 
colonial grandmother who married an officer in the army. As I was 
leaving the room, I turned again to the portrait and asked her maiden 
name, and was indeed startled and delighted to meet my girl friend of the 
past in Alida Livingston. My hostess was equally startled in her turn 
by my exclaiming, " Alida Livingston ! Why, I knew her intimately ! " 
The unfinished portrait served to finish her own history to my satisfaction, 
and her husband was doubtless one of the officers at that West Point 
ball, whose spurs became entangled in those rouleaus of blue satin ribbon ! 

To find connecting links with the past has always a pleasurable inter- 
est, and a few weeks ago I stood for the first time before an old house 
called the " Hamilton Grange." It is now the rectory of the beautiful new 
church of St. Luke, situated on the corner of One Hundred and Forty- 
first street, east of Tenth avenue (now Amsterdam avenue). It has been 
removed from its original site, across the street. Surrounded by a fence 
are thirteen trees planted by Alexander Hamilton to represent the thir- 
teen original states. He built this house as late as 1802 for a suburban 
retreat. It was then eight miles and a half from the city limits. So 



COLONIAL MEMORIES AND THEIR LESSON 337 

identified is he with the period of independence — the great leader of 
Republican science — that I lingered upon the once historic ground, now 
teeming with civilization and wealth, and took in the points of interest 
that encircle it. Harlem heights was mapped out before me, once bris- 
tling with encampments, and Fort Washington loomed up in the distance, 
once manned by British troops. It might have been on this very spot 
that Hamilton proposed to Washington to retake it with a storming 
party. It is said that Washington thought the dashing young captain 
overestimated his ability, but in the last battle of the Revolution he 
ordered him to lead the charge. " Hamilton, with two companions in 
arms, was the first one to leap upon the British parapet, and took his 
chances of instant death, in spite of his great ambition to live and to 
influence." A contemporary writer charmingly alludes to an unconscious 
monument to Alexander Hamilton, built within sight of his home, in a 
flourishing silk manufactory costing one hundred thousand dollars. 
" Hamilton took hold of the silk industry about the time that he made 
his celebrated speech on manufactures, and selected Paterson, New Jersey 
(named in honor of my father's grandfather, Judge William Paterson), 
as the spot to organize general manufactures on the plan of incorpora- 
tions. To-day Paterson has a population of very many thousands of 
people through the manufactories planted there, and the overflow of the 
silk industry has sent one of its little rills back to the Grange." 

But Hamilton did not die in this old house, as a man on the place 
would have me believe, for after the fatal effects of Burr's bullet he was 
carried to the country seat of an intimate friend, William Bayard, Esq. 
(my mother's grandfather), situated on the lower shore of the Hudson 
river — now Fourteenth street — where he died the following morning, and 
his funeral was from Trinity church. 

Still another colonial landmark of interest with a pretty sentiment 
attached is our light-house off Sandy Hook, as it is the original one 
built there in 1764. The radiance of the past has never been dimmed, 
only increasing in brilliancy with the years, to welcome and guide all 
vessels from every foreign port safely into New York harbor. Thus we 
look back through the sunset tints of the past, very much as we watch the 
last rays fade behind the distant hills and linger in the after-glow. When 
we think of those serious and perilous colonial days, where the deepest 
thoughts and feelings were stirred by possible loss of all that life holds 
dear, even life itself, to make our country free and independent, we under- 
stand with a deeper meaning what was meant by the saying heard in our 
youth, that " there were giants in those days." But tradition falls into its 

Vol. XXVII.— No. s-22 



338 COLONIAL MEMORIES AND THEIR LESSON 

proper place, and it is not enough for us to rest self-satisfied with the 
lustre borrowed from the lives of patriots and martyrs. Emerson speaks 
tersely upon this subject : " The reverence for the deeds of our ancestors," 
he says, " is a treacherous sentiment. Their merit was not to reverence 
the old, but to honor the present moment, and we falsely make them 
excuses of the very habit which they hated and defied." But can we be 
unmindful, in our loyal allegiance to them, that a finer morning has 
dawned for us, and a new sun has risen, rosy and splendid in opportunity 
for us all ? It is a privilege to live in the universal sunshine. It lights up 
a boundless reach for our influence. High thoughts and aims increase 
with the prosperity and benefits of to-day, if we, like them, honor the 
present moment. May we not as a society emulate the sterling qualities 
of our ancestors in promoting and defending the highest good around us? 
Can we not add the enlarged experience, the love and charity and inspira- 
tion, of this wonderful age in which we live? It is only in such golden 
coin that we can pay back the debt we owe them, by making our lives 
worthy of being their descendants, and like them 

" live 
In pulses stirred to generosity, 
In deeds of daring rectitude, in scorn 
For miserable aims that end in self! " 



REJECTION OF MONROE'S TREATY 

JOHN QUINCY ADAMS IN THE SENATE 

The winter of 1806-1807 promised to bring the United States to the 
verge of war with France. In the middle of February, at a moment 
when Americans expected daily the arrival of a British treaty marked by 
generous concessions, Napoleon's Berlin decree reached the United States. 
Commerce was instantly paralyzed, and merchants, congressmen, cabinet, 
and President turned to Turreau anxiously inquiring what was meant by 
this blockade of the British Islands by a power which could not keep so 
much as a frigate at sea. Turreau could give them no answer. . . . 

All parties waited for the news from England, until March 3, 1807, the 
last day of the session, a rumor reached the capitol that a messenger 
had arrived at the British legation with a copy of the treaty negotiated 
by Pinkney and Monroe. The news was true. No sooner did Erskine 
receive the treaty, than he hurried with it to Madison, " in hopes that he 
would be induced to persuade the President either to detain the senate, 
which he has the power by the Constitution to do, or to give them notice 
that he should convene them again." Unlike Merry, Erskine was anxious 
for a reconciliation between England and America ; he tried honestly and 
overzealously to bring the two governments into accord, but he found 
Madison not nearly so earnest as himself. (In writing to Howick, March 
6, 1807, Erskine said:) 

" The first question he asked was what had been determined on the 
point of impressment of seamen, claimed as British, out of American 
ships; and when I informed him that I had not perceived anything that 
directly referred to that question in any of the articles of the copy of the 
treaty which I had received, he expressed the greatest astonishment and 
disappointment. . . . The note which was delivered in to the Ameri- 
can commissioners previous to the signature of the treaty, by Lords 
Holland and Auckland, relative to Bonaparte's decree of November 21, 
particularly attracted his attention ; and he observed that the note itself 
would have prevented, he was convinced, the ratification of the treaty, 
even if all the articles of it had been satisfactory, and all the points 
settled upon the terms that had been required by their commissioners." 

At ten o'clock the same night, the two houses of congress, when ready 



340 REJECTION OF MONROE S TREATY 

to adjourn, sent a joint committee to wait upon the President, who was 
unwell and unable to go as usual to the capitol. Dr. Mitchill, the sena- 
tor from New York, a member of this committee, asked the President 
whether there would be a call of the senate to consider the treaty. " Cer- 
tainly not," replied Jefferson ; and he added that "the only way he could 
account for our ministers having signed such a treaty, under such circum- 
stances, was by supposing that in the first panic of the French imperial 
decree they had supposed a war to be inevitable, and that America must 
make common cause with England. He should, however, continue ami- 
cable relations with England, and continue the suspension of the Non- 
importation Act." * 

The senators received this rebuff with ill-concealed annoyance. Jeffer- 
son's act in refusing to consult them about a matter so important as a 
British treaty, and one which from the first had been their own rather than 
the President's scheme, was another instance of the boldness which some- 
times contradicted the theory that Jefferson was a timid man. To ordi- 
nary minds it seemed clear that the President needed support ; that he 
could not afford single-handed to defy England and France; that the 
circle of foreign enemies was narrowing about him ; and that to suppress 
of his own will a treaty on which peace and war might depend, exposed 
him to responsibilities under which he might be crushed. Although the 
treaty was not yet published, enough had been said to make senators 
extremely curious about its contents ; and they were not pleased to learn 
that the President meant to tell them nothing, and cared too little for 
their opinion to ask it. Of all the senators the most formidable intriguer 
was Samuel Smith of Maryland, who wrote the next day confidentially 
to Wilson Cary Nicholas a letter full of the fresh impressions which gave 
life to Smith's private language. He said : 

" A copy of the treaty arrived last evening. The President is angry 
with it, and to Dr. Mitchill and Mr. [John Quincy] Adams (who carried 
the last message) expressed his anger in strong, very strong terms, telling 
in broad language the cause of his wrath. He requested the doctor to 
tell the senators his objections. If the doctor repeated correctly, then I 
must be permitted to think there was not a little of the heightening. He 
said the President was at present determined to send the original back the 
moment it shall be received, without submitting it to the senate. He 
was sick, it is true — vexed and worried ; he may think better of it, for 
Madison (expecting less than he had) differs with him as to calling the 

* Diary of John Quincy Adams, I. 495. 



REJECTION OF MONROE'S TREATY 34I 

senate, and R[obert] S[mith] concurs in opinion with M[adison]. . . . 
I stopped here, and I have seen the President and Mr. M[adison]. It 
seems the impressment of seamen was a sine qua non in the instructions. 
The President] speaks positively, that without full and formal satisfaction 
shall be made thereupon he will return the treaty without consulting the 
senate ; and yet he admits the treaty, so far as to all the other points, 
might be acceptable — nay, that there are but few exceptions to it in his 
mind. I fancy the merchants would be perfectly pleased therewith. If 
then in all other points it would please, will the responsibility not be very 
great on him, should he send it back without consulting the senate ? 
M[adison] in answer to this query said: But if he is determined not to 
accept, even should the senate advise, why call the senate together ? I 
could give no answer to this question. If by his unusual conduct the 
British continue or increase their depredations (which he cannot prevent), 
what will be the outcry? You may advise him. He stumped us by his 
positive manner. Will not M[onroe] and P[inkney] both conceive them- 
selves insulted, and return to make war on the administration? The 
whole subject ought, I conceive, to have been treated as one of great 
delicacy." 

The more closely the subject was studied, the more clearly it appeared 
that Monroe to all appearance knowingly embarrassed the administration 
by signing a treaty in contravention of the President's orders; but Jeffer- 
son added unnecessarily to his embarrassment by refusing the treaty 
before he read it. Tacit abandonment of impressments was the utmost 
concession that the President could hope from England, and even this 
he must probably fight for; yet he refused to consult the senate on the 
merits of Monroe's treaty for a reason which would have caused the with- 
holding of every treaty ever made in England. No act of Jefferson's 
administration exposed him to more misinterpretation, or more stimulated 
a belief in his hatred of England and of commerce, than his refusal to 
lay Monroe's treaty before the senate. 

History of the United States, by HENRY Adams. 



THE OLD AND THE NEW IN HISTORY 

two sonnets 

[The Old] 

Plead not in vain the archives long concealed, 

When men were gods, and heroes lived whose birth 
Made land and sea and sky all common earth, 

While Homer sang and Oracles revealed: 

The rust of ages scars the ancient shield, 

And dusty bannered halls have lost their mirth — 
The battle-axe and barbed spear their worth, 

In deadly combats on the tented field ; 

Those fabled days so vaguely seen are gone, 

Though battered walls and crumbling towers may sigh 
And dream of chivalry : yet comes the dawn 

Of centuries which myth and mould defy, 

Whose rays of promise, brighter than the sun, 
Spread far and near when brave Columbus won. 

[The New] 

The Nations marching from the mystic past, 

Or through the dark uncertainty and gloom 

Of fated epochs bearing on their doom, 
Behold afar — too far for hope to last, 
Or feudal thrones to bind a people fast — 

A world of beauty and of sweet perfume, 

A land of golden hues and vernal bloom, 
Spanned only by the arc of heaven so vast: 

No worm-gnawed parchments need proclaim the right 
Where simple worth, spurred by the pulse of youth, 

Inspires a nation and restores to sight 
The long lost palms of Liberty and Truth: 

Proud Realm of western grandeur and renown ! 

Thou seekest only good the new to crown. 



Chattanooga, Tennessee. 



/€v^.c^£h^ 



HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, 1812 

Mr. Henry Adams in his second volume of the " History of the United 
States" devotes two chapters to the events connected with the surrender 
of Detroit in 1812, in which he shows the entire want of preparation with 
■which President and congress, under the influence of Henry Clay and 
others, rushed into a conflict with the veterans of England on land, and 
her thousand war-ships on the ocean ; and the imbecility of the war 
department, of its chief Dr. Eustis, and the poor organization of the 
small army which was scattered over an immense territory on garrison 
duty, while new regiments not yet raised were relied upon for the conquest 
of Canada. He says, " The senior major-general and commander-in-chief 
was Henry Dearborn, the other major-general was Thomas Pinckney. 
The brigadiers were James Wilkinson, Wade Hampton, Joseph Bloom- 
field, James Winchester, and William Hull." Most of them had served 
in the army of the Revolution, and Mr. Adams states that " all were over 
sixty years of age or more, and neither of them had ever commanded a 
regiment in the face of an enemy." 

However it may have been with the others, Mr. Adams is in error 
with respect to William Hull. He was fifty-nine years old in 1812, and 
besides several important detached commands in the Revolutionary war, 
he had commanded the Eighth Massachusetts regiment, which in April, 
1777, formed the rear guard of St. Clair's army, and had also commanded 
it at the battle of Monmouth. On both these occasions the colonel, 
Michael Jackson, was disabled by wounds, and the lieutenant-colonel, 
John Brooks, was absent on other duty. Mr. Adams goes on to remark 
that in case the states had been allowed to choose the general officers, 
Andrew Jackson would have taken the place of James Winchester, and 
William Hull would never have been appointed from Massachusetts. 

This prediction as to what Massachusetts would have done seems to be 
rash, since after the battle of Trenton and Princeton Captain Hull at the 
request of Washington for good service in those battles was promoted to 
major in the Eighth Massachusetts regiment ; and again, after the assault 
on Stony Point, where Major Hull commanded four hundred men, one- 
third of Wayne's force, he was promoted by the legislature of Massachu- 
setts to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Besides these promotions William 
Hull was after the peace, for nearly twenty years, elected major-general 



344 HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 

of the third division of the Massachusetts militia, which was under his 
care one of the best-disciplined divisions of the state. In 1812 William 
Hull had been for some years governor of Michigan territory, then con- 
taining about five thousand white inhabitants, mostly Canadians, along 
the river and lake, who subsisted mainly by hunting and fishing and the 
Indian trade ; almost all supplies coming from Ohio by Lake Erie. 

The greater part of the territory was a wilderness, occupied by various 
tribes of Indians, who in time of peace with England could be controlled. 
In 1811, however, rumors of war prevailed, and these savages, who were 
generally in British pay and regarded as allies by that power, became 
restless and troublesome- — particularly as the American policy was to keep 
them neutral, which to an Indian is most obnoxious. In the winter of 
1 812 Governor Hull visited Washington and asked for troops to hold the 
Indians in check, at the same time repeating what he had before urged 
upon the government, the absolute necessity of a naval force on Lake 
Erie, as in case of war the British could render the port of Detroit unten- 
able. The naval force was promised, and Captain Stewart was ordered 
to the service, but he did not go, and nothing more was done, although 
at that time the only vestige of an American naval force was the brig 
Adams then building at Detroit. It seems to have been expected by the 
war department that this single vessel would sweep from Lake Erie 
the British squadron of five men-of-war and several gun-boats. But even 
the Adams was never put in commission, and she was captured with 
Detroit. This was about the proportion between the British and American 
forces on the frontier at the surrender of Detroit on August 16, 181 2. 

Three regiments of Ohio militia under the command of Colonels Cass, 
McArthur, and Findley, were ordered for the protection of Detroit 
against the Indians. These were to be joined by a part of the Fourth 
United States Infantry, three hundred strong, under Lieutenant-colonel 
Miller. Governor Hull was asked to take command with the rank of 
brigadier-general, but declined, and Colonel Kingsbury of the regulars 
was ordered to the service, who fell sick and was unable to serve. Then 
Governor Hull at the urgent solicitation of the President accepted the 
command in order to lead the troops to Detroit, it being understood that 
another officer should be sent there to relieve him. " In his anxiety for 
the safety of the people of the territory, Governor Hull here committed 
an error which a more selfish man would have avoided. The people of 
the United States generally were expecting the conquest of Canada. It 
had been stated repeatedly on the floor of congress that in case of war 
with Great Britain Canada would at once be over-run and conquered by 



HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 ' 345 

the armies of the United States. Governor Hull knew, and had repeat- 
edly represented to the government, the difficulties in the way of such an 
enterprise. The lakes were in possession of the British ; the Indians 
were on their side, and the militia of Canada numbered twenty to one of the 
militia of Michigan. In three separate memorials addressed to the war 
department, in April, 1809, June, 1811, and March, 1812, he had urged 
the necessity of a fleet on Lake Erie. Again, after his appointment 
as brigadier-general, he urged the same in a memorial to the President. 

General Hull well knew and had repeatedly stated, that to conquer 
Canada or even protect Michigan it was necessary to either obtain com- 
mand of the lake or invade upper Canada with two powerful and co- 
operating armies at Detroit and Niagara. He did not think that he 
should be expected to conquer Canada with an army of fifteen hundred 
men, four-fifths of whom were militia, while the British held the lakes with 
their ships, and the forests with their Indians. He depended on efficient 
support both by water and land. But while his object was the protection 
of Michigan and its inhabitants, the object of the government was the con- 
quest of Canada. He regarded himself as the governor and protector of 
the territory ; he was regarded by the nation as general of an invading 
army which was shortly to over-run the whole of Canada. A selfish man, 
foreseeing the impossibility of meeting the expectations of government and 
people, would have persisted in refusing this appointment. But hoping to 
protect the inhabitants from immediate Indian hostilities, and confident 
the government would support him in case of war, he accepted.* 

These important considerations and reasons for accepting the tem- 
porary command, General Hull gives at length in his " Memoirs of the 
Campaign of the North-western Army;" but they seem to have escaped 
the notice of Mr. Adams, who writes, " April 1 the militia were ordered 
to rendezvous at Dayton, and there, May 25, Hull took command ; June 1 
they marched, and June io were joined at Urbana by the fourth regiment. 
Detroit was nearly two hundred miles away, and the army as it advanced 
was obliged to cut a road through the forest, to bridge streams, and con- 
struct causeways; but for such work the militia were well fitted, and they 
made good progress. The energy with which the march was conducted 
excited the surprise of the British authorities, and contrasted well with 
other military movements of the year." 

The plan of campaign as related by Mr. Adams, and made by General 
Dearborn, was an invasion of Canada from Detroit, Niagara, and Sackett's 

* Clarke's History of the Campaign of zSl2. 



346 HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 

Harbor, chiefly by militia. It will be seen that the invasion from Detroit 
was the only one accomplished that year. As the quality of the force 
with which General Hull was expected to conquer upper Canada was an 
important factor in the campaign, the commander's account will be inter- 
esting. " Their arms were totally unfit for use ; many of the men were 
destitute of blankets and other necessary clothing ; no armorers were pro- 
vided to repair the arms ; no means had been adopted to furnish clothing; 
and no powder in the magazines fit for use. What is more extraordinary, 
no contracts or measures were adopted to supply these troops with neces- 
sary provisions during their march through a wilderness of more than two 
hundred miles until they arrived at Detroit. On my own responsibility I 
sent to powder-mills in Kentucky and purchased powder, collected a 
few blankets and other necessary clothing, and employed private armorers 
in Cincinnati and Dayton to repair the arms." * 

Lieutenant Bacon of the fourth regiment gave the following testimony 
at the court martial : " Generally speaking, the Ohio volunteers and 
militia were insubordinate ; one evening at Urbana I heard a noise, and 
was informed that a company of Ohio volunteers were riding one of their 
officers on a rail. Some thirty or forty of the Ohio militia refused to cross 
into Canada at one time, and I think I saw one hundred who refused to 
cross when the troops were at Urbana. When the troops left Urbana 
General Hull came to Colonel Miller in his official capacity, and informed 
him that there was another mutiny among the Ohio volunteers, and wished 
that a halt take place. After a short halt General Hull rode up to Colonel 
Miller and said, 'Your regiment is a powerful argument ; without them I 
could not march these men to Detroit.' " f 

The three hundred regulars, part of the Fourth United States Infantry, 
seemed to be the only reliable part of the army, and perhaps it would have 
been better for General Hull if the militia had deserted as they often 
threatened to do, as with their mutinous officers they formed rather an 
element of weakness than strength. Four block-houses were built on the 
route, in which small garrisons were left for the security of the convoys. 
On the 24th of June, having proceeded about seventy-five miles, General 
Hull received a letter by express messenger, dated June 18, ordering him 
to proceed to Detroit with all possible dispatch. Accordingly a small 
vessel was hired at the rapids of the Miami for the transportation of the 
invalids (sixty in number), the baggage, hospital stores, etc., and with them 
went a trunk containing army papers. War was declared by congress 

* Hull's Memoirs, p. 34. 
t Hull's Trial. 



HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 347 

June 18, the day of the date of the above letter, yet no intimation of it 
appeared therein. When this vessel arrived at Fort Maiden, the British, 
farther away from Washington than General Hull, had received news of 
the declaration and captured her. 

Mr. Adams justly says, " This first disaster told ftie story of the cam- 
paign," and the historian is disposed to divide the blame for it between 
General Hull and the war department. War was declared June 18, and 
the letter of Eustis of that date to General Hull made no mention of it. 
How could General Hull imagine that so important an event had taken 
place on that day, and that his government would give him no notice? 
Yet such was the case, and another letter of the same date announcing 
the declaration of war sent through the post office did not reach General 
Hull until July 2, two days after the British received the news. 

General Armstrong writes of this transaction : " We have seen that 
General Hull lost his own baggage and that of the army, the whole of his 
hospital stores, intrenching tools, and sixty men, in consequence of the 
ill-judged and tardy manner employed in transmitting to him the declara- 
tion of war. A fact so extraordinary in itself and so productive of injury to 
the public calls for more development than has yet been given to it. It 
will be remembered that a declaration of war was authorized on the 18th 
day of June, 1812. On this day Secretary Eustis wrote two letters to 
General Hull, in one of which no mention was made of this important 
event ; in the other it was distinctly and officially announced. The former 
of the two was carefully made up and expedited by a special messenger 
who arrived in the general's camp on the 24th of June ; while the latter 
was committed to the public mail to Cleveland, thence through a wilder- 
ness of one hundred miles by such conveyances as accident might supply. 

The result was that the declaration did not reach its destination until 
the 2d of July, two days after it had been received by the enemy at 
Maiden. On this occasion the British government was better served : 
Provost received notice of it on the 24th of June, at Quebec; Brock on the 
26th, at Newark ; St. George on the 30th, at Maiden, and on the 8th of 
July at St. Joseph's. But a fact still more extraordinary than the celerity 
of these transmissions is that the information thus rapidly forwarded to 
Maiden and St. Joseph's was received under envelopes franked by the 
secretary of the American treasury!" Thus General Armstrong, who 
was no friend of Hull, as was proved when in 18 14 he appointed General 
Dearborn president of the court-martial to try the former, imputes no 
blame to Hull for this disaster, as does our modern judicial historian. 

The little army reached Detroit Jul.y 5. Some incidents of the march 



348 hull's surrender of Detroit, 1812 

are found in a letter from Robert Wallace of Ohio, a volunteer aid to Gen- 
eral Hull, as follows: " The prudence and dispatch of our march through 
the wilderness, making our road through woods and swamps, fortifying 
our camp, and guarding against surprise from the Indians, inspired us with 
confidence in our old but experienced commander. His letters from the 
war department urged him on, but our heavy wagons and constant rains 
retarded our progress. On the 4th of July we delayed at the river Huron 
to build a bridge for our wagons. We remained under arms all day, and 
in order of battle, being surrounded by Indians, and in sight of a British 
frigate full of troops. During the day it was remarked to me by several 
officers, that General Hull appeared to have no sense of personal danger, 
and that he would certainly be killed if a contest commenced. This was 
said to prepare me for taking orders from the next in rank, and I mention 
it to show their opinion of him at the time. 

We encamped that night in an open prairie, without timber to fortify 
or tools to intrench. Our rear was protected by the river ; our front and 
flank by fires at some distance from the lines. Picket guards were posted, 
scouts kept in motion, and half the troops alternately under arms all 
night. All lights were extinguished in the camp but one — that for the use 
of the surgeon, for we expected an attack before day. I give this as a 
specimen of vigilance, which could never have been taken by surprise. 
Our camp and line of march were always in order of battle." 

It will be remembered that General Hull accepted the command for 
the purpose of leading the troops to Detroit for its protection, well aware 
that the force was inadequate for an offensive campaign, and we make 
these extracts from Captain Wallace's letter to show how promptly and 
successfully he did it. It is a part of the campaign which has not been 
described by historians, perhaps because it reflected credit upon the mili- 
tary skill of the commander, which it has been the object of most of them 
to decry. If compared with most other military marches through the 
wilderness, from that of Braddock to Harrison, this was eminently success- 
ful ; the only disaster, the capture of the schooner at Maiden, being due to 
the negligence, or something worse, of the authorities at Washington. 

Having brought his troops to Detroit General Hull expected to be 
relieved, but instead of that, on the 9th of July, he received orders to cross 
the river " and pursue his conquests." If he had been given an army of 
ten thousand men, and a naval squadron such as Harrison had subse- 
quently, this phrase might not have been amiss; but to talk of conquer- 
ing upper Canada with twelve hundred poorly armed and mutinous 
militia, and three hundred regulars, showed such ignorance and incapacity 



HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 349 

at the war department as to predict failure everywhere. What were the 
resources of Canada, and what were those of Michigan territory at the 
command of General Hull, at this time? A report, dated after the loss of 
Detroit, published in a French-Canadian paper, gives the British force in 
Canada as eighteen thousand nine hundred men, about one half British 
regular troops, and the rest embodied militia ; in addition to which, upper 
Canada alone, having a population of one hundred thousand, could furnish 
in case of invasion at least as many more — making a total of thirty-seven 
thousand men, a larger force than the whole army of the United States at 
that time, whether embodied, enlisted, ©r called for by congress. 

To oppose this force defending their own soil, General Hull had for an 
army of invasion, actually present and fit for duty, as follows : 

Authorized force, at Dayton, Ohio, May 25, fifteen hundred men; 
garrison at Detroit, fifty men ; add Michigan militia at Detroit, one 
hundred and fifty — seventeen hundred men. Deduct from this: garrison 
of fort and two block-houses, sixty men ; prisoners in vessel, sixty men ; 
left sick at river Raisin, twenty-five men ; sick in Detroit, two hundred 
men ; refused to cross into Canada, one hundred and eighty men ; gar- 
risons left in Detroit and forts, two hundred men — seven hundred and 
twenty-five men. 'Nine hundred and seventy-five men — the force which 
crossed the river, or about one-twentieth of the British available force 
in Canada. In addition to which the British had a strong fleet of armed 
vessels in Lake Erie, and General Hull had one vessel, still on the stocks. 

Mr. Adams thus describes Detroit in 1812 : " The town contained 
about eight hundred inhabitants within gun-shot of the British shore. The 
fort was a square enclosure of about two acres, surrounded by an embank- 
ment, a dry ditch, and a double row of pickets. Although capable of 
standing a siege, it did not command the river. Its supplies were insuf- 
ficient for many weeks ; it was two hundred miles distant from support; 
and its only road of communication ran for sixty miles along the shore of 
Lake Erie, where a British fleet on one side and a horde of savages on the 
other could always make it impassable. The widely scattered people of 
the territory, numbering four or five thousand, promised to become a seri- 
ous burden in case of siege or investment. Hull knew in advance that, in 
a military sense, Detroit was a trap." 

The Ohio militia which had been clamoring to cross into Canada with- 
out orders, when the orders came, July 9, found that they had scruples 
about leaving Michigan, and one hundred and eighty of them refused to 
go. On the 12th General Hull crossed with about a thousand men and 
occupied Sandwich unopposed, and the same day issued a proclamation 



350 hull's surrender of Detroit, 1812 

to the inhabitants offering them peace, liberty, and security, provided 
they remained neutral. This proclamation has a curious history. It was 
approved by the President August 1, and declared by the American com- 
missioners at the treaty of Ghent to have been unauthorized and disap- 
proved by the government. Until General Hull's death the paper was 
condemned by the government newspapers as pompous and improper. 
After his death (Hull's)- the friends of General Cass claimed its author- 
ship for him (Cass), and praised it as a strong and spirited paper. Cass 
himself, however, did not pretend to claim it, and when written to with 
an inquiry whether he was the author, he did not reply. 

General Hull immediately fortified his camp, and sent Colonel Mc- 
Arthur to the river Thames for provisions. He returned August 17 with 
flour and military stores, having penetrated sixty miles. The fort at 
Maiden was now to be attacked, but General Hull had no heavy guns for 
breaching the works, and on calling his colonels together to inquire 
whether their men could be depended upon to assault the fort at Maiden 
with the bayonet, Colonel Miller was willing to answer for his men, but 
the Ohio colonels had not the same confidence in theirs, and it was deter- 
mined to wait for cannon from Detroit before making the attack. 

This small force having crossed the river and " challenged the whole 
British force in Canada," as Mr. Adams remarks, what was the command- 
er-in-chief Dearborn doing? He had been repeatedly ordered to make 
a diversion at Niagara in Hull's favor; but up to July 15, the day after 
General Hull had entered Canada, Dearborn was still in Boston contend- 
ing with federalists. " More used to politics than war, Dearborn for the 
time took no thought of military movements. The major-general in 
charge of operations against Montreal, Kingston, and Niagara should 
have been able to warn his civil superior of the risks incurred in allowing 
Hull to make an unsupported movement from an isolated base such as he 
knew Detroit to be; but no thought of Hull was in Dearborn's mind. 

The secretary as early as June 24 authorized Hull to invade Canada 
west, and his delay in waiting till July 20 before sending similar orders to 
the general commanding at Niagara was surprising ; but if Eustis's letter 
seemed singular, Dearborn's answer passed belief. For the first time 
Genera] Dearborn then asked a question in regard to his own campaign — 
a question so extraordinary that every critic found it an enigma : ' Who is 
to have command of the operations in upper Canada? I take it for 
granted that my command does not extend to that distant quarter.' 

July 26, when Hull had already been a fortnight on British soil, a 
week after he wrote that his success depended on cooperation from 



HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 35 1 

Niagara, the only force at Niagara consisted of a few New York militia 
not cooperating with Hull or under the control of any United States 
officer, while the major-general of the department took it for granted that 
Niagara was not in his command. The government therefore expected 
General Hull, with a force which it knew did not at the outset exceed 
two thousand effectives, to march two hundred miles, constructing a road 
as he went ; to garrison Detroit ; to guard at least sixty miles of road 
under the enemy's guns ; to face a force in the field equal to his own and 
another savage force in his rear ; to sweep the Canadian peninsula of 
British troops ; to capture the fortress at Maiden, and the British fleet on 
Lake Erie — and to do all this without the aid of a man or a boat between 
Sandusky and Quebec."* 

As has been stated, the council of war decided not to attack Maiden 
without cannon to breach the walls, and Mr. Adams says that their 
reasons were sufficiently strong. Yet in the next page or two he writes 
that the army lost respect for their commander in consequence of his fail- 
ure to attack that fort. What part of the army? Was it the Ohio militia, 
whose colonels thought their men could not be depended upon for an 
assault? Or did the two hundred and fifty regulars think themselves 
capable of taking the fort unassisted? The quality of the militia had 
been tested, July 19 and 24, when strong detachments had been driven 
back with loss, and a part of Findlay's Ohio regiment on their way to 
protect a train of supplies from Ohio had been routed by Indians under 
Tecumthe. August 3, the garrison of Fort Macinac, sixty-one in number, 
arrived at Detroit as prisoners on parole, that fort having been captured 
on the 17th of July, bringing news that Chicago was invested and that a 
large force of Canadians and Indians were on their way to attack Detroit 
in the rear. August 7, letters came from Niagara announcing the fact of 
British reinforcements for Fort Maiden. About the same time a letter 
was intercepted coming from Fort William to Fort Maiden, announcing 
the mustering of twelve hundred fur company employees and five hundred 
Indians to march against Detroit. Mr. Adams writes, " Hull decided at 
once to recross the river, and succeeded in effecting this movement on the 
night of August 8, without interference from the enemy ; but his posi- 
tion at Detroit was only one degree better than it had been at Sand- 
wich. He wished to abandon Detroit and retreat behind the Maumee, 
and August 9 proposed the measure. Colonel Cass replied that if this 
were done every man of the Ohio militia would refuse to obey, and 

* Adams's History of the United States, vol. vi. pp. 307-31 1. 



352 HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 

would desert their general, and that the army would fall to pieces if 
ordered to retreat." 

As these Ohio regiments made up four-fifths of General Hull's so-called 
army, their conduct should be kept in mind. They first mutinied on their 
way to Detroit. They then clamored to be allowed to invade Canada, 
and when orders came for that movement many of them refused to go. 
In three expeditions sent out from Sandwich by General Hull, these 
troops were repulsed; in the last one, under Major Van Home, they were 
routed by a small band of Indians and ran away from the field. When 
it was decided by their officers that they were not to be relied on for an 
assault upon Fort Maiden, they, officers and men, complained of the delay 
caused by themselves. Finally, as if in order to prevent the only safe 
military movement remaining — the retreat toward Ohio — Colonel Cass, 
their commander, declares that if that retreat is made his men will all 
desert. The armistice which General Dearborn made with Provost, the 
British commander, has been the subject of much discussion ; General 
Hull declaring that by allowing Brock to concentrate all the troops in 
upper Canada against Detroit, it gave the fatal and finishing blow to the 
campaign ; General Dearborn and the government contending that it had 
no influence on the result. Mr. Adams writes : " Dearborn had been 
urgently ordered, August i, to support Hull by a vigorous offensive at 
Niagara, yet August 9 he agreed with the British general to act only on 
the defensive at Niagara. Detroit was not under Dearborn's command, 
and therefore was not included in the armistice, but Dearborn stipulated 
that the arrangement should include Hull if he wished it. The chance 
.was narrow, for even an armistice unless greatly prolonged would only 
have weakened Hull, especially as it could not include Indians other than 
those actually in British service; but even the slight chance was lost by the 
delay until August 9 in sending advices to Niagara and Detroit, for Brock 
left Long Point August 8, and was within four days of Detroit when 
Dearborn wrote from Albany. The last possibility of saving Hull was 
lost by the inefficiency of the American mail service. Brock with his army 
of three hundred men, leaving Long Point August 8, reached Maiden in 
the morning of August 13, fully eight days in advance of the armistice." 

Immediately after returning to Detroit, General Hull sent nearly half 
his force, six hundred men, under Colonel Miller of the regulars, to restore 
his communication with Ohio. It met with a force of about two hundred 
and fifty British and Indians, which after a sharp engagement were driven 
to their boats. For some unsatisfactory reason the detachment returned 
to Detroit without reaching the supplies at the river Raisin. August 13, 



HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 353 

the British began to establish a battery on the Canadian side of the river 
to bombard Detroit. Within the American lines the army was in secret 
mutiny. The Ohio colonels proposed to remove the general from com- 
mand, and offered it to Colonel Miller of the fourth regiment, but he 
declined this promotion. Then the three colonels united in a letter to the 
governor of Ohio, warning him that the existence of the army depended 
on the immediate dispatch of at least two thousand men to keep open the 
line of communication. " Our supplies must come from our state ; this 
country does not furnish them." After showing the desperate situation 
of General Hull's army, " the last possibility of saving it being lost," Mr. 
Adams declares "that a good general would have saved Detroit for some 
weeks, if not altogether. General Hull would soon be starved into sur- 
render, but yet he might have maintained himself a month, and he had 
always the chance of a successful battle." What chance of successful 
battle a mutinous body of eight hundred militia had against three times 
their number of British and Indians, it is difficult to perceive, and in case 
of defeat an Indian massacre of the people of Detroit was certain. 

As governor of the territory General Hull felt bound to protect the 
helpless people at whatever cost to himself in military reputation. This 
was his explanation of the surrender at the time ; and on his death-bed, 
in 1825, he repeated his conviction that he had done his duty. Mr. 
Adams seems to think that the highest duty of a general is to die in 
battle. So did not think Washington, who in his first campaign sur- 
rendered to French and Indians. So did not think Burgoyne and Corn- 
wallis, who, instead, of being shot for surrendering their armies, were re- 
warded by promotion for saving the lives of their men. So did not think 
the great Napoleon, who saved himself by flight from Waterloo. 

Such has been the amount of injustice done to General Hull by igno- 
rant, venal, or prejudiced writers, that Mr. Adams, who evidently wishes to 
bear a judicial mind, seems absolutely incapable of summing up the case 
with impartiality. On the 14th of August, Cass and McArthur were 
ordered by General Hull to select the best men from their regiments, and 
to open, if possible, a route through the woods to the river Raisin. And 
here, again, Mr. Adams makes an estimate of the strength of the American 
force. He says, " The Ohio regiments in May contained nominally about 
five hundred men each, or fifteen hundred in all." General Hull in his 
Memoirs states that the original call was for twelve hundred men from 
Ohio, and that was the number that marched, besides about one hundred 
volunteers who soon disappeared. Says Mr. Adams, " Two months of 
severe labor, with occasional fighting and much sickness, had probably 

Vol. XXVII.-No. 5-23 



354 hull's surrender of Detroit, 1812 

reduced the number of effectives about one half." Now, if we deduct 
from the estimate of Mr. Adams, in May, for two regiments of five 
hundred each, we have one thousand ; deduct one half, five hundred, and 
the remainder is five hundred ; and yet Mr. Adams gives the effective 
strength of the two Ohio regiments at "perhaps six or seven hundred 
men " — by what rule of arithmetic it is not explained. 

Three hundred and fifty of the men of these regiments marched on the 
14th, and the next evening they were half-way to the river Raisin. Mr. 
Adams writes: " So it happened that on the early morning of August 16 
Hull was guarding the fort and town of Detroit with about two hundred 
and fifty men of the fourth regiment [as the original number in May was 
three hundred, and Colonel Miller reported his force reduced one half by 
sickness, one hundred and fifty would be nearer the fact] and such of the 
Michigan militia and Ohio volunteers as may have been present, all told 
about a thousand effectives. Hull estimated his force as not exceeding 
eight hundred men ; Major Jessup reported it as one thousand and sixty, 
including the Michigan militia. If the sickness and loss of strength at 
Detroit were in proportion to the waste at Niagara, Hull's estimate was 
perhaps nearer the truth." No doubt it was, as the Michigan militia 
deserted to the enemy on the 15th. The force with which Brock moved 
against Detroit has had many different estimates. In his official report he 
makes his numbers three hundred and thirty regulars, four hundred 
militia, and six hundred Indians, with five guns. This estimate Mr. 
Adams adopts. As General Brock reported the capture of a garrison of 
twenty-five hundred men in Detroit, which was about three times the 
number actually there, he probably underestimated his own force. At 
the court-martial, the testimony of Lieutenant Forbush, a prisoner at Fort 
Maiden, showed a force there of one thousand nine hundred and seventy 
men. Mr. Adams states that Brock brought three hundred men with him. 
A detachment of British troops under Major Chambers marched across 
the country with artillery, collecting the militia and Indians, and joined 
Brock at Maiden. In addition to these, General Brock had at his disposal 
the sailors and marines belonging to the British fleet ; there being no 
American ships to oppose them, their crews might be used on shore. 

These three contingents must have added about a thousand men to 
the force at Maiden when Brock arrived there. As to Indians, the hope 
of massacre, scalps, and plunder had filled the woods with them. 

The testimony of Major Snelling, a witness for the prosecution at the 
court-martial, was to this effect : " He stood at the corner of the slip lead- 
ing to the gate of the fort of Detroit, and attempted to count the British 



HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 355 

troops as they entered." His evidence is rather confused, but as far as it 
can be understood it seems to imply that Brock's force consisted of 
regulars and York volunteers in uniform, fifteen hundred ; militia not 
in uniform, seven hundred and fifty — making two thousand two hundred 
and fifty white troops. He saw only one hundred and fifty Indians, who 
were drawn up to fire a salute, but supposed there were more. If to these 
two thousand two hundred and fifty white troops are added the six hun- 
dred Indians which Brock includes in his report, the aggregate is two 
thousand eight hundred and fifty men, which Brock could well spare from 
his force at Maiden of three thousand, having no enemy in his rear. Mr. 
Adams, adopting Brock's estimate of his force, says that he crossed the 
river with seven hundred and thirty men. " He intended to take up a 
strong position and force Hull to attack it; but learning from his Indians 
that McArthur's detachment, reported as five hundred strong, was only a 
few miles in his rear, he resolved on an assault, and moved in close column 
within three-quarters of a mile of the American twenty-four-pound guns. 
Had Hull prayed that the British might deliver themselves into his hands, 
his prayer could not have been better answered. Even under trial for his 
life, he never ventured to express a distinct belief that Brock's assault 
could have succeeded ; and in case of failure the small British force must 
have retreated a mile and a half under the fire of the fort's heavy guns, 
followed by an equal force, and attacked in flank and rear by McArthur's 
detachment, in hearing of battle and making directly toward it." 

Mr. Adams underestimates Brock's force by at least two-thirds ; and 
military men know by experience that everything in war is uncertain, and 
are less likely than civilians to predict the result of movements. Then, 
how could McArthur's detachment of three hundred and fifty men, with, 
as Mr. Adams relates on same page, a force of six hundred Indians 
between them and Brock, assault the latter ? Only a few days before, 
this same Tecumthe with less than a hundred Indians had routed Van 
Home with one hundred and eighty men. Were these American guns of 
which Mr. Adams writes the same from which Captain Snelling withdrew 
his men that morning without orders and retired to the fort? In order 
to support his theory that the courage of General Hull (which had carried 
him through with credit ten battles of the Revolution) failed him under 
the bombardment of the fort, Mr. Adams selects from the testimony given 
at the court-martial the evidence of Major Snelling, whose opinion was 
that the general's use of tobacco in large quantities on that occasion indi- 
cated personal fear. This was the Captain Snelling who on the morning 
of the day of the surrender left his post without orders and marched his 



356 hull's surrender of Detroit, 1812 

men to the fort, thus making himself liable to a court-martial for the 
gravest of military offenses ; instead of which he was promoted to a 
majority for his promised testimony, which proved so malignant that he 
was afterward made a colonel in the regular army. If the immoderate 
use of tobacco in a commander who finds himself in a critical position 
indicates cowardice, General Grant must be open to suspicion, for on such 
occasions he smoked continually. But the few witnesses at the trial who 
had seen service found no such fear in the conduct of General Hull. 

Mr. Adams writes : " Knowing that sooner or later the fort must fall, 
and dreading massacre for the women and children, and treated with 
undisguised contempt by the militia officers, anxious for the safety of 
McArthur and Cass, Hull hesitated, took no measure to impede the enemy's 
advance, and at last sent a flag across the river to negotiate. A cannon- 
ball from the enemy's batteries killed four men in the fort, two companies 
of the Michigan militia deserted, their behavior threatening to leave the 
town exposed to the Indians, and from that moment Hull determined to 
surrender on the best terms he could get." 

General Hull in his Defence thus describes the situation : " Early in the 
morning of August 16 General Brock landed his forces at the spring wells 
under cover of the guns of his navy. His effective force was more than 
three times greater than mine, and he might have brought to his stand- 
ard more than ten times my number before I could have received any 
assistance. Being at this time not only general of the army but governor 
of the territory, and without instructions, all the measures were in- 
trusted to my discretion ; being responsible for the safety of the inhabi- 
tants, it became my duty to adopt such measures as would effect that 
object. My situation was such that there was no possibility of affording 
the inhabitants protection further than the balls from the cannon of the 
fort could be carried. These inhabitants were scattered over a territory 
of several hundred miles. The savages had invaded every part of this 
territory, and while the contest lasted there was nothing which could 
restrain their barbarity. The work of desolation and cruelty had com- 
menced, and nearly half my effective force was absent ; and from the 
time it had marched, and the orders it had received from me, I had reason 
to believe it was nearly fifty miles distant. With the feeble force under 
my command, I did not believe there was the most distant prospect of suc- 
cess in the event of a battle ; and had the forces at Detroit been defeated 
the fate of the detachment under McArthur and Cass would have been 
inevitable. What, however, was decisive in my mind was my situation 
even in a possible event of success over British forces. I should have 



HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 357 

been without provisions, and I had no means of opening my communi- 
cation over the lake. It would in this case become a war with savages, 
who would have been aided by all the remaining forces of upper Canada 
and the navy on the lake. Had my army, however, not been divided, and 
had the absent detachment been with me, or had I received information 
that it had been in a situation where it could have cooperated, I should 
have risked the consequences of a battle. Under the circumstances which 
existed, I determined to send a flag of truce, open a treaty, and accept the 
best terms which could be obtained. By the article of capitulation, pro- 
tection and safety were secured to the inhabitants of Michigan in their 
persons and property. All the militia both of Michigan and Ohio 
returned immediately to their homes, and none were retained as prisoners 
excepting the few regulars, consisting then of a little over two hundred. 
This measure, under the circumstances, was dictated in my opinion by a 
sense of duty, and was attended with less public calamity than any other 
which could have been adopted ; and I was willing to assume and — in my 
official communication to the government — I took the whole responsibility 
of it on myself. It required more firmness and independence than any 
other act of my life. It was dictated by my best judgment and a con- 
scientious regard to what I believed to be my duty ; and I now sincerely 
rejoice, and there has never been a moment when I have not rejoiced 
that I dared thus independently to do my duty." * 

This was written in 1824, twelve years after the surrender of Detroit, 
and published in Boston, all that time having elapsed before General 
Hull could obtain copies of the papers and letters necessary to his vindi- 
cation, from Washington. His requests for them were unanswered, or if 
replied to were met with the assertion that no such papers were to be 
found. Mr. John C. Calhoun, when secretary of war, being applied to, 
immediately ordered copies to be made and sent to General Hull of all 
the papers in his department that could be found bearing on the case. 
Some important ones known to .have been there were missing. What 
became of them was probably known only to those interested in their 
suppression. All of General Hull's baggage and papers were lost in the 
brig Adams, which was used by the British after the surrender as a 
transport to take the paroled officers and their families to the port of 
Buffalo. After the passengers were landed near that city the vessel was 
captured and burned by American sailors under Lieutenant Elliott, and 
everything belonging to General Hull was lost ; a fatal loss to him, these 
papers being necessary to his defense before the court-martial. 

* Memoirs of the Campaign of 18 12. 



358 hull's surrender of Detroit, 1812 

General Hull says further : " In the capitulation I made no provision 
for myself, and was ordered to Montreal as an unconditional prisoner. A 
provision was made for all the officers and soldiers of the militia, and they 
immediately returned to their homes. Colonel Cass, taking advantage of 
my situation, after the indulgence I had procured for him, proceeded 
directly to Washington, where he was most graciously received by the 
administration, and then presented an account of the campaign, before it 
had been possible for me to have made any communication. This letter 
written by himself, giving particular details of events of which he had 
no knowledge, as he was absent when they took place, was received by 
the administration and published as an official account in all the news- 
papers throughout the United States. While I was a prisoner, my other 
officers, for whose liberation I had provided, followed Colonel Cass to 
Washington, and seeing the favors and patronage he had received by his 
representation imitated him, and were not disappointed in the rewards." 

Mr. Adams having shown the imbecility of Secretary Eustis, the inert- 
ness and neglect of orders of Dearborn, and the fatal effect of the armistice 
made by him, the mutinous conduct of the Ohio troops, the want of sup- 
plies in Detroit, with no possibility of procuring more, and the superiority 
of the enemy by land and water, comes to this remarkable conclusion : 
" If any man in the United States was more responsible than Hull for the 
result of the campaign, it was ex-President Jefferson, whose system had 
shut military efficiency from the scope of American government." 

This sentence seems to give the key to Mr. Adams's history of the 
campaign — the undying feud between the Adams and Jefferson clans, 
and the disposition to prejudge the case of General Hull. "At this time," 
writes Mr. Adams, " the Canadians outnumbered the American forces at 
every point of danger on the frontier ; not only were they equal or superior 
to the Americans at Detroit, Niagara, and Montreal, but they could be 
more readily concentrated, and were quickly supplied. The storm of 
public wrath which annihilated Hull and shook Eustis passed harmless 
over the head of Dearborn. No one knew Dearborn was at fault, for he 
had done nothing; and a general who had done nothing had the advan- 
tage over his rivals whose activity or situation caused them to act. Dear- 
born threw the whole responsibility on the war department." 

The conclusion is that the only commander who did anything up to 
August 16 was selected as the scapegoat for those who, neglecting orders, 
remained idle ; and if General Hull had sat still at Dayton for two months, 
or had even remained in Detroit, he would have come out all right : but 
such was not the disposition of one of whom Washington wrote to General 



HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 359 

Heath, " He is an officer of great merit, whose services have been honor- 
able to himself and honorable to his country." 

As soon as General Hull was exchanged he was placed under arrest, 
and the administration exhibited charges for capital offences against him. 
A court-martial, of which General Wade Hampton was president, was 
summoned at Philadelphia, where General Hull appeared for trial. But 
this court-martial was dissolved by Madison without giving any reason 
for its dissolution. After General Hull had been another year under 
arrest, a new court-martial was summoned, of which General Dearborn was 
appointed president. Mr. Adams thus describes the transaction : " Mean- 
while Hull waited for trial. During the summer of 181 3 he saw nearly all 
his possible judges disgraced and demanding courts-martial like himself. 
Hampton was one, Wilkinson another, Dearborn a third. Dearborn had 
been removed from command in face of the enemy, and loudly called for a 
court of inquiry. Instead of granting this the President assigned him to 
duty in command of military district No. 3, comprising the city of New 
York, and made him president of the court-martial upon General Hull. 

The impropriety of such a selection could not be denied. Of all men 
in the United States Dearborn was most deeply interested in the result of 
Hull's trial; and the President, next to Dearborn, would be most deeply 
injured by Hull's acquittal. The judgment of Dearborn, or of any court 
over which Dearborn presided, in a matter which affected both court and 
government so closely, could not command respect. That Armstrong lent 
himself to such a measure was a new trait of character, never explained ; 
but that Madison either ordered or permitted it, showed that he must 
have been unconscious either of Dearborn's responsibility for Hull's disas- 
ter, or of his own." Either the above must have been " writ sarkastical," 
as Mark Twain says, or the confidence of Mr. Adams in the purity of two 
such astute politicians as Madison and Armstrong is admirable. 

Let us now examine the proceedings of the modern court of star- 
chamber, of which Mr. Adams has nothing to say except to record the 
verdict, adding " that some one should be punished for the loss of 
Detroit, and few persons were likely to complain because Hull was a 
selected victim ; but many thought that if Hull deserved to be shot, other 
men much higher than he in office and responsibility merited punishment; 
and the character of the court-martial added no credit to the government, 
which in effect it acquitted of blame." 

Few persons now living have read the records of the proceedings of 
this court. In fact, the book became so rare soon after its publication as 
to give rise to the belief that it had been suppressed by order of the gov- 



360 HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 

ernment, which might well be ashamed of it. " The first court, ordered to 
assemble at Philadelphia, consisted of Brigadier-Generals Wade Hampton 
president, James Bloomfield, and H. Burbeck ; Colonels E. Izard and A. 
McComb, artillery ; J. Burn, cavalry ; J. Simmonds, J. Kingsbury, H. 
Parker, W. H. Winder, and P. P. Schuyler, infantry ; supernumeraries, 
Lieutenant-Colonels W. Scott, J. Chrystie, and R. Dennis ; and A. J. 
Dallas, judge-advocate. General Hull presented himself before this court 
February 13, 181 3, which was composed of honorable and fairly experi- 
enced soldiers — too much so, apparently, to suit the government, which 
dissolved it and ordered another to convene nearly a year after, at Albany, 
January 3, 1814, with Henry Dearborn as president, and A. J. Dallas and 
M. Van Buren as prosecutors, General Hull not being allowed the benefit 
of counsel. The thirteen officers who formed this court were most of 
them men just appointed from civil life, without military experience, and 
they owed their positions in the army to political partisanship, and most 
of them left the army at the close of the war. Not one of them ever 
received any kind of promotion for military service, and as far as can be 
learned not one of the twelve was ever in battle." * 

One member of the court, Colonel Conner, was at the time upon the 
staff of General Dearborn, and a member of his military family, and owed 
to his influence the promotion to lieutenant-colonel just before the court 
convened, as well as all previous appointments and promotions. Two 
other members of the court had been recently promoted, and three other 
were or had been members of General Dearborn's military family. Such 
was the composition of the court selected to try on capital charges a 
veteran soldier of the Revolutionary war ; one who had taken part in the 
most important battles of that war ; one who had been twice promoted by 
Washington ; who had twice received the thanks of congress, and, when 
the army was disbanded at close of war, had been selected by Washington 
for lieutenant-colonel of the one regiment retained in the service. 

Thus far it appears that six distinct provisions of the Constitution of 
the United States had been violated in this trial. These are the words of 
that instrument : " In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the 
right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury ; . . . to be in- 
formed of the nature and cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with 
the witnesses against him ; to have compulsory process for obtaining wit- 
nesses in his favor ; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense." 
First, Hull was refused a speedy trial. Second, he was brought before an 

* Speech of Mr. Wheeler of Alabama, February, 1883. 



HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 361 

interested instead of an impartial jury. Third, he was not informed of the 
nature and causes of the accusation. Fourth, he did not have process for 
obtaining; witnesses in his favor, and was refused evidence of a document- 
ary character. Fifth, he was refused the right to introduce counsel to 
assist him in his defense. Sixth, he was not confronted by the witnesses 
against him. The object of this provision is to have the witnesses confront 
the court, who are thus to determine credibility, and hence the gross ille- 
gality of the order which placed officers on the court to vote on the findings 
who had not been present, and who had therefore not been confronted 
by the witnesses for the prosecution. " The Constitution does not limit 
these provisions to civil trials ; and even if it did so, the principles are so 
just and necessary to all tribunals which seek to dispense justice, that to 
disregard them would violate any legal procedure." 

The proceedings of this court were no less unjust than its organization. 
The witnesses for the government, from Lieutenant-Colonel Cass of the 
militia who was made a brigadier-general in the regular army, to Sergeant 
Forbush who was made a lieutenant, were all promoted for the occasion, 
none of them having performed any service to entitle them to such prefer- 
ment. " These witnesses gave their testimony like men arguing a cause. 
They evidently evinced an anxiety throughout to show that General Hull 
was to blame in all that occurred. They remembered everything that 
made against him — nothing that could tell in his favor. This strong 
determination to do their commander all the mischief in their power, 
whether arising from prejudice or a worse motive, deprives their testimony 
of the weight it might otherwise possess. Thus in General Cass's testimony 
we find a very remarkable power of recollection in regard to some matters, 
and an equally remarkable forgetfulness as to other things. If any ques- 
tion is asked the answer to which might benefit General Hull, he finds 
it impossible to remember anything about it. He remembers that the 
defenses at Maiden were poor, and " was of the opinion that the works 
were not defensible," although at the council of war he thought they were 
too strong to be attacked by his regiment. He does not recollect about 
the guns or gun-carriages at Detroit, and is not very sure that the enclos- 
ures and platforms were defective. He cannot recollect within four days 
the time of crossing from Detroit to Canada ; he cannot even remember 
whether Colonel Miller's detachment went to Brownstown before or after 
the evacuation of Canada. Yet in his letter of September 10 he recollects 
facts which occurred in Detroit during his absence from that place, such as 
that of five hundred Ohio militia shedding tears because they were not 
allowed to fight."'* 

* Clarke's History of the Campaign of 1812, p. 403. 



362 HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 

And here another injustice was committed. " The whole concourse of 
government witnesses were brought into court, and General Cass, the 
most talented, led off with his evidence, to which the others listened with 
such care as was thought would prevent the possibility of embarrassing 
contradictions. General Hull had made so many objections to the various 
unlawful proceedings of the court, which had in every case been overruled, 
that he determined not to go through the useless form of further protesta- 
tions." * In Hull's Trial it is stated that " One honorable officer of the 
court, however, insisted that this tuition of witnesses should not be allowed, 
but he was promptly rebuked by General Dearborn, who stated that it was 
not necessary to examine these witnesses separately. Officers were per- 
mitted to testify to their recollection of written documents when these 
documents were themselves under the control of the prosecution, and this, 
too, even when the defense denied that the documents were such as 
described by the verbal testimony. The prosecution's witnesses are here 
worth a passing notice. Their military experience, with few exceptions, 
had been confined to the two months' service under General Hull, just 
preceding their capture by General Brock. During these two months 
their conduct had been insubordinate, mutinous, and almost treasonable. 
So ignorant were these men of military usage and propriety that they did 
not conceal the fact of their disobeying General Hull's orders, issued by 
him in June for the march from Urbana to Detroit ; nor his orders to cross 
into Canada; nor did they deny refusing to march to the Miami, stating 
that they would desert rather than obey ; nor did they deny that two days 
before the capture of Detroit they were in open mutiny. On the contrary 
they boasted of these acts. The majority of the court seemed to concur 
with their witnesses in these views, and apparently commended such dis- 
graceful and unmilitary conduct, all of them failing to observe that the 
first mutiny and disobedience of these officers was at Urbana, when 
General Hull first assumed command, with a reputation indorsed by 
Washington as one of the bravest and most skillful officers of the Revolu- 
tion. So little did the officers who conducted the prosecution know of 
military duty and propriety that they even embodied in the charges, 
' That the officers and soldiers were induced to lose, and did lose, con- 
fidence in the courage and military capacity of their said commander.' ' 

These men, without military knowledge or experience, were selected 
to give their opinions regarding General Hull's conduct, and to testify 
against him. It should be remembered that the acquittal of General Hull 

* Mr. Wheeler's speech in congress, February, 1883. 



HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 363 

would convict the government and General Dearborn of incompetence and 
disobedience of orders, and would render these Ohio militia officers liable 
to punishment for mutiny — certainly the loss of their commissions, per- 
haps the loss of their lives. Cass, their leader, in addition to promotion 
to the rank of brigadier-general, over the heads of older soldiers, had in 
his pocket when he appeared as a witness before this court, his appoint- 
ment as governor of Michigan. Between ruin and promotion, what won- 
der at the choice of these men, and that they rendered the services for 
which they had received their pay in advance? " General Hull was acquit- 
ted of the charge of treason, because the principal fact upon which this 
charge was based would have proved the secretary of war guilty of trea- 
son, rather than the general. This fact was his sending a vessel by the 
lake after war was declared, containing his invalids and hospital stores. 
But when he had sent the vessel he had received no notice of the declara- 
tion of war, though notice might easily have reached him if the proper 
measures had been taken. Meanwhile the British at Maiden had received 
notice of the declaration of war, in a letter franked by the secretary of 
the treasury, in consequence of which they captured the vessel." * 

General Hull was found guilty on the charge of cowardice. The prin- 
cipal evidence under this charge was that of the militia officers, derived 
from his personal appearance on the 15th and 16th of August. Now, it 
must be observed, that these men all testify that they saw General Hull 
inside the fort and out of danger, while officers like Miller and Maxwell of 
the regulars, who had seen service, testified that they saw General Hull 
exposed to the enemy's fire on the advanced line, and that he appeared 
cool and collected. This was also the testimony of Colonel Watson, 
Major Munson, and Lieutenant Bacon. That General Hull's countenance 
should express anxiety on that occasion is natural. His responsibility 
was great ; with a small and mutinous force, cut off from all the assistance 
which had been promised him, and confronted by overpowering forces by 
land and water, short of supplies of every kind, and full of solicitude for 
the safety of the people of Michigan under his charge, he was probably 
revolving in his mind whether to sacrifice himself or these women and 
children. These feelings could not be understood by the militia officers, 
and, apparently, they cannot be realized by Mr. Adams, whose only idea 
of the duties of a commander seems to be that he should fight. 

To save the troops and the civilians intrusted to his care from inevit- 
able and useless slaughter, by the probable sacrifice of his own reputation, 
demanded a higher courage than that necessary for death in battle. 

* Clarke's History of the Campaign of 1812, p. 405. 



364 HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 

As a specimen of the kind of evidence presented by the government, 
the following is an extract from the letter of Colonel Cass, upon which the 
proceedings of the court were founded : " On the day of the surrender we 
had fifteen days' provisions of every kind on hand. It was calculated that 
we could readily procure three months' provisions, independent of one 
hundred and fifty barrels of flour and thirteen hundred head of cattle, 
which had been promised from Ohio, and which remained at the river 
Raisin, under Captain Brush, within reach of the army." Testimony 
at this trial showed that on the 16th of August there was not five days' 
provision in the fort. As to the cattle and flour at the river Raisin, we 
have seen that before General Brock crossed the river, Major Van Horn 
and Colonel Miller had both attempted to reach it, the one with two hun- 
dred, and the other with six hundred men, and that both had failed. 
Cass gives no authority for his statement, he says " it was calculated." 
Who made the calculation does not appear. But it is very remarkable 
that only one month before the date of this letter, and four days before 
the surrender, Colonel Cass should have made quite a different statement 
to Governor Meigs. In a letter to Governor Meigs of Ohio, dated August 
12, Colonel Cass writes: "The letter of the secretary of war to you 
authorizes you to preserve and keep open the communication from the 
state of Ohio to Detroit. It is all important that it should be kept open. 
Our very existence depends upon it. Our supplies must come from our 
state. This country does not furnish them. Nothing but a large force 
of two thousand men, at least, will effect the object." On the trial, 
Willis Silliman, a brother-in-law of Colonel Cass, testified that he received a 
letter from Cass, dated August 12, which said : " Our situation is become 
critical — bad as you may think of our situation, it is still worse than you 
believe. I cannot descend into particulars lest this should fall into the 
hands of the enemy." This did happen, for General Brock in a letter of 
September 3 to the British authorities, says : " I got possession of the 
letters of my antagonist, addressed to the secretary of war, and also of the 
sentiments which hundreds of his army uttered to their friends." 

Silliman testified that he had another letter from Colonel Cass, dated 
August 3, in which he urged him to use his exertions to hasten the march 
of troops from Ohio, and said that men and provisions were both neces- 
sary ; and that provisions are, or would be, necessary for the existence of 
the troops. Thus we see, that on the third of August, Colonel Cass writes 
that provisions are necessary, or soon will be, to the existence of the army; 
and on the trial he swears, that in his opinion, provisions, on the sixteenth 
of August, might be procured sufficient for three or four months. Which 



HULL'S SURRENDER OF DETROIT, l8l2 365 

of these statements should be believed? The packed court accepted the 
latter, and for these eminent services Colonel Cass became brigadier-gen- 
eral, and governor of Michigan territory. 

"General Hull had been refused the aid of counsel; but many days 
were occupied in speeches by Martin Van Buren and A. J. Dallas, counsel 
employed by the prosecution, and another atrocity was found necessary. 
Nearly three months had elapsed since the court commenced its sittings. 
Members had been absent much of the time, and now General Dearborn 
found that the votes of these absent members were necessary to his pur- 
poses, and an order is produced, allowing absent members to resume their 
seats. Pursuant to this unlawful ruling, absent members were brought 
back, and voted upon the finding of the court; and this, too, against the 
protest of members of the tribunal ; and thus ended the most atrocious 
outrage which was ever perpetrated under the form of justice." 

Captain De Hart, in his work on courts martial, writes : " If a member 
of a court martial should for any cause be absent from his seat during the 
course of the trial he can not resume it. It would have been considered 
vacated, and he is excluded from any further participation in the trial. All 
the members of a court martial must be present during the proceedings on 
the reception of testimony ; and resumption of his place by a member 
who has been absent for any period while proceedings were going on, 
would vitiate the judgment of the court." A case of this description is 
quoted in the work, in which the reviewing authority set aside the verdict 
of the court on account of this irregularity. O'Brien, in his work on 
American military courts, says : " When it is a question of military science, 
to affect the officer on trial, questions of opinion are inadmissible. For it 
is obvious that the court has met for nothing else than to try that ques- 
tion, and they have before them the facts in evidence, on which to ground 
their conclusions. Courts martial should be very cautious in receiving 
evidence as to opinion, in all instances." These important rules were both 
violated by Dearborn and his court, and its finding, according to military 
authorities, was vitiated ; but President Madison approved of its finding, 
and that with such indecent haste as showed a foregone conclusion. 

Madison was looking for reelection, and, next to Dearborn and Eustis, 
was more interested in the success of the prosecution than any other per- 
son. The conspiracy was successful. General Hull was made the victim. 
Madison was reelected. Dearborn and Eustis were rewarded with for- 
eign missions, Cass with the governorship of Michigan, and the militia 
officers who had testified against their commander, with promotion. 
Those, however, who testified in his favor, got no promotion, and Lieuten- 



366 hull's surrender of Detroit, 1812 

ant Bacon, an excellent officer, was dropped from the new regiment. All 
General Hull's correspondence with the government being lost with his 
baggage by the burning of the Adams on Lake Erie, and he unable to 
procure copies from Washington until 1824, his Memoirs of the Cam- 
paign of 1812 were not published until 1825. This work changed public 
opinion as to the responsibility for the surrender of Detroit wherever it 
was read, and his fellow-citizens of Massachusetts, without distinction of 
party, gave him a public dinner in Boston to show their sense of sympa- 
thy with him in his unmerited misfortunes. Many other testimonials of 
like character came to him in his last years, especially from soldiers who 
had served with him and under him in the war of the Revolution. 

Most historians of that period have copied their accounts from the 
government organs and other partisan works, but a few, like Lossing, 
Sparks, and Patton, have investigated the matter for themselves, and have 
come to the conclusion that General Hull was sacrificed to save the repu- 
tation of Madison's administration. Ancient history tells us that in the 
wars between Carthage and Rome, Carthage was no less the enemy of 
Hannibal than Rome; and a more treacherous enemy, for he depended 
upon her for help and she failed him almost uniformly. So did the 
modern republic treat her general in 181 2. J. F. Clarke in his Memorial 
Sketches says: "History has at last reached the position in which its 
final verdict for William Hull is entire acquittal. His condemnation still 
stands on the records of our army, but it was the nation which was con- 
demned by that sentence, and not Hull. He had the one never-failing 
support, the consciousness of having done his duty. On this point he 
never expressed a doubt. He maintained to the last, and repeated on his 
deathbed, his conviction that he had done right in this act which had 
brought upon him such unmerited misfortune. It is, however, probable 
that General Hull, fallen on evil days and tongues, was quite as happy 
and fully as contented as when his life led from one success to another. 
The ' stupid starers and the loud huzzas ' were gone, but the self- 
approval remained. Cast down but not destroyed, persecuted but not for- 
saken, he realized the description of the poet: 

' Thou hast been 
As one, in suffering all, that suffers nothing ; 
A man that fortune's buffets and rewards 
Hast taken with equal thanks.'" 



Marietta, Georgia. 



cfa^C £ 6l**St<^, 



REV. CHARLES H. PARKHURST, D.D. 

The following extract from the Christia.71 Union of recent date will 
interest our readers in every part of the land, as Dr. Parkhurst, who is 
universally recognized as " one of the foremost prophet-preachers of 
America," is among our eminent contributors, and his fine portrait will be 
remembered as forming the frontispiece to the November issue, 1890, in 
connection with his brilliant chapter " Divine Drift in Human History." 

" Dr. Parkhurst is a curious intermingling" of the best type of the ancient 
and the modern preacher. Give him the monk's costume, and he might 
sit to the painter for an ideal monk of the intellectual-spiritual type. His 
forehead is high, his features clear-cut, his face refined, his eye keen and 
piercing. Even in repose or in social intercourse the spirituality of his 
face impresses the beholder. In the pulpit the fires that burn within shine 
through this translucent face and flame like coals of fire in those keen eyes. 
More intense preacher there is not in the American pulpit ; albeit his 
intensity shows itself by methods wholly his own. His eloquence is that 
of deliberation. His style is epigrammatic — to a fault. But the epigram 
soon ceases to impress the hearer as an artifice ; he feels it to be partly 
due to a rare literary quality, but still more to an intensity of thought and 
feeling which instinctively seeks the fewest possible words for its expres- 
sion. He is aphoristic as the Sermon on the Mount is aphoristic. His 
extravagances are those of a poet, to whom no language is extravagant 
which is employed to utter the intensity of his emotion. His words flash 
because his heart burns. 

He is a man of audacious courage because of absolute faith. Fear is 
the child of unbelief. The man who fears for the Bible or the Church or 
Christianity does so, always, because he lacks faith either in God or in man. 
Dr. Parkhurst has faith in both. He believes that Christianity is adapted 
to the universal needs of humanity ; he believes that humanity has a 
capacity — God-given — to apprehend and accept Christianity. His courage 
carries with it a great hope. He believes — really believes — that one with 
God is a majority ; and he constantly acts on that belief. He never sounds 
a retreat, and never utters a word of discouragement. We doubt whether 
his congregation ever heard from him what is known in theology as an 
"apologetic" sermon. He is never seen on the defense. His way of de- 
fending Christian faith is to march at the head of marshaled truth in an 



368 REV. CHARLES H. PARKHURST, D.D. 

attack on error or wickedness. He defends the Church as Grant defended 
Washington — by moving on the enemy. 

With all this intensity of spiritual conviction and consequent coura- 
geous hopefulness, he resembles neither the mystics nor the monks. He 
belongs neither to the Pietists nor to the Puritans. He is intense without 
being narrow, bold without being pugnacious, and spiritual without being 
ascetic. He lives in the nineteenth century, moves with its current, thinks 
in its thought, and speaks its language. The modern spirit in him sum- 
mons him to the attack which he is making to-day against a corrupt city 
government ; the intense spiritual life in him gives him the courage for 
this attack ; for he really believes that the conscience of our New York 
City is more than a match for its corrupt politicians, and that this con- 
science is not dead but sleeping. 

Such a man, as might be expected, is pre-eminently a manly preacher. 
In his church is seen every Sunday the unusual spectacle of a congregation 
of which one-half or more is composed of men. His is not the wealthiest 
church in the city, but we doubt whether any other church contains a 
larger proportion of distinctively intellectual men. He attracts large num- 
bers of young men. His military spirit fascinates them ; his courage 
inspires them ; his visions of truth flash on them like a new revelation. 

The work of such a man is not to be measured by the number of addi- 
tions to the church under his ministry. Whether this is large or not we 
do not know. We suspect it is not larger than the average ; perhaps it 
may even be less. But to thousands to whom the Christian religion was 
but a rule of pious decorum he has given a new conception of that religion 
as an inspired and divine life ; and to thousands of others to whom the 
Christian religion was but a gateway to green pastures and still waters, he 
has given a new conception of that religion as a life of fearless heroism in 
the ways of practical righteousness." 



DID THE NORSE DISCOVER AMERICA? 

For centuries after the Atlantis of the ancients was sunk beneath the 
sea by " extraordinary earthquakes and deluges," a vast unknown ocean 
stretched west of Europe, where sea and sky mingled, where shoals 
impeded navigation, and monsters and demons waited to destroy the 
too daring mariner who ventured on its waters. About the beginning of 
the middle ages the vikings of the north began pushing out of sight of 
land in their single-masted, many-oared galleys. Having neither charts 
nor compass to guide them, they carried hawks or ravens, and when 
uncertain respecting the course of their vessels, let loose a cast of these 
birds, which instinctively flew to the nearest land. Driven by storms across 
the North sea, they discovered the Shetland and Faroe islands, and later, 
in 861, Naddod, a Norwegian pirate, was drifted in his ship by an adverse 
wind to Iceland, which he called Sneeland (Snowland). The oppression 
of Harald Fairhair, king of Norway, now drove the more high-spirited 
chieftains to leave the country, and many of the uninhabited lands were 
thus settled. The colony in Iceland grew within half a century into a 
sturdy little republic, counting among its citizens people from England, 
Ireland, Scotland, Flanders, and other countries of northern Europe. 

But Iceland was not long to remain the most remote part of the 
western world known to Europeans. Gunnbjorn first saw land to the 
west, which was visited in 981 by Eirek the Red, and called by him Green- 
land, " for," said he, " it will make men's minds long to go there if the 
land has a fine name." Two colonies were soon planted in the new 
country by these restless rovers of the deep, not as has been supposed on 
the east and west coasts, but the eastern settlement {eystri bygd) near 
Cape Farewell, and the western (vestri ubyga) probably still farther 
north. Among those whom Eirek induced to return with him as colonists 
to Greenland was a Norwegian named Herjulf. It is told in the saga of 
Eirek the Red, that Bjarni, son of Herjulf, a promising young man who 
had acquired much property and honor abroad, learning of his father's 
departure, on his return to Iceland, determined to go in search of him. 
Never having been before in the Greenland sea he expressed to his 
men some doubt as to the wisdom of their undertaking. " Nevertheless, 
when they were ready they set out to sea, and after three days' sailing 
land was out of sight, and the fair winds ceased, and northern winds with 

Vol. XXVII.-No. 5.-24 



370 DID THE NORSE DISCOVER AMERICA ? 

fog blew continually, so that for many days they did not know in what 
direction they were sailing. Then the sun came into sight and they could 
distinguish the quarters of heaven. They hoisted sail and sailed all day 
before they saw land. They wondered what land this could be, and 
Bjarni said he did not think it was Greenland. The men asked if he 
wished to sail towards it, and he answered that he wanted to go near it ; 
this they did, and soon saw that it had no mountains, but low hills, and 
was forest-clad. They kept the land on their left, but the corners of the 
sail were toward the land. Then they sailed for two days before they 
saw other land. They asked Bjarni if he did not think this was Greenland. 
He answered : ' No ; it is very unlike, I think, for very large glaciers are 
said to be in Greenland.' They soon approached the land, and saw that 
it was flat and covered with woods. Then the fair wind fell, and the 
sailors said they thought it best to land, as they lacked both wood and 
water, but Bjarni did not want to land, and said they had enough left ; at 
this the men grumbled somewhat. He told them to set sail, which they 
did, and turned the prow seaward, and sailed in that direction with a south- 
westerly wind for three days, and then more land came in view which rose 
high with mountains and a glacier. They asked Bjarni if he would like to 
go ashore there, but he answered he would not do so as the land had an 
inhospitable look. They did not furl their sail, but sailed along the shore 
and saw it was an island. They once more turned the prow of the ship 
from the shore and set to sea with the same fair wind, but the gale increased, 
and Bjarni told them to take in a reef and not sail so fast, for the ship and 
its rigging could not stand it. They sailed four days, until they saw land 
for the fourth time, which was Greenland, and here Bjarni found his 
father." 

The report of Bjarni Herjulfsson, little as he had to tell, aroused the 
interest of the people and caused much talk of land discoveries. It is 
further related that Leif, son of Eirek the Red, bought Bjarni's ship, and 
gathering together thirty-five men set sail upon a voyage of discovery. 
The year iooo A.D. has been fixed as the approximate date of this voyage 
by a comparison of circumstances related in different sagas. Nothing is 
said of the direction in which these Northmen sailed, only that " they 
came first to the land (or region) last seen by Bjarni. They sailed towards 
it, cast anchor, put out a boat and went ashore, but saw no grass. Large 
glaciers covered the highlands of the interior, and between them and the 
sea was a plain of flat stones." Leif called the region Helluland.* Pro- 
ceeding farther they came upon a sandy beach with level forest country 

* From hella. a flat stone. 



DID THE NORSE DISCOVER AMERICA? 371 

stretching behind it. "This land," said Leif, "shall be named after its 
properties and be Called Markland " (Woodland). 

They sailed thence out to sea with a north-east wind for two days 
before they saw land. This proved to be an island lying before the north 
part of the land. Here they went ashore, and tasting the dew upon the 
grass found it sweet. " Then they returned to the ship and sailed into 
the channel which was between the island and a tongue of land running 
toward the north. There the water was very shallow and their ship went 
aground, and at ebb-tide the sea was far out from the ship. But they 
were so anxious to get ashore that they could not wait till the high water 
reached their ship, and leaped out on the beach where a river flowed from 
a lake. When the high water set their ship afloat they took their boat and 
rowed to the ship and towed it up the river into the lake. Here they 
resolved to pass the winter and built large houses. There was no 
lack of salmon in the river and lake, and they were larger than any they 
had before seen. So great was the fertility of the soil that they were led 
to believe that cattle would not be in want of food during winter or 
that wintry coldness would prevail or the grass wither much. 

One evening it happened that they missed one of their men — 
Tyrker the southerner. Leif was much grieved at this, for Tyrker had 
long been with him, and his foster-father had been very fond of Leif in 
his childhood. He upbraided his men harshly, and made ready to go and 
search for him with twelve men. A short way from the house Tyrker met 
them and was welcomed back. Leif soon saw that his foster-father was 
in high spirits. He had a high projecting forehead, unsteady eyes, a tiny 
face, and was little and wretched, but skilled in all kinds of handicraft. 
' Why art thou so late, foster-father, and why hast thou parted from thy 
followers ?' Leif asked. Then his foster-father spoke in Thyrska, and rolled 
his eyes in many directions and made wry faces. They did not understand 
what he said. After a while he spoke in the northern tongue (Norrcena) 
and said : ' I did not go much farther than you, but I can tell some news. 
I found a vine and grapes.' 'Is this true, foster-father?' Leif asked. 
' Certainly it is,' he answered, ' for I was born where there was neither 
lack of vine nor grapes.' They slept there that night, and in the morn- 
ing Leif said to his sailors : ' Now we will do two kinds of work : one day 
you shall gather grapes or cut vines, the other you shall fell trees so that 
I may load my ship.' When spring came, having loaded the ship, they 
made ready to depart, and Leif named the land after its fruits, Vinland 
(Wineland). Then they put to sea and had fair winds till they saw 
Greenland and its glaciers." 



372 DID THE NORSE DISCOVER AMERICA? 

In another saga, that of Thorfinn Karlsefne and Snorro Thorbrandson, 
we read of an attempt at settlement made by the Northmen in Vinland 
about the year 1007. Thorfinn Karlsefne had come from Norway to Green- 
land and there married Gudrid, widow of Thorstein Eireksson. Both she 
and others strongly urged him to go to Vinland, and not in vain, for an 
expedition under his command soon left the western settlement. After 
sailing two days southward from Greenland they reached Helluland. 
" Thence they sailed two days and turned from the south to the south- 
east," and came to Markland. After leaving Markland it is said in the 
saga that " they then sailed far to the southward along the coast and came 
to a promontory. The land lay on the right and had a long, sandy beach. 
They rowed to it and found on a tongue of land the keel of a ship. They 
called this point of land Kjalarnes (Keel cape), and the beach Furdustrandir 
(Long Strand), for it took a long time to sail by it. . . . Farther on 
they came into a bay where there was an island around which flowed rapid 
currents that suggested the name they gave it, Straumey (Stream island). 
There were so many eider ducks on the island that one could hardly walk 
about without stepping on their eggs. They took the cargo from the ship 
and made preparations to remain there. They undertook nothing but the 
exploration of the land. Without having provided food beforehand they 
sustained themselves there during the winter. In summer the fishing was 
not good and they were in want of provisions. They had previously prayed 
to God to give them food, but were not supplied as quickly as they thought 
their hunger demanded. Having found a stranded whale they cut it up. 
No one knew what kind of whale it was, and when the cook prepared a 
part of it for them they ate it and all were made sick." Finally " the 
weather favored them so that they were able to row out to fish, and there- 
after they were not in want of food, for wild game was caught on land and 
fish in the sea, and eggs were collected on the island." . . . 

" It is said that Thorhall (the hunter) resolved to go northward along 
Furdustrandir to explore Vinland, but Karlsefne determined to sail south- 
ward along the coast. Thorhall fitted out his vessel under the island, hav- 
ing not more than nine men to join him, for all the others went with Karl- 
sefne. Now when Thorhall carried water to his ship he sang these verses : 

'People told me when I came 
Hither, all would be so fine ; 
The good Vinland, known to fame, 
Rich in fruits and choicest wine; 
Now the water-pail they send, 
To the fountain I must bend; 
Nor from out this land divine 
Have I quaffed one drop of wine.' 



DID THE NORSE DISCOVER AMERICA ? 373 

When they were about to depart and had hoisted sail, Thorhall again 

sang: 

' Let our trusty band 
Haste to Fatherland ; 
Let our vessel brave 
Plow the angry wave, 
While those few who love 
Vinland here may rove, 
Or, with idle toil, 
Fetid whales may boil, 
Here on Furdustrand, 
Far from Fatherland.' 

It is now told of Karlsefne that he with Snorro and Bjarni and their 
people sailed southward along the coast. They sailed a long time until 
they came to a river which ran out from the land and through a lake into 
the sea. The river was quite shallow and no ship could enter it without 
high water. Karlsefne sailed with his people into its mouth and called the 
place Hop.* They found fields of wild wheat where the ground was low, 
and wine wood where it was higher. There was a great number of all 
kinds of animals in the woods. They remained at this place a half-month 
and enjoyed themselves, but did not find anything novel. They had their 
cattle with them. Early one morning when they were viewing the country 
they saw a great number of skin boats on the sea. The people in them 
rowed nearer and with curiosity gazed at them. These people were swart 
(svartir) and ugly, and had coarse hair, large eyes, and broad cheeks. They 
remained a short time and watched Karlsefne's people. They then rowed 
to the southward beyond the cape. When spring drew near the natives 
again visited the Northmen and trafficked with them. The people pre- 
ferred red cloth, and for this they gave skins and all kinds of furs. They 
also wanted to purchase swords and spears, but Karlsefne and Snorro 
would not sell them any weapons. For a whole skin the Skraelings 
(Skraelingarj took a piece of red cloth a span long and bound it around 
their heads. In this way they bartered for a time. Then the cloth began 
to diminish, and Karlsefne and his men cut it into small strips not wider 
than one's finger, and still the Skraelings gave as much as they had for the 
larger pieces and often more. It happened that a bull which Karlsefne 
had with him ran out from the wood and bellowed loudly. This frightened 
the Skraelings so much that they rushed to their boats and rowed away 
to the southward around the coast." Three weeks afterward a large num- 
ber of Skraelings returned in their boats uttering loud cries. " Karlsefne's 
* From hdpa, to recede. Hdp, a recess, haven, bay, inlet. 



374 DID THE NORSE DISCOVER AMERICA? 

men took a red shield and held it toward them. The Skraelings leaped 
from their boats and began an attack. Many missiles fell among the 
Northmen, for the Skraelings used slings ivalslbngur). Karlsefne's men 
saw that they had raised on a pole something resembling an air-filled bag 
of a blue color. They hurled this at Karlsefne's party, and when it fell to 
the ground it exploded with a loud noise. • This frightened Karlsefne and 
his men so much that they ran and fell back to the river, for it seemed to 
them that the Skraelings were enclosing them on all sides. They did not 
stop until they reached a rocky place, where they stoutly resisted their 
assailants." Having compelled them to flee, " Karlsefne and his men per- 
ceived that notwithstanding the country was fruitful they would be exposed 
to many dangerous incursions of its inhabitants if they should remain in 
it. They therefore determined to depart and return to their own land." 

Five expeditions to Vinland are related in the sagas. Adam of 
Bremen (1073) says it was told him by the king of Denmark that Vin- 
land was an island. " Moreover, he said that an island had been dis- 
covered by many in that ocean, which is called Vinland because vines 
grow spontaneously there, producing excellent wine. For that fruits 
abound there not having been sown, we are assured not by any vague 
rumor but by the trustworthy report of the Danes." Vitalis (1 140) and 
Saxo Grammaticus (1200) barely mention Vinland. The Northmen, it 
seems, continued their visits to the country up to the fourteenth century; 
then all is oblivion. 

The proof of the Norse discovery of America rests entirely upon docu- 
mentary evidence, and they are " poets but not antiquaries," says Laing, 
who attempt to strengthen their case by an appeal to " imaginary runes 
and the identification of places." Nevertheless, there have been many of 
these " poets," each of whom has established to his own satisfaction the 
locality of the Norse Vinland, but their testimonies agree not together. 
Professor Charles C. Rafn in the American Antiquities identified the Land- 
fall of Leif Eireksson with Mount Hope Bay, Rhode Island; and Professor 
Eben N. Horsford, in a pamphlet entitled Defenses of Norumbcga, just pub- 
lished, with Boston harbor. Of the documents, the Heims krengla, an old 
manuscript chronicle of the kings of Norway written by Snorre Stuilason, 
the " Northern Herodotus," in the thirteenth century, contains the bare 
statement, " Leif also found Vinland the Good." Two sagas in the cele- 
brated Codex Flatoiensis, those of Eric the Red and Thorfinn Karlsefne, 
give an account, as we have seen, of voyages to Helluland, Markland, and 
Vinland. 

How far are the sagas reliable ? Where was Vinland ? 



DID THE NORSE DISCOVER AMERICA? 375 

The sagas relate the heroic deeds of the early Northmen, the prose 
narrative being interspersed with metrical passages selected for the most 
part from verses sung by the Skalds to celebrate the exploits of the illus- 
trious families under whose protection and patronage they lived. " It was 
not the political importance of an event that induced the Skalds to make 
it the subject of a lay; they chose it for effect, and selected that which 
most interested the feelings of their auditors and at the same time best 
admitted of poetical ornament." The sagas may be divided into mythi- 
cal, romantic, and historical. In the first class are included those which, 
whilst they introduce mythical personages and supernatural events, give a 
faithful picture of the national manners, feelings, and prejudices ; the 
second include those in which the authors give full" scope to their imagi- 
nation; while the third may be considered as historical. But, strictly 
speaking, no one of these divisions can be said to comprise any saga as a 
whole, since they are nearly all more or less embellished with mytholog- 
ical and poetical fables. How much of any saga we are called upon to 
accept as historical may be believed ? 

In the account of the third voyage to Vinland, for instance, contained 
in the saga of Eirek the Red, it is told that a plague broke out among 
the followers of Thornstein Eireksson, and Grimhild, wife of Thornstein the 
Black, died. While her husband was gone from the room " to fetch a 
board on which to lay the body," Thornstein Eireksson said, " Strange 
does our housewife look now, for she rises on her elbow, draws up her 
feet, and searches for her shoes with her hand." When her husband 
returned, Grimhild lay down and every timber of the room creaked. 
Then Thornstein Eireksson's illness grew worse, and he died. While they 
were all in the room the dead man rose and said, "Where is-Gudrid?" 
(his wife). Three times he repeats the question, but she is silent. He 
then tells that he is in heaven himself and prophesies Gudrid's fate. In 
this blending of history and myth it is often impossible to distinguish 
between the two, for myths may be written in which there are neither 
heroes nor impossible occurrences. 

Moreover, the accounts of the Vinland voyages, whatever they may 
have been originally, were handed down by word of mouth for two hun- 
dred years before they were written, and then rendered into script at a 
time when, in addition to the inevitable changes produced by long oral 
tradition, there was superadded the spirit of romance borrowed from the 
south of Europe, Even in the estimation of the Scandinavians them- 
selves much of the saga record is indistinguishable from myth, leaving 
little besides the general drift of the story to be held of the nature of 



376 DID THE NORSE DISCOVER AMERICA? 

history. Horn says of the Codex Flatoicnsis, " The book was written 
toward the close of the fourteenth century by two Icelandic priests, and 
contains in strange confusion and wholly without criticism a large number 
of sagas, poems, and stories." One of these sagas, that of Eirek the 
Red, is in the opinion of Rask, a leading Norse authority, " somewhat 
fabulous, written long after the event, and taken from tradition." 

The case for the Norse discovery was well put by the committee of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, which after long delay finally decided 
to raise a monument to Leif Eireksson in Boston : " There is the same sort 
of reason for believing in the existence of Leif Eireksson that there is 
for believing in the existence of Agamemnon ; they are both traditions 
accepted by later writers. . . . It is antecedently probable that the 
Norsemen discovered America in the early part of the eleventh century ; 
but that discovery is confirmed by the same sort of historical tradition, not 
strong enough to be called evidence, upon which our belief in many of the 
facts of history rests." 

Where was Vinland ? It has been variously located all the way from 
Greenland to Africa. An old geographical document supposed to have 
been written before the time of Columbus describes the island of Vinland 
as lying on the opposite side of a channel between it and Greenland : 
" Now is to be told what lies opposite Greenland, out from the bay already 
mentioned. Furdustrandir is the name of a land. There are such hard 
frosts there that it is not habitable as far as known. South of it is Hellu- 
land, which is called Skraelings land. From there it is not far to Vinland the 
Good, which some think goes out from Africa." The map of Sigurd Ste- 
phanius (1570) places Vinland north of the straits of Belle Isle, and sep- 
arates it by a "wild sea" from the "America" of the Spaniards. This 
map, however, was made after the discoveries of Columbus and his suc- 
cessors had become generally known in Europe, and was an attempt to 
reconcile the tales of the sagas with the new beliefs. On all the early 
maps of Greenland, Helluland, Markland, and Vinland are represented as 
regions of that country. Further, the statements respecting the great 
number of eider ducks, the skin boats used by the natives, the scarcity of 
food among the Northmen, and their eating the flesh of a stranded whale 
to escape starvation, and the sarcastic language of the song sung by Thor- 
hall about Vinland being a land of wine — all establish the fact that this 
country or region was very near the Arctic circle. 

The length of the shortest day in Vinland, given in the saga as from 
dagmal, or day-meal time, to cykt time, has been interpreted by Professor 
Rafn to indicate the latitude of Mount Hope Bay, Rhode Island (41 24' 



DID THE NORSE DISCOVER AMERICA ? UJ 

10" N.), but the definition of these terms in the law of Iceland, the state- 
ment of Torfaeus and other northern authorities make dagmal between eight 
and nine in the morning, and eykt time between three and four in the 
afternoon. Torfaeus, in his History of Ancient Vinland, says that on the 
shortest day the sun was six hours above the horizon, thus placing Vinland 
between the fifty-eighth and sixty-first parallels of north latitude. 

Every other locality visited by the Northmen shows evidence of their 
occupation of the soil. In Greenland considerable architectural remains, 
such as the ruins of churches, attest their presence ; but there is not a 
single trace of them in America south of Davis strait. Among the in- 
scriptions on the Dighton rock, lying on the east side of the Taunton river 
in Massachusetts, was one thought to be in runic characters; but archae- 
ologists now agree as to the Indian origin of this as well as the other 
inscriptions. Interpreted by an Indian, the rock-writing is an account of a 
battle fought by the people of two tribes, and engraved by some or one 
of the members of the victorious party. As to the round tower at New- 
port being a Norse monument, it is mentioned by Governor Arnold of 
Rhode Island in his will as " my stone-built windmill." Arnold, the first 
governor of Rhode Island, living at Newport, in his will dated December 
20, 1677, directed that his body should be buried at a certain spot, " being 
and lying in my land, in or near the line or path from my dwelling-house 
leading to my stone-built windmill, in the town of Newport." There is 
another mill of similar construction near Leamington, in Warwickshire, 
England, where Arnold lived when a boy. This mill was built according 
to a plan first introduced into England by Inigo Jones. 

Does not our wider knowledge influence us in estimating the work of 
the Norse? They discovered Greenland, as is indisputably established, 
but Greenland was a new and vast land, and its exploration a great 
work — greater to them than to us who know how much more lies beyond 
it. That the Northmen sailed south along the coast of America is not 
improbable, but it cannot be proved. 



/3. ?+ 3^/3^. 



Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 



THE YOUTH OF GEORGE WASHINGTON 

AN AUTHENTIC RECORD 

Habits make the man, manners the gentleman, reason, judgment and 
enterprise, with well-directed industry, the successful and exemplary 
citizen. Is genius innate or acquired, and is it possible in the child life 
of an individual to discover indications of capabilities and of character? 
Dress, education, and conventionalities of an age give almost as much same- 
ness to the conduct and appearance of a people as does the brickmaker's 
mold to the clay he works. Want of intercourse with the world influences 
not only the customs but the mental and physical characteristics of com- 
munities, causing them to become almost as uniform as the dress they 
wear. Nevertheless it is, I apprehend, a universal vanity to think ourselves 
endowed with special talents and so commendable that they ought to 
be indulged. Many, though quite deficient in energy and perseverance, 
believe they have great aptitude for the affairs of life — superior, indeed, to 
their neighbors, which they could demonstrate if they tried or had the 
opportunity. 

People acquire the routine of every-day life almost automatically, but 
under varying degrees of moral concepts, ethical culture, and notions of 
obligations and duty. Nevertheless, implanted in the minds of all is the 
idea of a greater than themselves and an admiration for the leader, the 
seer, and the prophet. No clime, age or race has an exclusive prerogative 
to either the genius, the mental powers, the virtues or the vices which dis- 
tinguish a people, and alone elevate or degrade nations. Yet while there 
is great sameness, when the race is viewed as a unit, among individuals 
are much diversity of brain power and aptness for pursuits, with degrees 
of reason and self-control, which lie at the foundation of all the virtues. 
From time to time characters possessing, to a phenomenal degree, the 
heroic and philanthropic virtues spring unexpectedly and without special 
training into prominence, and become leaders of the world. 

George Washington was one of the most conspicuous illustrations of 
this fact, in history. Many believe he was expressly created, preserved, 
and directed by Providence for the special work he performed for his 
country. A people may have surprises of this nature, but Providence is 
methodical and has no accidents. Were the child life and early youth of 



THE YOUTH OF GEORGE WASHINGTON 379 

George Washington entirely commonplace and without indication of the 
greatness of the coming man ? We think not. It would be hazardous to 
attempt to fix the age in days, months or years in the life of an individual 
when impressions for good or evil may first be made as object lessons, and 
which exercise a dominating influence in after-life. It is believed precepts 
imbibed in early youth possess a controlling influence over actions in 
mature and even in old age. If the theory be correct, that much of what 
is greatest in great men may be traced to the nobility of character in their 
mothers, what a debt of gratitude the world owes to that worthy Virginia 
matron, Mary Washington. 

From his tenderest years the teacher of George Washington, by 
example and precept, was his firm, tender, and sensible mother, to whose 
benign influence he attributed whatever of virtue he possessed. Biogra- 
phers furnish the names of two of his school-teachers ; it is, however, prob- 
able that he had others. The first was a Mr. Hobby, a tenant of his 
father's, who was also sexton of the parish Oberwharton, in Stafford 
county, Virginia, and taught in one of the " old field schoor-houses " near 
by. George's studies under him, were, of course, of the simplest kind, 
as reading, writing, and ciphering, but the bright boy had at the same 
time the moral influence of a good home and the example and instruction 
of conscientious parents. He was not born to or reared in any enervating 
luxuries or those leading to effeminacy or evil environments. Parental 
influence and his school-tasks satisfied his demands and prepared him for 
the self-denials and hardships of the surveyor's tent, the frontier cabin, and 
the camp of the patriot soldier. The other teacher, Mr. Williams, con- 
ducted a more advanced school in Westmoreland, to which George was 
sent shortly after his father's death, boarding meantime with his half- 
brother, Augustine. It was at this school that he made his greater 
advances and acquired his proficiency in mathematics and surveying. 
Notwithstanding the embarrassment of a limited education, by force of 
genius and manly perseverance he supplied the deficiencies and dis- 
charged with distinguished ability the trusts of as heavy responsibilities 
as ever rested upon any man. As a pupil he was noted for his punctual 
attendance, orderly conduct, devotion to study, and his popularity with his 
school-fellows. He was the preferred umpire in their disputes, the leader 
in their sports of running, leaping, wrestling, pitching the bar and other 
games. 

When George was between seven and eight years of age his half- 
brother Lawrence returned from England with a good education. He 
possessed a fine manly figure, and was the beau ideal of George, who saw 



380 THE YOUTH OF GEORGE WASHINGTON 

in him the model man of business, with the manners of a gentleman. 
Lawrence, although fourteen years older than George, looked with admira- 
tion upon his brother, whom he found companionable much beyond what 
his age might suggest, and whose expanding intellect and perfect rectitude 
of character merited the highest regard. It is probable that the ensign's 
commission in the British navy procured for George in 1746 was obtained 
through Major Lawrence Washington and his friends, but doubtless the 
boy, listening to the tales of brave deeds and glory to be won, acquiesced 
in their views and would have gone into navy service had not his mother 
objected. Washington was already an advanced pupil in the school of 
self-control, and gave no outward evidence of disappointment at his 
mother's decision. No sulks or poutings; no attempts to run away from 
home and go to sea in defiance of maternal authority, but for another year 
or more he continued at school under the immediate influence of his mother 
and his elder brothers. Throughout all of Washington's writings, whenever 
reference is made to his mother, either in his youth, mature manhood or 
advanced age, it is done with the most becoming and dutiful respect. 

George's neatly kept school copy-book, made between the age of 
thirteen and sixteen years, still in good condition, and preserved in the 
Department of State, exhibits his fine penmanship, proficiency, and accu- 
racy, as well as his aptness in mathematical demonstration and draw- 
ing of geometrical figures and plats of surveys. From early youth he had 
a mental method of his own for analyzing questions coming before him 
for consideration, examining them in their immediate and remote effects, 
and generally reaching conclusions that were just. From boyhood he 
was noted for sound judgment and ability to concentrate the powers of 
his mind almost at will upon any given subject. He early acquired a 
mastery of method, and in all the affairs of life it never deserted him. 
While not demonstrative in his temperament he was politely social and 
strongly attached to his friends. His occupations from an early period 
led him into association with persons older than himself. 

While attentive and respectful to ladies he was never what, at this day, 
would be called a " ladies' man." A good and entertaining conversation- 
alist, he was never a ready public speaker. Even in advanced life, while 
reading his carefully prepared state papers, he exhibited much nervous- 
ness. Without having a loud voice he was a clear and deliberate reader. 
The earliest records of his independent opinions apart from his school- 
books, if we except his agency in formulating his version of the " Rules of 
Civility and Decent Behaviour," are to be found in " A Journal of My 
Journey Over the Mountains," begun March 11, 1747-8, when he was just 



THE YOUTH OF GEORGE WASHINGTON 381 

one month over sixteen years of age. Washington held a commission 
from William and Mary College as a public surveyor. A record of this 
fact was made at Culpeper Court House, July 22, 1749, but it is probable 
he was a licensed surveyor several years before that. Even at this age he 
possessed not only the expert knowledge of a surveyor, but exhibited 
surprising fortitude and pers